Among the consequences of dementia are falls and unsafe wandering. Sometimes, residents of assisted living and nursing homes who have these symptoms are subject to physical restraints in a misguided effort to protect them from potential harm. The authors screened 109 articles published between 1994 and August 2006 for inclusion in this review, and 28 met the inclusion criteria. Successful interventions to reduce falls and related injuries involve tailoring exercise programs, medication reviews, and environmental modifications to the needs of individual residents. Few intervention studies addressing wandering met the inclusion criteria. Furthermore, the articles regarding physical restraints clearly demonstrate the harm associated with their use and the fact that restraint reduction programs do not result in increased injury to residents.