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D-29 Free Communication/Poster - Intervention Strategies in Adults

Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise: May 2014 - Volume 46 - Issue 5S - p 485–508
doi: 10.1249/01.mss.0000451199.18393.fd

Thursday, May 29, 2014, 1:00 PM - 6:00 PM

Room: WB1

1810 Board #96 May 29, 2:00 PM - 3:30 PM

Building And Maintaining Successful Physical Activity Coalitions: Perspectives From Coalition Members Across The U.s.

Daniel B. Bornstein1, Russell R. Pate, FACSM2, Andrew Ortaglia2, Michael W. Beets2, Ruth P. Saunders2, Steven N. Blair, FACSM2. 1The Citadel, Charleston, SC. 2University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC.

(No relationships reported)

PURPOSE: Physical Activity Coalitions (PACs) are a fundamental component to increasing population levels of physical activity. The level of success attained by coalitions is thought to be influenced by coalition members. No previous studies have described characteristics of PACs and their organizational members. No previous studies have investigated the association between organizational member involvement in PACs and perceived coalition success. The purpose of this study was threefold: 1) Describe the characteristics of organizational members of PACs; 2) Describe the characteristics of PACs; and 3) Summarize key factors for organizational member involvement in PACs and investigate the association between those factors and perceived coalition success.

METHODS: A cross-sectional design was used to study individuals representing organizational members of PACs across the U.S. 120 individuals completed the Member Involvement in Physical Activity Coalitions (MIPAC) survey. The MIPAC has three sections including: demographics of PACs and their organizational members; three subscales assessing key factors for organizational membership; and two subscales assessing perceived coalition success. Frequencies of responses from demographic provided descriptive characteristics of PACs and their organizational members. To summarize factors for organizational member involvement in PACs, means and standard deviations were calculated for the MIPAC’s three organizational membership subscales. The association between organizational member involvement and perceived coalition success were investigated through pooled t-tests.

RESULTS: Organizational members of PACs are predominantly government agencies (40%), or Non-profits (33%). A high proportion of PACs are working in schools (78%) and on the built environment (58%). A statistically significant association was observed between organizational membership in PACs and perceived coalition success.

CONCLUSIONS: This study provides important, new insight into the key factors related to organizational membership in PACs and on the relationship between those factors and perceived coalition success. Insights from this study have important implications for those seeking to measure PACs, and those seeking to build and maintain successful PACs.

1811 Board #97 May 29, 2:00 PM - 3:30 PM

Physical Activity And Autonomic Function Did Not Change After A Lifestyle Education And Counseling Intervention

Lucimere Bohn, Ana Ramoa, Norton L. Oliveira, Gustavo Silva, Jose Oliveira. Faculty of Sport, University of Porto, Porto, Portugal.

(No relationships reported)

PURPOSE: To assess the impact of a lifestyle education and counseling intervention in primary health care setting on physical activity (PA) levels and cardiac autonomic function.

METHODS: Seventy six participants with moderate to high cardiovascular risk were allocated into 2 groups: a control group (n= 37; 57.2 ± 5.7 yrs) who received regular medical follow up; and an intervention group (n= 39; 57.5 ± 6.3 yrs) that participated in an education and counseling program during 4 months (i.e., group sessions for the management of cardiovascular risk factors and modification of PA plus a weekly mobile text message encouraging PA practice). PA levels and autonomic function were assessed at baseline and after 4 months. PA was measured by accelerometry, and reported as the time spent in sedentary (SED), light (LPA), moderate to vigorous (MVPA) and total PA (TPA). Cardiac autonomic function was evaluated by heart rate variability (HRV) which provided linear (time and frequency domains) and non-linear indexes. Comparisons between groups were made using unpaired t-test and repeated measures ANOVA.

RESULTS: At baseline, no significant differences were found between groups except for LPA (p=0.039) and TPA (p=0.021) (Table 1). After 4 months, HRV analysis showed a significant group x time interaction for Sample Entropy (p= 0.032; η2= 0.062), after adjustment for LPA and TPA. No group x time interaction was observed for time spent in SED (p= 0.99; η2= 0.00), LPA (p=0.51; η2= 0.06), MVPA (p= 0.34; η2= 0.012) and TPA (p=0.241; η2= 0.19) (Table 1).

CONCLUSION: The education and counseling intervention for an active lifestyle was not effective in the promotion of changes in PA levels and cardiac autonomic function.

1812 Board #98 May 29, 2:00 PM - 3:30 PM

Effect Of A 12-week Community-based Weight Management Intervention On Men And Women’S Cardiovascular Disease Risk.

Zoe H. Rutherford. Leeds Metropolitan University, Leeds, United Kingdom.

(No relationships reported)

For many years, Public Health in the UK has used weight management interventions and therefore weight loss as the key mechanism for reducing cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. While traditional interventions have focussed on nutritional support and feminised weight loss groups, many commissioners have recently looked to more innovative sport-based alternatives to engage harder to reach groups in improving cardiovascular disease risk. Programmes include weekly high intensity muscular strength and conditioning exercises combined with nutrition counselling, which may increase lean mass , reduce body fatness, and provide the appearance of overall weight loss, while masking the cardiovascular health benefits of the intervention.

PURPOSE: To examine whether a 12-week weight management programme, delivered by professional soccer clubs for could significantly improve CVD risk factors in community dwelling men and women 35 years and older.

METHODS: One hundred and ninety four men and 98 women (mean age= 52.28 ± 9.74 and 51.19 ± 9.04) attending a community based intervention delivered by a soccer club over one year, took part in the study. Height (m), weight (kg), fitness (meters covered during a 6 minute walk) and waist circumference (cm) were measured at weeks 1 and 12 as part of the intervention. Changes in body weight, waist circumference and fitness for men and women were measured by a 2 way repeated measures ANOVA, with significance set to p<0.05.

RESULTS: Weight, waist circumference and fitness significantly improved over time in both men (9.67kgs, 6.28cm, 70.22m; p<0.05) and women (8.98kg, 5.90cm, 35.29m; p<0.05). When exploring people’s CVD risk change in relation to their waist circumference, 20% of men and 15% of women who were classed as at ‘high risk’ of CVD risk at the beginning of the 12 weeks were able to fall below the World Health Organisation 102cm and 88cm threshold respectively.

CONCLUSION: Innovative community weight management interventions aimed at reducing CVD risk via weight loss programmes using high intensity exercise, may under report their impact by solely reporting body weight changes. Changes in waist circumference can and should also be used as key performance indicators by public health commissioners in order to accurately interpret the impact on cardiovascular disease risk.

1813 Board #99 May 29, 2:00 PM - 3:30 PM

Adherence to Adult Physical Activity Guidelines in those Advised to Exercise to Improve Cholesterol

ROBBIE COCHRUM, RYAN CONNERS, NORMAN WEATHERBY. middle Tennessee state university, Murfreesboro, TN. (Sponsor: DON W MORGAN, FACSM)

(No relationships reported)

Lowering lipid levels, including total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein with statins has been shown to decrease the risk for coronary heart disease by up to 60% and is often the first line of defense for treating high cholesterol levels. By comparison, exercise therapy has been shown to increase high density lipoprotein levels and produce favorable changes in plasma lipoprotein levels in addition to promoting a healthy lifestyle behavior. Yet, it appears that the rate of physician counseling about exercise is low nationally and the majority of Americans are uncertain of minimum exercise recommendations.

PURPOSE: To determine the number of individuals advised to exercise by a physician in an effort to lower cholesterol and meeting minimum exercise guidelines.

METHODS: Data were collected using information from the 2009-2010 NHANES, using a complex multistage sampling design. A complex samples logistic regression was used to determine the extent to which those answering the questions, “Told to exercise for cholesterol” and “Now increasing exercise,” were meeting the minimum PAGA guidelines.

RESULTS: Those advised to exercise for cholesterol not increasing their exercise were less likely to meet PAGA than those in the same group who were increasing their activity (p = .024), but those increasing their activity were not more likely to meet the PAGA than those not advised to exercise for their cholesterol (p = .841). Age and sex were both significant predictors of meeting PAGA with women less likely than men to meet the PAGA guidelines (p < .001). In terms of age, those in the 30-39 age group were more likely to meet PAGA than those in the 50-59 (p = .022), 60-69 (p < .001), 70-79 (p = .005), and 80-89 age groups (p < .001).

CONCLUSION: Those advised to increase their physical activity for the purpose of improving their cholesterol profile will do so. However, the majority of those increasing their activity levels are not meeting the minimum activity guidelines. Possible interventions include patient education and counseling on guidelines as well as provider driven accountability and exercise program development.

