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I am highlighting three studies on widely different topics in the June, 2016 MSSE®. In the first study, Badon et al. investigated the association between leisure time physical activity and gestational diabetes mellitus in the Omega study, a pregnancy cohort study in Washington State. Their results support a role for physical activity before and during pregnancy for prevention of gestational diabetes mellitus in all pregnant women. The study was novel in its assessment of effect modification by gestational weight gain at 20 weeks gestation and consideration of the impact of physical activity during two time periods, the year before pregnancy and early pregnancy. The greatest decrease in risk of gestational diabetes was in women who were active during both time periods. The importance of this study is that it underscores the need to increase and promote clinical and public health efforts to increase physical activity among reproductive age and pregnant women for reduction of gestational diabetes risk.
In my next highlight, Klass et al. pharmacologically manipulated brain neurotransmission in order to interrogate the neural mechanisms that limit time to task failure. They investigated the effect of noradrenaline reuptake inhibition by a specific drug (reboxetine) on the endurance time of a task consisting of intermittent submaximal isometric contractions performed with the knee extensors. In comparison to a placebo condition, reboxetine decreased endurance time, induced a greater rate of decrease in voluntary activation and increased reaction time during a psychomotor vigilance task. In the absence of differences in cortical and spinal excitability and muscular changes in the two conditions, the results indicate a role for noradrenaline in the development of fatigue and further suggest that mechanisms located prior to the motor cortex contribute to the limitation of endurance time.
Finally, insight into the unique performances of gold medal-winning athletes requires integrated examination of their sport-specific physiological capacity and training. Sandbakk and colleagues compared these characteristics between the world's six highest ranked female cross-country skiers and six competitors of national class immediately before the racing season. Their study confirmed previous findings that world-class female cross-country skiers exhibit some of the highest maximal oxygen uptake values ever reported and further emphasized the importance of utilizing this capacity while performing different skiing techniques on varying terrain in order to win international races. In addition, the documented training data provide benchmark values for female endurance athletes aiming for medals in world-class competition.
L. Bruce Gladden
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BADON, SYLVIA E.; WARTKO, PAIGE D.; QIU, CHUNFANG; More
BADON, SYLVIA E.; WARTKO, PAIGE D.; QIU, CHUNFANG; SORENSEN, TANYA K.; WILLIAMS, MICHELLE A.; ENQUOBAHRIE, DANIEL A. Less
Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise. 48(6):1044-1052, June 2016.
Go to Full Text of this Article
KLASS, MALGORZATA; DUCHATEAU, JACQUES; RABEC, SAMUEL; More
KLASS, MALGORZATA; DUCHATEAU, JACQUES; RABEC, SAMUEL; MEEUSEN, ROMAIN; ROELANDS, BART Less
Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise. 48(6):1014-1023, June 2016.
SANDBAKK, ØYVIND; HEGGE, ANN MAGDALEN; LOSNEGARD, THOMAS; More
SANDBAKK, ØYVIND; HEGGE, ANN MAGDALEN; LOSNEGARD, THOMAS; SKATTEBO, ØYVIND; TØNNESSEN, ESPEN; HOLMBERG, HANS-CHRISTER Less
Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise. 48(6):1091-1100, June 2016.
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