November 2017 - Volume 49 - Issue 11

  • L. Bruce Gladden, PhD, FACSM
  • 0195-9131
  • 1530-0315
  • 12 issues / year
  • 6/81 in Sports Sciences
  • 4.141
​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​From MSSE's November 2017 issue I am noting three papers, one from the epidemiology area, one from psychobiology, and one from basic science. In the first highlight, Kari and colleagues report the results of a longitudinal study that examined the role of physical activity on both academic achievement and educational attainment. To address this important but under-researched theme, they analyzed data drawn from the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study and from registries compiled by Statistics Finland. The results provided evidence that physical activity in adolescence may not only predict academic success during compulsory basic education but also boost educational outcomes later in adulthood. From a policy perspective, these findings encourage the development of programs and interventions targeted to school-age children with the goal of fostering children's participation in physical activity. This could push the young toward more physically active lifestyles, and improve their educational attainment in later life, providing both personal and societal benefits.

In the second highlight, Beaulieu et al. examine the impact of habitual physical activity levels on homeostatic (energy compensation) and hedonic (liking or wanting) appetite responses to high- and low‑energy preloads in nonobese adults. Their study is the first to utilize objective measurements of habitual physical activity and short-term energy compensation through food intake. The results provide evidence for enhanced appetite control in individuals who regularly perform high levels of physical activity. The hedonic response to the preloads did not differ in these exercisers. Overall, physical activity appears to impact appetite control via a dual-action process of increased drive to eat from greater energy expenditure, but also by enhanced satiety response to food, likely through more sensitive postprandial signaling. These processes generate a better adjustment of energy intake to expenditure and may reduce the risk of overconsumption.

My final highlight focuses on potential exercise effects on isolated cells. Skeletal muscle primary cells are quiescent mononucleated myogenic cells found within skeletal muscle. These primary muscle cells are known to maintain some of the metabolic phenotype observed in the donor tissue, and represent a valuable model for studying cellular mechanisms relevant to human skeletal muscle. In this month's MSSE, Heden and coworkers report that primary muscle cells isolated from endurance-trained women maintain a greater capacity for mitochondrial biogenesis and oxidative phosphorylation compared to the cells isolated from untrained women. This evidence suggests the existence of an "exercise metabolic program" in these cells and suggests an innovative tool to study molecular transducers of physical activity in humans.​

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L. Bruce Gladden

School of Kinesiology
Auburn University

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