1814 Board #100 May 29, 2:00 PM - 3:30 PM

Effects Of Physical Exercise On Superoxide Dismutase Isoforms In Brain Of Diabetic Rats

Alexandre R. Spagnol,, Aron S. Pereira, Leandro P. Moura, Rodrigo A. Dalia, Maria Alice R. Mello, Eliete Luciano. UNESP, São Paulo State University, Rio Claro, Brazil.

(No relationships reported)

Supported by: CAPES

INTRODUCTION: The oxidative damages in tissues are caused by the homeostasis’s breakdown of the antioxidant system. Therefore, as the physical activity promotes higher redox instability due to increases of oxygen consumption, diseases like Diabetes Mellitus (DM) causes an imbalance in this system as well.

AIM: The aim of this study was to analyze changes in the expression and activity of isoforms of superoxide dismutase (SOD) in brain tissue in diabetic rats subjected to physical training.

METHODS: Adult (90 days) male Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups: Sedentary Control (SC), sedentary and eutrophic rats; Trained Control (TC), eutrophic rats submitted to training protocol; Sedentary Diabetic (SD), sedentary diabetic rats and Trained Diabetic group (TD), diabetic rats submitted to training protocol. It was considered diabetic rats with glycemia between 200-600 mg/dL. The trained groups were submitted to swimming, supporting overloads (% of body weight - bw) equivalent to aerobic/anaerobic metabolic transition intensity, 1h/day, 5 days/week, during 8 weeks. Two days after the last training session, after anesthetized and euthanized, aliquots from brain, were removed to determine the expression of SOD 1 and 2 and activity of SOD 1, 2 and 3.

RESULTS: The glycemia of diabetics groups were significantly higher than control groups and the SD group had elevated glycemia than TD group. Both isoforms of SOD had their expression increased for TC and TD groups compared to the SC and SD groups. The activity of the isoforms SOD and 2 showed no statistical difference for any group.

CONCLUSION: As expected, the exercise reduced blood glucose in diabetic animals. Although no significant alteration were found in the enzymatic activity of SOD for any group, the exercise, regardless of diabetes, was efficient in promoting improvements in antioxidant defense by increasing SOD1 expressions. Thus, it is speculated that exercise can be an important tool to combat oxidative stress.

1815 Board #101 May 29, 2:00 PM - 3:30 PM

Is The Association Between Leisure-time Physical Activity And Lottery Buying Habits? A Cross-sectional Community-based Study

Ching-I Chang1, Cheng-Feng Chiu2, Wen-Hsu Sung3, Wen-Chu Hsu4, Yen-Po Yeh5, Sherry Yueh-Hsia Chiu4. 1National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan. 2Tajen University, Pintung, Taiwan. 3National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan. 4Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan. 5Changhua County Public Health Bureau, Changhua, Taiwan.

(No relationships reported)

BACKGROUND: Many studies revealed the consistent relationship between physical activity and optimism. Some psychological studies revealed the persons with optimistic inclination were more interested to take lottery buying. Recently, the lottery is overwhelming in the world, including Taiwan. However, few studies to discuss the association between physical activity and lottery buying habits.

PURPOSE: Our study was to investigate the association between leisure-time physical activity and lottery buying habit based on community-based screening program.

METHODS: The cross-sectional study design was implemented based on Changhua Community-based Integrated Screening (CHCIS) between 2005 and 2010 by out-reach. The self-reported questionnaire was designed, embedded, and implemented simultaneously in out-reach service. We questioned participants “Do you buy the lottery at least once every month during this recent month?”. We also questioned “ Do you do leisure-time physical activity at least once regularly every week?” and subsequently inquired the times/per week. The univariable and multivariate logistic regressions were conducted to investigate the association between leisure-time physical activity and lottery buying frequency. The odds ratio (OR) and adjusted OR(aOR) were indicated the association.

RESULTS: Total 59,328 subjects aged over 30 y/o were enrolled. The male significantly tended to have habit of lottery buying compared with female (OR=2.73,95%CI:2.62-2.85). Those subjects with having regular physical activity had higher probability of lottery buying compared with none/seldom (aOR=1.19,95%CI:1.15,1.24). About the frequency of physical activity, compared with none/seldom physical activity, our result showed the significant aORs were 1.19(95%CI:1.14,1.25) and 0.94(95%CI:0.90,0.99) for ≦4 and >4 times/per week respectively after adjustment for other factors.

CONCLUSIONS: Those who had regular leisure-time physical activity were more like to have lottery buying than none physical activity. This result significantly represented on activity frequency ≦4 times/per week, but it demonstrated the contrary association on those subjects with frequency >4 times/per week.

1816 Board #102 May 29, 2:00 PM - 3:30 PM

Dose-response Of Habitual Physical Activity (MVPA) And Heart Rate Variability In Young Women

Lutz Vogt, Frieder Krause, Winfried Banzer. J.W.Goethe-University Frankfurt, Frankfurt/Main, Germany.

(No relationships reported)

Studies provide increasing evidence for a linear dose-response relationship of heart rate variability (HRV) and moderate to vigorous physical activity in adolescents, younger men and people over 50 years of age.

PURPOSE: To determine the relationship of cardiac autonomic regulation and habitual physical activity in young, healthy women.

METHODS: In four consecutive 4 week time intervals 20 healthy female volunteers (20-30 years, BMI 21.2±2.0 kg/m2) documented their everyday habitual physical activity behavior using a standardized questionnaire (IPA-Q). For data analysis average hours of moderate and vigorous physical activity (MVPA) per week were calculated. At the end of the 16 weeks observation period standardized HRV recordings (Polar S810) were carried out in accordance to international guidelines (ESC/NASPE). After supine resting for at least 5 minutes five minutes of beat-to-beat heart rate data were sampled. From artefact-free RR data, calculations of time and frequency domain parameters were performed (Kubios HRV analysis).

RESULTS: The average duration of moderate to intense physical activity per week was 8.3±5.6 h with a mean intra-individual variation of 2.3 h/week. Linear correlation analysis revealed significant relationships of habitual MVPA with resting heart rate (r=-.614, p<.01), MeanRR, SD, RMSSD, LF and HF (r=.492 - .825, p<.05) (Fig. 1).

CONCLUSION: The results point toward a strong linear dose-response relationship between habitual MVPA and variables of cardiac autonomic regulation in young healthy women. In agreement with other investigations the findings show reduced resting heart rate and pronounced increases of RMSSD and HF, indicators of enhanced parasympathetic activity, with increasing MVPA.

1817 Board #103 May 29, 2:00 PM - 3:30 PM

An Amplitude Analysis of the Gastrocnemius and Soleus During Stretching Techniques

Bret H. Boyer, Michael Matheson, Cory Pierson, Michael Bohne. Utah Valley University, Orem, UT.

(No relationships reported)

To stretch the Gastrocnemius and the Soleus, the general population will often do a heel suspended stretch off a ledge such as a stair or curb. The science of the Myotatic or Stretch reflex, would suggest that if the heel is suspended, then the calf muscles by nature of the reflex would generate tension to prevent trauma to the muscle.

PURPOSE: To determine if any amplitude of Gastrocnemius and Soleus muscle activity occur during three stretching techniques, namely; the Suspended Heal Stretch (HS), the Runners Stretch (RS), and the Soleus Stretch (SS).

METHODS: Participants consisted of 20 male and 17 female students with a mean age of 23.87 years, (18-33), height of 5’9” and 162.23 lbs. They were cleared to reportedly have no history of range of motion limiting injury or surgery to the lower extremities. The participants were instructed on and demonstrated proper technique to perform the three calf stretches isometrically for a twenty second duration. Muscle activity was measured using a Delsys Trigno (Boston Ma.) Wireless Electromyography (EMG) System. Data was analyzed with a Repeated Measures ANOVA with Bonferroni Adjusted Pair-Wise Comparisons (Family-Wise α= 0.05)

RESULTS: There was a significant decrease in gastrocnemius muscle activation in SS verses HS and HR (RS: 3.16±2.07; SS: 1.82±.49; HS: 4.28±2.36; p<.001). There was a significant increase in Soleus activation during HS compared to SS and RS (3.03±1.71 and 4.47±2.62 respectively).

CONCLUSIONS: This study provides evidence that there is some muscle activity during the RS, SS, and the HS. Evidence suggests that there is greater muscle activation of the soleus muscles during the HS. This data supports the hypothesis that there is increased muscle activity in the Soleus muscle during HS. This needs to be further investigated with a larger population and to more effective and consistent suspension during the stretch.

