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I am noting three particularly interesting studies in the December 2016 MSSE®. First, epidemiological data suggest that those who break up prolonged periods of sedentary behavior more frequently have a more favorable cardiometabolic risk profile than those who are sedentary for prolonged periods of time. However the independent effects of frequency of interruption versus length of interruption have remained unclear. To address this, Hawari et al. compared the effects of prolonged (15 min of continuous standing every 30 min) versus intermittent (standing for 1.5 min, 10 times every 30 min) standing breaks on postprandial metabolic responses throughout the day in 10 normoglycemic overweight/obese men. Intermittent standing increased energy expenditure by 20.4% over sitting, whereas prolonged standing increased energy expenditure by 10.7%. These data reveal an independent effect of frequency of breaking up sedentary behavior on energy expenditure, which may provide an explanation for the association between frequency of sedentary breaks and adiposity observed in epidemiological data.
In a different line of research, Trommelen and colleagues studied the overnight muscle protein synthetic response to presleep protein ingestion. By using intrinsically labeled protein, they were able to assess the metabolic fate of the ingested protein. Their results demonstrate that protein ingested before sleep is properly digested and absorbed during overnight sleep, and subsequently the protein-derived amino acids are used for overnight de novo muscle protein accretion. A single session of resistance-type exercise performed earlier in the evening improved the efficacy by which the ingested protein-derived amino acids were directed towards overnight de novo muscle protein accretion. This study suggests that presleep protein ingestion is an effective strategy to augment overnight muscle reconditioning, and may be even more relevant on exercise training days.
Finally, Nyberg and coworkers evaluated the influence of training small versus large muscle groups during low-load/high-repetitive resistance training in individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Their results show that resistance exercises performed using a single-limb at a time enable the application of a greater localized training stimulus thus inducing more fatigue of the exercised muscles while at the same time eliciting a similar or even lower level of exertional symptoms in comparison to exercising both arms or both legs simultaneously. These findings have implications for the design of resistance training programs in COPD. Since the physiological benefits of training specific muscles are directly related to the magnitude of the training stimulus, the higher exercise workloads during single-limb exercise have the potential to enhance the effectiveness of resistance exercises in COPD patients.
L. Bruce Gladden
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HAWARI, NABEHA S. A.; AL-SHAYJI, IQBAL; WILSON, JOHN; More
HAWARI, NABEHA S. A.; AL-SHAYJI, IQBAL; WILSON, JOHN; GILL, JASON M. R. Less
Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise. 48(12):2495-2502, December 2016.
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TROMMELEN, JORN; HOLWERDA, ANDREW M.; KOUW, IMRE W. K.; More
TROMMELEN, JORN; HOLWERDA, ANDREW M.; KOUW, IMRE W. K.; LANGER, HENNING; HALSON, SHONA L.; ROLLO, IAN; VERDIJK, LEX B.; VAN LOON, LUC J. C. Less
Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise. 48(12):2517-2525, December 2016.
NYBERG, ANDRÉ; SAEY, DIDIER; MARTIN, MICKAËL; More
NYBERG, ANDRÉ; SAEY, DIDIER; MARTIN, MICKAËL; MALTAIS, FRANÇOIS Less
Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise. 48(12):2353-2361, December 2016.
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