Fungemia is a serious problem within neonatal intensive care units around the world. Premature infants are at high risk for this complication, which is often fatal. Prophylaxis for invasive fungal infection has been practiced worldwide in different settings and with various patient groups. Both oral and intravenous drugs have been used with some success. In the population of preterm infants, oral nystatin, intravenous fluconazole, and intravenous amphotericin B have all been cited as possible drugs for prophylactic use. Intravenous fluconazole has emerged as the best choice for chemoprophylaxis in premature infants.