1818 Board #104 May 29, 2:00 PM - 3:30 PM

Association Of Physical Activity And Sedentary Behavior With Anthropometric Variables And Biological Age Among Nursing Of Workers Home

João Pedro da Silva Junior, Luis F. Guimarães, Timoteo L. Araújo, Sandra MM Matsudo, Victor KR Matsudo. Center of Studies of the Physical Fitness Research Laboratory from Sao Caetano do Sul, São Caetano do Sul, Brazil.

(No relationships reported)

Low levels of physical activity (PA) at workplace have been associated with massive time spent in sedentary behavior. It is known that sedentary behavior is directly associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, and risk of death from all causes.

PURPOSE: To analyze the association of sedentary behavior and physical activity levels with anthropometric variables and metabolic age in nursing homes workers.

METHODS: It was studied 81 employees, 66 women (70.4 + 11.4 years) and 15 men, aged 18-69 (43 ± 9.4 years). Time spent in sedentary, light, moderate and vigorous activities were measured by means of a GTX accelerometer. Anthropometric assessment and metabolic age were performed by TANITA bioimpedance device. The association was determined by Spearman correlation - Rho. It was used SPSS version 15.0, and a significant level of p<.05

RESULTS: The group was classified as overweighted and obese using BMI (28.3+ 5.3 kg.m2), percent of fat (33,7+ 11,4%) criteria. Number of steps reached 5560+ 3107 The vast majority of time (97%) was spent in light , 3% in moderate, and only 1% in vigorous physical activity.

CONCLUSION: data is permitted the nursing home workers, spent almost all life-time in light physical activity, they rarely got involved with vigorous. PA,sedentary behavior, light, moderate, and vigorous PA was not associated to anthropometric variables, except to bone mass, which presented a positive and significant correlation with moderate (.62) and vigorous (.68) PA; and a negative significant correlation was observed between vigorous PA and metabolic age.

1819 Board #105 May 29, 2:00 PM - 3:30 PM

Effect Of Balance Training In Individuals With Ankle Instability: A Systematic Review And Meta-analysis

Ryan Tsai, Aimee Farquharson, Jodan D. Garcia, Gordon Warren. Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA.

(No relationships reported)

Chronic Ankle Instability (CAI) can be developed as a result of recurrent ankle sprains; that can decrease physical activity level, impaired static and dynamic balance, diminished quality of life and increases the risk and susceptibility for a recurrent ankle sprain.

PURPOSE: To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis to determine the effects of balance training on improving functional stability and decreasing the recurrence of ankle sprains in individuals with CAI.

METHODS: A systematic review was completed by searching following databases: Cochrane, EMBASE, MEDLINE via PubMed, PEDro and ProQuest. Five studies that met the inclusion criteria used to conduct a meta-analysis. The inclusion criteria included: (1) a diagnosis of an acute ankle sprain or unilateral ankle sprain or unstable ankle sprain or an inversion ankle sprain (Grade II or III), (2) a history of two or more ankle sprains within a period of six months to two years, (3) age range of 15-45 and (4) the control group received no form of therapeutic exercise.

DATA-ANALYSIS: Meta-analysis and subgroup meta-analysis were run using the Biostat Comprehensive Meta Analysis (Ver.2). Due to variation in study methods, the random-effects model was used to estimate the mean of the distribution of effects among studies. The p-value method was used to assess the statistical significance among studies.

RESULTS: In the five experimental studies used, there was a positive overall effect size (ES) of 0.662 and p<0.05. Using the I2 method, moderate heterogeneity was found among studies. There was asymmetry in the generated funnel plot, where one study caused publication bias. Duval and Tweedie’s Trim and fill were utilized to estimate the unbiased effect size of 0.478. Subgroup meta-analysis on the effect of treatment time (4-week versus 6-week) was conducted and the results showed that there was no difference between groups.

CONCLUSION: The findings of this systematic review and meta-analysis suggest that there was moderate improvement in functional stability after balance training in the population with ankle instability.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Balance training should be implemented in the plan of care to aid in regaining control, improve lower limb function, reaction time, balance, and prevent re-injury for the patients with ankle instability.

1820 Board #106 May 29, 2:00 PM - 3:30 PM

Health Club Membership and Adherence to the US Physical Activity Guidelines

Elizabeth C. Schroeder, Nathan F. Meier, Gregory J. Welk, FACSM, Duck-chul Lee. Iowa State University, Ames, IA.

(No relationships reported)

Many individuals purchase health club memberships in order to maintain or improve their fitness. However, there is little evidence showing the effectiveness of a health club membership in promoting physical activity.

PURPOSE: The purpose of the study was to determine the association between a health club membership and the likelihood of meeting the US aerobic and resistance PA guidelines.

METHODS: A cross-sectional study of 404 males and females (30-93 years of age) was conducted in Ames Iowa. Most participants were highly educated university staff and faculty members. Each participant completed a self-report questionnaire about health club and lifestyle PA over the past month. The participants were put into two categories: with a health club membership (n=236) and without a health club membership (n=168). We used multivariable logistic regression to examine the associations between health club membership and total physical activity levels.

RESULTS: Of the participants with a health club membership, 82.6% met the resistance PA guidelines (≥ 2 days/week), 95.3% met the aerobic PA guidelines (≥500 MET-minutes/week), and 79.7% met both PA guidelines. In those without a membership, 37.5% met resistance PA guidelines, 63.7% met aerobic PA guidelines, and 31.6% met both PA guidelines. Compared with participants without a health club membership, the odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) of meeting total aerobic PA guidelines, resistance PA guidelines, and both guidelines were 12.17 (6.01-24.66), 8.30 (5.09-13.53), and 9.08 (5.58-14.77), respectively, in individuals with a health club membership after adjusting for age, body mass index, diet for weight loss, medical conditions, and sedentary lifestyle. The likelihood of meeting guidelines significantly increased with increasing years of a health club membership (p for trend <0.0001).

CONCLUSIONS: With a health club membership, individuals are more likely to meet the recommended physical activity levels than those without a health club membership.

Supported by Iowa State University College of Human Sciences seed grant.

1821 Board #107 May 29, 2:00 PM - 3:30 PM

Is There Enough Support for Physical Activity in Head Start?

Michaela A. Schenkelberg1, Richard R. Rosenkranz2, David A. Dzewaltowski2. 1University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC. 2Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS. (Sponsor: Dr. Russell R. Pate, FACSM)

(No relationships reported)

PURPOSE: Many young children are spending the work day hours in childcare settings and do not engage in adequate amounts of physical activity (PA). The PA environment in childcare may shape PA behaviors, and is influenced by policies and practices which are typically state regulated. However, Head Start (HS) programs must adhere to federal performance standards and the existing standard on PA is vague. The aim of the present study was to describe PA practices of Kansas Head Start (KHS) sites and to examine how the prevalence of overweight (OW) varies by PA-related environmental variables.

METHODS: HS sites (n=21) participated in this cross-sectional study of the 24 KHS sites (response rate of 87.5%). The PA environment was assessed by HS directors responding online to a modified version of the Nutrition and Physical Activity Self-Assessment for Child Care (NAPSACC). The survey consisted of 17 questions pertaining to the PA environment and two demographic questions. Prevalence of site-level OW was defined as the proportion of kids ≥85th percentile of age- and gender- adjusted body mass index (BMI). BMI was measured objectively at clinics or HS sites and drawn from the Office of Head Start’s Program Information Report.

RESULTS: Prevalence of OW among children enrolled in KHS was 33.7%. Opportunity for active play ≤45 min/day was offered by 42.9% of sites. Compared to 28.6% OW at sites offering outdoor play ≥2 times/day, sites offering outdoor play 2-4 times/week reported 31.0% OW. Most sites (85.7%) reported ample outdoor space for all activities, including a path for wheeled toys; however only 42.9% of sites reported ample space for indoor activities. When children engaged in active play, 66.7% of sites reported frequent encouragement of activity and joint active play. A written and followed PA policy was reported by 42.9% of sites.

CONCLUSION: Prevalence of OW in KHS was 33.7% compared to 28.2% for national HS sites. While prevalence of sites meeting or exceeding best practice recommendations was high, results indicated a key area of improvement. Only 42.9% of sites reported a written and followed PA policy and 14.3% reported that no such policy exists. A revision of the federal standard should be considered to ensure all HS sites strive to provide adequate opportunities for PA.

1822 Board #108 May 29, 2:00 PM - 3:30 PM

The Validity Of A Commercially-available, Low-cost, Wrist-mounted Accelerometer During Treadmill Exercise

Jacob E. Barkley, Michael Rebold, Andrew Carnes, Ellen L. Glickman, FACSM, Mallory Kobak. Kent State University, Kent, OH.

(No relationships reported)

Commercially-available, low-cost accelerometers are often marketed to groups as components of wellness initiatives designed to increase physical activity. While objective activity monitoring that provides feedback to the user has been shown to increase physical activity, validity studies of accelerometers is typically limited to high-cost devices that are designed for scientific use. However, if a low-cost accelerometer provides an accurate assessment of physical activity they would not only provide reliable information to the wearer but could represent an attractive alternative to researchers wishing to objectively measure physical activity in large samples using limited resources.

PURPOSE: To assess the validity of a commercially-available, low-cost accelerometer (MOVband) to a previously validated accelerometer (Actigraph GT1M), and objective measures of physiologic effort during treadmill exercise in a laboratory environment.

METHODS: Twenty three (n = 16 females) healthy college students (21.9 ± 1.6 years old) completed a single session of treadmill exercise in a laboratory session. Participants walked/jogged at 53.7, 80.5, 107.3 and 134.1 m[BULLET OPERATOR]min-1 at a grade of zero for five minutes per stage with a two-minute rest period between each stage. Throughout the exercise session, participants simultaneously wore both the MOVband and Actigraph on the wrist and hip, respectively. Oxygen consumption (VO2 ml[BULLET OPERATOR]kg-1[BULLET OPERATOR]min-1) and heart rate (HR beats[BULLET OPERATOR]min-1) were also recorded throughout the exercise session via indirect calorimetry and telemetry, respectively. The relationship between accelerometer counts as assessed by the MOVband and Actigraph counts, VO2 and HR across all four exercise stages was assessed via Pearson’s correlation analysis.

RESULTS: Large effect sizes were noted for the positive relationships between the MOVband accelerometer counts and all other measures (r = 0.92 Actigraph counts, 0.80 VO2 and 0.54 HR). Mixed-model regression analysis demonstrated significance (p ≤ 0.02) for each of these relationships.

CONCLUSION: The MOVband accelerometer was positively and significantly associated with a previously validated accelerometer and measures of physiologic effort during progressive treadmill exercise. These findings support the validity of this low-cost accelerometer.

1823 Board #109 May 29, 2:00 PM - 3:30 PM

Resting Metabolic Rate and Percent Body Fat in Healthy Adult Men and Women

Jesus Soares1, Carl J. Caspersen, FACSM1, Robert G. McMurray, FACSM2, Thomas R. McCurdy3. 1Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA. 2University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC. 3US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Research Triangle Park, NC. (Sponsor: Robert G. McMurray, FACSM)

(No relationships reported)

PURPOSE: To review existing studies to determine the influence of percent body fat (%BF) on resting metabolic rate (RMR) as compared to the commonly accepted value for the metabolic equivalent or the MET (e.g.,1.0

METHODS: Using several databases, we identified 197 scientific articles published 1980-2011 that measured RMR and %BF. We found 259 publication estimates of RMR that could represent population subgroups of men and women by %BF. We used inverse variance weighting to compute means and 95% confidence intervals (CI).

RESULTS: The overall mean RMR (0.855) was 14.5% lower than the commonly accepted MET convention. RMR decreased in linear fashion for increasing %BF strata for all publication estimates, as noted herein:

Mean RMR was higher for men 0.894 than for women 0.854. However, within each %BF strata mean RMR estimates did not differ statistically by sex, with one exception. For the 20−29% strata, women had a statistically higher RMR than men. In the applicable studies we found that the mean age of women was almost 19 years younger than men, which might account for the sex difference. Finally, we found mean RMR to be near 1.0 only for the very two leanest %BF strata.

CONCLUSION: The commonly accepted MET convention may overestimate RMR by almost 20,30% for adults with %BF of 30% or greater. This suggests that no single RMR value is appropriate for healthy adults, especially those with higher %BF, which is common in the United States.

1824 Board #110 May 29, 2:00 PM - 3:30 PM

Comparison Of Moderate to Vigorous Physical Activity Assessed by Accelerometry and the GPPAQ

Haydn Jarrett1, Cemal Ozemek2, Liam Fitzgerald2, Leonard A. Kaminsky, FACSM2. 1University of Worcester, Worcester, United Kingdom. 2Ball State University, Muncie, IN.

(No relationships reported)

The General Practice Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPPAQ) is a screening tool developed by the National Health Service for use by general practitioners to assess physical activity (PA) levels of patients during clinical visits. Presently, it is not well understood if the GPPAQ classifications (active, moderately active, moderately inactive and inactive) clearly differentiate PA status.

PURPOSE: To determine whether the GPPAQ accurately differentiates individuals into different activity categories by comparing it to objectively measured time spent in moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA).

METHODS: A total of 41 subjects (16 men and 24 women, 49.6±19.8 yr) and 35 subjects (19 men and 15 women, 42.2±21.3 yr) were recruited from Muncie IN, USA and Worcestershire, UK, respectively. Subjects wore an ActiGraph GT3X+ accelerometer on their right hip for a minimum of 4 days with 10 hours of valid wear-time per day and completed the GPPAQ at the end of the observation week. Accelerometers were initialized in ActiLife v6.8.0 using 60Hz sampling rates and processed using a 60 second epoch. Subjects determined to be moderately inactive by the GPPAQ were placed in the inactive group for analyses due to low subject volume (n=7). Total time in MVPA and MVPA accumulated in bouts of ≥10 minutes were quantified by applying Sasaki et al. (2011) VM cutpoints (≥2690 activity counts/min). A one-way ANOVA was used to assess for mean differences in MVPA between PA groupings by the GPPAQ. Significance was set at 0.05.

RESULTS: There were no significant differences between active (n=35), moderately active (n=13), and moderately inactive/inactive (n=26) in total MVPA time (min/wk) (344.1±190.6 [range = 33.0 to 839.0], 322.1±175.6 [range = 115.0 to 662.0], and 319.4±157.4 [range = 74.0 to 690.0], respectively). Similarly, MVPA accumulated in bouts of ≥10 minutes (min/wk) (171.5±137.1 [range = 0 to 415.0], 134.8±89.9 [range = 28.0 to 349.0], 120.8±113.9 [range = 0 to 469.0, respectively) were not significantly different.

CONCLUSION: Findings demonstrate that the GPPAQ may not be able to accurately classify individuals into different activity categories. Thus, either modifications to the GPPAQ should be considered or clinicians may need to seek alternative physical activity assessment methods.

1825 Board #111 May 29, 2:00 PM - 3:30 PM

The Effect Of Pe Class On Daily Physical Exercise And Mental Health In University Freshmen

Yukiko Tomita, Kazuki Takizawa, Masao Mizuno. Hokkaido University, Sapporo City, Japan.

(No relationships reported)

PURPOSE: This study aimed at evaluating the effect of Physical Education (PE) class participated once a week for the level of daily physical exercise and the status of mental health in university freshmen.

METHODS: The total number of 124 freshmen (84 males and 40 females) was studied. Investigations were carried out twice, by the beginning and the end of the 1st semester in April and July, respectively. By the use of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire Short Version (IPAQ-SV), the amount of EXERCISE per a week (EX) was determined as an index for the level of daily physical activity. The calculations of EX excluded physical activities performed in PE classes. The status of mental health was assessed by the use of the General Health Questionnaire 28 (GHQ28). Comparisons between corresponding valuables were performed using the two-way ANOVA, and the Tukey’s test was used as post hoc test. All values were expressed as means±SD, and a 5% level was chosen as significant.

RESULTS: The subjects were divided into two groups based on the participation in PE class once a week (PE group) (n=59) or none-participation (NONE group) (n=65). The EX increased from April to July in all subjects (April: 31.78±29.97 vs. July: 52.34±46.89) (p<0.01), the PE group (April: 34.17±34.39 vs. July: 65.86±54.60) (p<0.01) and the NONE group (April: 29.61±25.38 vs. July: 40.08±34.67) (p<0.01). Further, the PE group showed a higher EX than the NONE group in July (p<0.01). The total scores of GHQ28 in the PE group decreased from April (5.93±4.63) to July (4.70±4.48) (p<0.05), whereas the NONE group showed unchanged, resulting a lower total score of GHQ28 in the PE group as compared to the NONE group (7.82±6.23) (p<0.05). The score for depression of GHQ28 in the PE group decreased from April (0.88±1.68) to July (0.66±1.50) (p<0.05), and was lower than that in the NONE group in July (1.46±2.06) (p<0.05). In both April and July, the score for social dysfunctions was lower in the PE group (April: 1.02±1.24, July: 0.92±1.01) than the NONE group (April: 1.19±1.57) (p<0.05) (July: 1.43±1.75) (p<0.01).

CONCLUSIONS: This study indicates that PE class performed once a week in university freshmen contributes to increase the level of daily physical activity, resulting in an optimal status of mental health and preventing depression and/or social dysfunctions.

1826 Board #112 May 29, 2:00 PM - 3:30 PM

The Effects Of A Lifestyle And Nutrition Course On Body Composition And Body Image

Alyssa Harris, Micaela Lacey, Brittany S. Luckett, Drew Curry, Maurie J. Luetkemeier. Alma College, Alma, MI.

(No relationships reported)

PURPOSE: This study was designed to examine the effects of a 3-week exercise and nutritional intervention program on body composition and body image changes in college students.

METHODS: The participants (n=21; female=13, male=8) were students from a course at Alma College. The average age of the participants was 19.6±1. The subjects took part in a 3-week intervention program that allowed them to explore positive choices regarding healthy eating, with a wide range of healthy food provided daily, as well as regular exercise with time set aside for walking, jogging, biking, and other fitness activities. All participants underwent testing prior to and after the duration of the course. The participants were asked to complete the modified 39-item version of the Body Self-Image Questionnaire (BSIQ), which encompassed 9 factors to evaluate body image perception. Subjects were also asked to participate in girth/circumference measurements and skinfold measurements to evaluate changes in body composition.

RESULTS: The sum of 6 skinfold measurements did not significantly change upon pre-test and post-test evaluation (122.3±5.2 to 126.4±6.5 mm). Weight change from pre-test to post-test was also not statistically significant (74.7±3.6 to 74.5±3.4 kg). BSIQ analysis indicated positive results regarding body image in various sub-categories: overall appearance evaluation (3.5±0.15 to 3.8±0.15), fat evaluation (2.4±0.21 to 2.2±0.17), health/fitness evaluation (3.7±0.15 to 4.1±0.14), health/fitness influence (2.8±0.11 to 4.1±0.14), and investment in ideals (3.8±0.13 to 4.1±0.13).

CONCLUSIONS: While body composition changes were not statistically significant, they may have been key factors regarding body image displayed through the BSIQ. Although weight loss was not significant among the participants, a healthier image was attained as the subjects made healthy choices pertaining to diet and exercise.

1827 Board #113 May 29, 2:00 PM - 3:30 PM

Effects Of Filter Choice And Sample Frequency On The GT3x+ Accelerometer Prediction Of Energy Expenditure

Zachary Waugh1, Christopher C.F. Howe2, Christopher Spice2, Chris Easton3. 1Grand Valley State University, Allendale, MI. 2Kingston University, Kingston upon Thames, United Kingdom. 3University of the West of Scotland, Hamilton, United Kingdom. (Sponsor: Yannis Pitsiladis, FACSM)

(No relationships reported)

Researchers using the GT3X+ accelerometer have the option of utilising a Low-Frequency Extension (LFE) to the data filtering algorithm to increase sensitivity to low intensity movement. Recent studies show that the LFE results in significantly higher estimates of physical activity in free-living populations although no study has yet provided comparisons to a criterion measure.

PURPOSE: To determine the effects of the LFE and sample frequency on the prediction accuracy of energy expenditure (EE) during structured light and moderate intensity activity.

METHODS: Eighteen active adults (14 males, age 28 ± 8 yr, weight 76.1 ± 12.4 kg) completed a continuous incremental protocol on a treadmill comprising 5 min walking at 4 km/hr, 3 min walking at 5 and 6 km/hr and then 3 min running at 10 and 12 km/hr. Respiratory variables were measured throughout via indirect calorimetry (IC) and EE for each stage was calculated using the Weir equation. Accelerometer data was collected using two GT3X+ devices, one of which was set to a high sample frequency (100 Hz) and the other to a low sample frequency (30Hz). The data was downloaded using both the normal filter (NF) and the LFE for each device and EE estimated in all four conditions (30NF, 30LFE, 100NF, 100LFE) using the VM3 equation. Differences between predicted and the IC criterion method of EE measurement were assessed using paired t-tests. Agreement between methods was established by Pearson’s correlation coefficient and Bland and Altman analysis following log transformation of the data.

RESULTS: Predictions of EE were significantly correlated with IC (R=0.92, R=0.92, R=0.91, R=0.91 all P<0.001 for 30NF, 30LFE, 100NF and 100LFE respectively). Mean EE was significantly lower with 30NF (8.0 ± 3.5 kcal/min) compared to IC (8.5 ± 4.8 kcal/min, P=0.02). Mean EE in the other conditions was not different to IC (P>0.05). Mean bias and error ratios were 1.02 x/÷ 1.50, 0.99 x/÷ 1.50, 1.00 x/÷ 1.54 and 0.97 x/÷ 1.53 for 30NF, 30LFE, 100NF and 100LFE, respectively.

CONCLUSIONS: Utilisation of the LFE at lower sampling frequencies appears to prevent statistically significant differences in predicted EE during structured light and moderate intensity activity. However, a large error ratio limits the capacity of accelerometers to predict EE at the individual level regardless of processing decisions.

1828 Board #114 May 29, 2:00 PM - 3:30 PM

The Future Of Weight Management Interventions

Amanda N. Szabo1, Stephen D. Herrmann1, Jaehoon Lee1, Jaehoon Lee2, Joseph E. Donnelly, FACSM1. 1Kansas University Medical Center, Lawrence, KS. 2University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS. (Sponsor: Dr. Joseph Donnelly, FACSM)

(No relationships reported)

Many group weight loss (WL) programs focus on employing health behavior theories in order to change diet in an attempt to decrease weight, and increase physical activity (PA). Other interventions attempt to change similar behaviors, but focus on individual differences.

PURPOSE: The purpose of the present analysis was to gain a better understanding of the behavioral profiles of individuals that are successful at losing and maintaining weight compared those that are unsuccessful and to identify the best point in time to re-intervene to improve WL and weight maintenance (WM).

METHODS: A linear regression was performed using completers (N=359; Age= 44.39; BMI 34.65±4.77; 66.6% female) of a 6 month (m) WL and 12m WM trial.

RESULTS: Table 1 shows the earliest time to re-intervene is at 3m into a WL intervention (R2= .32). Furthermore, results indicate that WL at 6m was determined by weight change, class attendance, entrée consumption, and steps taken. A second linear regression was conducted to identify the optimal time in WM to potentially re-intervene. Table 2 suggest that failure to maintain weight at the end of the trial can be predicted as early as 2m into WM by weight change, exercise and weight self-efficacy, attendance, and shake and entrée consumption.

CONCLUSION: This provides early recognition of individuals who need additional or different intervention strategies to improve WL and WM. Potential strategies include interventions that target alternative class delivery (i.e., technology), structured PA guidelines or self-regulation/cognitive interventions that may promote additional WL and successful WM. However, research is needed to determine the efficacy of such interventions.

Funded by DK 76063 and Health Management Resources

1829 Board #115 May 29, 2:00 PM - 3:30 PM

Impact of a Wellness Coaching Program on Physical Activity and Quality of Life on Bariatric Surgery Patients

Anita M. Gust1, Bradford Strand1, Megan McCallum2. 1North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND. 2Concordia College, Moorhead, MN. (Sponsor: Donna J.Terbizan, FACSM)

(No relationships reported)

Limited research exists on the effectiveness of pre-surgery wellness programs for bariatric surgery candidates.

PURPOSE: To determine the impact of a pre-bariatric surgery wellness coaching program on levels of physical activity (PA) and health related quality of life (HRQOL).

METHODS: Questionnaires were distributed to all patients who underwent bariatric surgery and/or participated in a 12-week weight loss wellness coaching program during the years 2009-2012 (n=782). From the 117 returned surveys (15.0%), participants (age = 51.43 years ± 12.98, BMI = 29.34 ± 5.72) were placed in either the wellness coaching group (intervention) or surgery only group (control) based on whether they participated in, and completed, the 12-week program. Wellness coaching participants who elected not to have surgery were excluded from this study (n=16). Weight (self-report), weight loss (self-report), PA (7-day IPAQ-short), exercise motivation (BREQ-2), and HRQOL (SV-12v2) were analyzed.

RESULTS: Although researchers recognize self-report weight, weight loss and PA via the IPAQ-S have limitations in this population, significant differences were found. Pre-surgical body mass index (BMI) (45.97 ± 7.56 v. 45.5 ± 6.68), t(100) = -.32, p = .75; and time since surgery 28.05 ± 15.53 v. 34.87 ± 20.96), t(100) = 1.82, p = .07, were not statistically different between groups. Compared to controls (n=58), participants in the wellness coaching group (n=44) had significantly more weekly vigorous PA (min=264.14, ± 472.33 v. 100.17 ± 163.95), t(100)= -2.46, p = .02 and total minutes of MVPA (min=501.30 ± 544.87 v. 293.88, ± 445.50), t(100)= -2.11, p = .04. Significant differences were also found for identified regulation (M=2.87 ±.79 v. 2.22, ± .98), t(100)= -3.61, p=.000; intrinsic regulation (M=2.40 ±.93 v. 1.69, ± 1.15), t(100)= -3.34, p=.001; and vitality scores (M=67.05 ± 20.72 v. 55.17 ± 23.76), t(100 )= -2.64, p = .010.

CONCLUSION: Participation in a pre-surgery wellness coaching program produced higher scores for positive effects on PA, exercise motivation, and HRQOL following bariatric surgery compared to those not receiving coaching.

1830 Board #116 May 29, 2:00 PM - 3:30 PM

The Effects of an Extended Wellness and Coaching Program on Blood Profiles in College Students

Lisa Hicks, Lee Everett, Mindy Hartman Mayol. University of Indianapolis, Indianapolis, IN.

(No relationships reported)

Previous studies have examined different models in which to improve college student’s overall personal wellness.

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of an extended personal wellness program on fasting blood glucose, total cholesterol, HDL and LDL cholesterol.

METHODS: Eighteen university students [(mean ± SD) age, 21.2 ± 0.8 years; height, 158.4 ± 7.6 cm; weight, 64.8 ± 7.5 kg] participated in the present study. Each subject self-selected to participate in a multidimensional extended wellness program. Students blood lipid profiles were administered in three consecutive fall semesters (two years). Total cholesterol (TC), fasting blood glucose (FBG), low density lipoprotein (LDL), and high density lipoprotein (HDL) were measured via a blood test. Between each measurement, students met with a personal wellness coach for four visits between each testing cycle, for a total of eight coaching sessions. These visits were 30-45 minutes in length, where students and coaches collectively determined the dimensions of wellness to address. Students were asked to set three wellness goals between each visit. Subsequent visits addressed goal outcomes and re-evaluated the students’ overall wellness. Students were also required to complete fifteen credit hours of wellness courses. One way repeated measures ANOVA were used to analyze the dependent variables, with a bonferroni pairwise comparison used for post hoc analysis. An alpha level of P < 0.05 was set for statistical significance.

RESULTS: There were significant decreases for the following [(mean ± SD): TC (175.5 ± 31.8 to 162.3 ± 32.9 mg • dL; p = .003), FBG (83.4 ± 7.0 to 79.0 ± 7.1 mg • dL; p = 025), TC / HDL ratio (2.7 ± 0.5 to 2.5 ± 0.5 mg • dL; p = .047), and LDL / HDL ratio (1.4 ± 0.4 to 1.2 ± 0.4 mg • dL; p = .015). There was no significant change in HDL (66.0 ± 12.1 to 66.9 ± 11.5 mg • dL; p = .286) and while LDL showed a decrease, it was not significant (92.2 ± 25.5 to 84.6 ± 31.6 mg • dL; p = .224).

CONCLUSIONS: While the current sample started with healthy blood lipid profiles, significant improvements were found following the extended wellness program. Earlier intervention strategies such as wellness coaching in college may help improve blood profiles at an earlier age which could potentially extend or prevent the onset of obesity and cardiovascular disease risk factors.

1831 Board #117 May 29, 2:00 PM - 3:30 PM

Academic Performance And Physical Activity Of College Students

Ed Cunliff, Jamie Aweau, Michael Colacicco, Greg Farnell, Melissa Powers. University of Central Oklahoma, Edmond, OK.

(No relationships reported)

Participation inregular physical activity provides many benefits to general health. Among children and adolescents, physical activity also appears to have a positive impact on academic performance. The relationship between physical activity and academic performance of college students is not well studied.

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to explore patterns of physical activity in relationship to self-reported GPA of students who completed the American College Health Association’s National College Health Assessment (ACHA-NCHA).

METHODS: The ACHA-NCHA was administered in a core general health course to 1,200 students. The response rate was 64% (n = 772). This study examined patterns of moderate exercise, vigorous exercise, and strength training (number of days participating) as well as meeting physical activity guidelines (yes or no) by GPA (A, B, C, D/F) using non-parametric tests and descriptive statistics. All analyses were conducted separately for males and females.

RESULTS: More males (55.0%) than females (41.4%) reported meeting the physical activity guidelines. For GPA, more females reported A/B (82.4%) compared to males (77.4%). When examining the exercise participation variables by GPA, one difference approached significance (p = .06). Women reporting higher GPA (A or B) were more likely to participate in moderate exercise on a greater number of days than those with a lower GPA. The percent of females reporting zero days of moderate activity increased as the self-reported GPA decreased (22% for A to 42.9% for D/F). On the other hand, the percent of females reporting 4 days of moderate exercise decreased as GPA decreased from 9.2% for A to 0.0% for D/F. Unfortunately, so few women report high levels of moderate activity that it is hard to confidently make inferences from these data. No significant trends were observed for males. The difference in GPA by meeting physical activity guidelines was non-significant in both males and females (p> .05).

CONCLUSION: No significant patterns of physical activity by GPA were observed in this analysis; however, this topic deserves further study due to limitations associated with this data set such as self-reporting. Further study of physical activity and GPA should be conducted using measurement of actual physical activity levels and GPA among college students.

1832 Board #118 May 29, 2:00 PM - 3:30 PM

Neighborhood Environment and Walking in Dog Owners

Cynthia M. Ferrara, FACSM1, Kristin Schneider2, Stephenie Lemon3, Deirdra Murphy1, Clara Savage4, Jessica Oleski3, Emily Panza3, Brianne Bozzella1, Kimberly Gada1. 1University of Massachusetts Lowell, Lowell, MA. 2Rosalind Franklin University, North Chicago, IL. 3University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA. 4Common Pathways, Worcester, MA.

(No relationships reported)

PURPOSE: While walking is recommended as physical activity for both humans and dogs, up to 60% of dog owners do not achieve the recommended 150 minutes of weekly physical activity. Factors related to neighborhood walkability may serve as barriers and facilitators to walking in dog owners. The present study examined associations between neighborhood environment and walking in sedentary dog owners.

METHODS: Ninety-eight dog owners (20 men and 78 women, 48+1 yrs) completed Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale (NEWS), which includes subscales assessing proximity and access to stores and other services, street conditions, places for walking and cycling, aesthetics, traffic hazards, and safety. The subscales were scored from 1 (strongly disagree) to 4 (strongly agree), with a higher value indicating a more favorable perception of the environment. Proximity to stores and other services was scored from 1 (1-5 min) to 5 (more than 30 min away) with lower scores indicating closer proximity. Lower scores on the safety subscale were indicative of a more favorable perception of the environment. Additional assessments included height, weight, and 7 day step counts, measured with an activity monitor. Correlations were determined between step counts and NEWS subscales, controlled by body mass index (BMI, p<0.05). Results are presented as means+SEM.

RESULTS: Weekly pedometer counts were 33767+1234 steps. Average BMI was 30.7+0.7 kg/m2, with almost 80% of participants overweight or obese. Results for proximity to stores and other services (3.0+0.1) suggest that these services were 11-20 minutes away from home. Access to services (2.9+0.1), street conditions (3.1+0.1), walking and cycling (2.6+0.1), aesthetics (2.9+0.1), and traffic hazards (2.7+0.0) suggest that participants “somewhat agreed” with a favorable perception of the environment. Participants “somewhat disagreed” (1.6+0.1) that there were safety issues. There were no significant correlations between step counts and NEWS subscales, even after controlling for BMI.

CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that participants did not find the environment to be a factor that influenced walking. Additional research is needed to determine what other factors may influence walking in dog owners.

Supported by UMass CTSA Pilot Award Program (NIH UL1RR31982).

1833 Board #119 May 29, 2:00 PM - 3:30 PM

Evaluation Of A 6-week Peer Education Program To Promote Healthy Living Among International Students

zi yan1, Kevin Finn1, Bradley J. Cardinal, FACSM2, Lauren Bent1. 1Merrimack College, north andover, MA. 2Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR.

(No relationships reported)

PURPOSE: International college students are more sedentary and have more nutrition-related problems than do American students. The present study examined a six-week, theory-based, peer education program targeting physical activity and nutrition behaviors among international students in a university setting.

METHOD: 36 international students were matched with 36 American peers who were majoring in health sciences. They followed an experimental intervention program developed by the research team. The peers met twice a week (about an hour each time) for 6 weeks. The meetings included peer tutoring, peer discussion, and peer counseling aimed at improving the international students’ knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors related to physical activity and nutrition. Nutrition knowledge, attitude, and practice were measured using 15 items, 13 items measured physical activity knowledge and attitudes, and the Weekly Leisure Time Exercise Questionnaire was used to measure physical activity participation. Data were collected before and after the intervention during spring 2013.

RESULTS: Repeated measures MANOVA revealed a significant intervention effect for international students, F(6, 24)=2.9, p<.05, η2=.49. Univariate tests indicated that the intervention helped to increase the students’ physical activity knowledge, F(1, 29)=8.12, p<.001, η2=.22; nutrition knowledge, F(1, 29)=20.77, p<.001, η2=.42; and nutrition practices, F(1, 29)=13.68, p<.001, η2=.32. However, no effect was observed for attitudes toward physical activity, F(1, 29)=1.8, p>.05, η2=.06; attitudes toward nutrition, F(1, 29)=1.75, p>.05, η2=.06; or physical activity behavior, F(1, 29)=.53, p>.05, η2=.02.

CONCLUSION: A novel peer-education program may help increase international students’ physical activity and nutritional knowledge, as well as their nutritional practices. Further refinement to the program is needed to positively affect physical activity behavior and attitudes toward nutrition and physical activity behavior.

1834 Board #120 May 29, 2:00 PM - 3:30 PM

If You Build It, Who Will Come?

Lesley A. Cottrell, Emily Murphy, Elaine Bowman, Tamara Gray, Susan Partington. West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV. (Sponsor: William Guyton Hornsby, FACSM)

(No relationships reported)

BACKGROUND: Use of neighborhood physical activity outlets has decreased due to perceived crime, other safety concerns, or misuse. Many communities have renovated these outlets to combat childhood obesity by increasing physical activity (PA) opportunities. The purpose of this study was to examine family accessibility to, and use of, neighborhood activity outlets based on family income, parent workload and health insurance.

METHODS: 251 preschool children and their mothers (age X = 31 years) were enrolled in a larger, longitudinal early childhood obesity intervention project; 151 complete baseline surveys were used in this study. Parents noted whether outlets (e.g., parks, pools) were available within their neighborhood (accessibility - 4-item scale range 0-8), to what extent their children used those outlets (use - 4-item scale range 6-24), their perceptions about the safety of these outlets (perceived quality - 4-item scale; range 4-16), and the extent to which they encourage their children to engage in activity (parent encouragement - 3-item scale; range 4-10). The calculated scales were derived from mothers’ Preschool-aged Physical Activity Questionnaire (Pre-PAQ) Survey responses. Effects of three family-based economic factors (total family income, health insurance, and work schedule) on these neighborhood outcomes were examined using a multivariate general linear model.

RESULTS: One-third of participating families lived below poverty (32.5%). 82.6% of families had health insurance and one-third of mothers worked full-time. Mothers who worked full-time and had health insurance were more likely to encourage their children to be physically active (p=.02). However, mothers who had lower income and limited or no insurance noted their children used neighborhood outlets more than mothers with higher incomes who had insurance (p= .03).

CONCLUSION: Economic factors contribute to parent physical activity encouragement and use of activity outlets that may be available in their immediate neighborhood very differently. While affluent families may engage in more overall activity, families with limited resources may use immediate outlets more. Additional economic factors and child outcomes including body composition (BMI) will be presented with similar income-based disparities noted.

1835 Board #121 May 29, 2:00 PM - 3:30 PM

Improved Fitness after Circuit Resistance Training in Persons with Paraplegia is not Enhanced by Timely Protein Supplementation.

Patricia A. Burns. University of Miami, Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL.

(No relationships reported)

Protein supplementation (PS) administered immediately prior to, and immediately post-exercise (IPS) has been shown to optimize exercise adaptations in persons living with HIV, tetraplegia, and in elderly men. While circuit resistance training (CRT) increases muscular strength and cardiorespiratory (CR) fitness in untrained individuals with chronic paraplegia, the ability of timely PS to enhance these exercise adaptations has not been systematically tested.

PURPOSE: To investigate in a controlled study whether IPS enhances conditioning benefits of CRT in persons with chronic paraplegia.

METHODS: 15 individuals with chronic paraplegia (> 1 yr) underwent 6 months of CRT 3x/wk. Ten randomly assigned participants received PS (Whey protein: 48 grams) in split doses immediately prior to, and immediately following exercise sessions (IPS). Control participants consumed a matched (syn: isocaloric) delayed dose 24 hours post-exercise (DPS). Measurements of upper extremity one-repetition maximal (1-RM) strength for six different resistance maneuvers, peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak) and anaerobic power (Wingate) were assessed 3 months before (-3mo) training, at the start of training (0mo), and three months(3mo) and six months (6mo) after training.

RESULTS: 1-RM increased significantly by 13.8±11.7, and 23.7±13.1% after 3mo, ( p =.002) and 6mo, ( p <.001) of CRT training, respectively. A group effect of PS was not observed. VO2peak increased from baseline (1.32±0.45 L.min-1) to 3mo (1.50±0.45L.min-1, p =.015) and 6mo (1.56±0.49 L.min-1, p =.002), but was also independent of PS. Non-significant increases in anaerobic power from baseline (182±87.2W) to 3mo (210.3±112.8W, p =.190) and 6mo (220.6±144.5W, p =.403) were independent of group.

CONCLUSION: Improvements in muscle strength and CR endurance accompanying CRT in persons with CRT are not enhanced by timing of PS.

Supported by a Field-Initiated Grant (#H133G080150) from the National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research.

1836 Board #122 May 29, 2:00 PM - 3:30 PM

Worksite Walking Intervention Program for Increasing Physical Activity: A systematic review

man qin, female1, weimo zhu, male, FACSM1, weimo zhu, male, FACSM2. 1University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, champaign, China. 2University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, champaign, IL.

(No relationships reported)

PURPOSE: To systematically examine the effectiveness of worksite walking programs with a focus on method, intervention and results.

METHODS: Using key words like “worksite program,” “walking program,” “pedometer-based,” “worksite program of walking” etc., a comprehensive online searches were conducted for articles published up to September 2013, including Web of Science, Pub Med, Scopus, Ebochost, Sportdiscus & Sciencedirect. The inclusion criteria were: (1) Intervention must be the worksite related walking programand (2) The evaluation of the effectiveness of the intervention was included in the study design.

RESULTS: Thirteen studies were included (N=388; mean duration=15 weeks;mean pre-post increased daily steps=1,429, 4 randomized controlled trails, 9 observational studies, 85% female, PA time range from 10 minutes to 45 minutes each time). Steps, BMI, blood pressure, body weight were used mainly as the outcome variables. Pedometer, e-mail, setting goals and choosing own speed of walking are the main intervention approaches. Ecologically and transtheoretical models were used for the intervention design. The outcomes of 3 of 13 studies were negative; 3 used follow-up; 3 considered frequency/intensity; and 4 used incentive. The limitations of the current studies include small sample size, the unbalanced gender proportion (most of participants were females), lack of controlling of frequency and intensity, self-reported physical activity, non-validated information and lack of adherence measure of intervention.

CONCLUSIONS: Limited and low-quality data inhibit conducting an accurate evaluation on the effectiveness of worksite walking intervention programs. More theoretical based on studies with strong research design are urgently needed to evaluate the effective of the worksite walking intervention programs.

1837 Board #123 May 29, 2:00 PM - 3:30 PM

Risk Factors of Diseases Associated with Sedentary Lifestyle Among Saudis in Makkah, Saudi Arabia

Tawfeeq Albakry. UQU, Makkah, Saudi Arabia, Makkah, Saudi Arabia.

(No relationships reported)

The aim of this study was to identify the prevalence rates of obesity, overweight, smoking, nature of health-enhancing physical activity, prevalence rates and nature of diseases associated with sedentary lifestyle and their association with obesity and participation of physical activity.

METHOD: A sample of Saudi adults (college students, faculty members, workers, employees, teachers and parents) participated in this study (n=1885 males) and (n= 868 females), with a range of age between 18-60 years, living in Makkah.

The results showed that the prevalence rate of obesity and overweight was 49.11 %, (44.13% for males & 59.9% for females).

In addition, the study showed that there was a significant increase in the prevalence rates of obesity and overweight for males and females especially for those who are 36-40 of age and over for both genders. As for smoking, the prevalence rate was 23.53 % (30.23% for males & 8.98% for females). However, the prevalence rate of smoking for both genders decreased as age increase. Lastly, results revealed that there is a vivid association among obesity, lack of exercise and diseases associated with sedentary lifestyle.

In conclusion, the results indicates that there is an increase in the risk factors contributing to the injury with cardiovascular diseases in Saudis living in Makkah. Thus, health, education and media awareness are required with an extra effort in order to develop a national strategy to combat the spread of these factors, especially among the youth of Saudi society.

1838 Board #124 May 29, 2:00 PM - 3:30 PM

Lifestyle Educational And Counseling Intervention: Effects On Physical Activity, Motivation And Cardiovascular Risk Factors

Ana Ramoa, Lucimere Bohn, Jose Oliveira. University of Porto, Porto, Portugal.

(No relationships reported)

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to assess the impact of a lifestyle educational and counseling intervention in primary health care setting on physical activity (PA) levels, self-determination for PA, weight, body mass index (BMI) waist circumference (WC), and serum C-reactive protein levels (CRP).

METHODS: Seventy two participants, male and female, with moderate to high cardiovascular risk were allocated into two groups: a control group (n= 32; mean age 57.3 ± 6.1) who received usual medical follow up; and an intervention group (n= 40; mean age 57.5 ± 6.2) that participated in an educational and counseling program during 4 months, encompassing group sessions for the management of cardiovascular risk factors and modification of PA behavior and a weekly mobile short text message encouraging PA practice. PA levels, anthropometric variables (weight, BMI, WC), self-determination for PA, and serum CRP levels were assessed at baseline and after 4 months. PA was assessed by accelerometry, and reported as the time spent in sedentary (SEDPA), light (LPA) and moderate to vigorous (MVPA). Self-determination for PA was assessed by questionnaire (BREQ2). Serum levels of CRP were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Comparisons between groups were made using unpaired t-test and the repeated measures ANOVA.

RESULTS: No differences between groups were observed for time spent in SEDPA (p= 0.905; η2= 0.00), LPA (p=0.724; η2= 0.02), MVPA (p= 0.916; η2= 0.00) neither for serum CRP levels (p=0.177; η2= 0.03). Significant group X time interactions were observed for weight (p=0.005; η2= 0.11), BMI (p=0.005; η2= 0.11) and WC (p=0.001; η2= 0.14) without significant mean differences between groups at 4 months. Significant group X time interactions were observed in self-determination for PA (p=0.028; η2= 0.07) with significant differences between groups at 4 months (p<0.05).

CONCLUSIONS: The results of the present study indicate that the education and counseling intervention for an active lifestyle was not effective to promote changes in PA levels, body mass and body composition, although the changes in self-determination for PA.

1839 Board #125 May 29, 2:00 PM - 3:30 PM

Time Course Changes in Power Output between Upper Body and Lower Body Exercises after 7 Weeks of High Velocity Training

Steven Krawczyk, Anoop Balachandran, Melanie Potiaumpai, Jonathan Siegel, Kristine Gandia, Adelola Adeyemo, Joseph Signorile. University of Miami, Coral Gables, FL. (Sponsor: Dr. Arlette Perry, FACSM)

(No relationships reported)

Little is known about time course changes with high-velocity training, especially as they relate to upper versus lower body power output. Given the variability in power declines seen between the upper and lower body musculature, this information is especially important when prescribing targeted exercise interventions.

PURPOSE: This study explored variations in upper and lower body power output improvement patterns across a 7-week high-velocity training period.

METHODS: Before training, subjects were familiarized with the leg press (LP), calf raise (CR), chest press (CP) and triceps pushdown (TPD) equipment (Keiser pneumatic, Keiser Corp, Fresno, CA) on which 1RM and average power (Pave) tests were performed. 1RM was achieved within 5 sets and Pave was assessed at optimal loads of 54%, 68%, 56% and 54%1RM for the LP, CR, CP and TPD, respectively. Training began with 2 adaptation weeks followed by 7 training weeks, 2 days/week starting at optimal loads and increasing by 5% when power outputs for specific exercises plateaued. The training used 3 high-speed circuits of 10-12 repetitions with 2-3 min recovery between circuits.

RESULTS: Repeated ANOVA showed a significant increase in Pave from week 1 to week 7 for LP (199±158, p<.001), CR (75±66, p<.001) and TPD (73±54, p<.001), whereas the increase in CP was not significant (25±39, p>.05). Differences in Pave assessed using Cohen’s d showed a large effect size for LP (d=1.3), CR (d=1), TPD (d=1.4), and a moderate effect size for CP (d=.7).

CONCLUSIONS: This is the first power training study to employ workload progressions based on power plateaus rather than changes in 1RM or an arbitrary number of repetitions. Over the course of 7 weeks, lower body exercises progressed at a higher rate than upper body exercises indicating that variations in the lengths of the training cycles may be necessary to allow maximal adaptations. More investigation is needed concerning possible mechanisms which cause lower body muscles to be more disposed to velocity adaptations than upper body muscles. Additionally, the study results show this novel method of progression is effective and should be investigated using long-term interventions with larger sample sizes.

1840 Board #126 May 29, 2:00 PM - 3:30 PM

Tai Chi As A Body-mind Exercise A Systematic Review

Guozhi Wang. Suzhou University, Suzhou, Jiangsu province, China.

(No relationships reported)

PURPOSE: While Tai Chi as an exercise for general health has been well studied, its role as a body-mind exercise has not been systematically examined. Through a systematic review and meta-analysis, this study examined Tai Chi as a body-mind exercise.

METHODS:Through a search of 8 English (e.g., SpringerLink; Wiley InterScience) and 3 Chinese databases (e.g., CNKI; WanFang Data) Tai Chi Chuan, Taiji, or Tai Chi, studies published up to Sep. 30, 2013 were identified and used for the review. In addition, published reviews and all relevant studies and their reference lists were reviewed in search for other pertinent publications.

RESULTS: Two reviewers independently abstracted data and evaluated the studies of Tai Chi as a body-mind exercise. A total of 90 individual studies were evaluated, with 29 of them reported an improvement in Health Related Quality of Life (HRQL) with Tai Chi practice compared with the control. The meta-analysis results showed that 17 RCTs, enrolling 231 patients with 12 to 15 weeks of Tai Chi therapy, had benefit effects. The pooled effect size (ES) for the physical component score was 0.45 (95% CI: 0.25, 1.07) and for the mental component score was 0.42 (95% CI: 0.27, 0.63), including reduction of stress 0.62 (95% CI: 0.21,1.04), anxiety 0.65(95% CI: 0.28,1.05), and depression 0.54(95% CI: 0.30,0.83), and enhanced mood 0.44 ( 95% CI: 0.23,0.67).

CONCLUSION: The findings reinforced the beneficial association between Tai Chi as a body-mind exercise and its positive physical and mental health benefits.

1841 Board #127 May 29, 2:00 PM - 3:30 PM

The Effect Of Transdermal Nicotine Patch On Energy Expenditure.

Takashi Nakagata, Hisashi Naito, Shizuo Katamoto. Juntendo University, Inzai, Chiba, Japan.

(No relationships reported)

Nicotine patches has been often prescribed for smokers to quit smoking than other nicotine replacement therapy. To date, studies have investigated the effect of nicotine on physiological response, sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous activity, energy expenditure. These studies however used a fixed nicotine gums and nasal spray, so that the effect of transdermal nicotine patch on energy expenditure.

PURPOSE: To examine the effects of transdermal nicotine patch on energy expenditure by using indirect human calorimeter (HC).

METHODS: Eight healthy males aged 23-29 year-old participated in this study. Subjects entered in HC at 19 PM, and stayed until 8 AM the next day on two occasions (went to sleep at 23 PM, got up at 6 AM and then kept sitting on the Chair: quietly for 1 hour). Subjects were administered either a placebo (control) or 14 mg transdermal nicotine patch 21 PM on the left arm using a randomized-order cross-over method. Energy expenditure (EE), respiratory exchange ratio (RER) and heart rate (HR) during staying were measured all the time every minute, we examined sleeping time and resting in the morning.

RESULTS: All measurements during sleeping time were similar between placebo and nicotine. EE and HR during sitting on the Chair: quietly in the morning were significantly higher for nicotine condition investigated compared to control (1.14 vs 1.22 kcal/min, 55.6 vs 64.2 bpm, p<0.05), increased EE was equivalent approximately to 80-100 kcal/day. Transdermal nicotine patch caused an increase in parasympathetic nervous activity seven of eight, although no change was observed in sympathetic nervous activity.

CONCLUSIONS: A 14 mg transdermal nicotine administration resulted in significantly higher EE and HR compared to control during resting via parasympathetic activation.

1842 Board #128 May 29, 2:00 PM - 3:30 PM

Nintendo Wii Badminton vs Real Sport Badminton: A Look at Physiological and Biomechanical Responses

Kathryn E. Sheller, Andrea J. Fradkin, FACSM. Bloomsburg University, Bloomsburg, PA.

(No relationships reported)

Nintendo Wii exergaming has been suggested as an adjunct to increase physical activity levels. However, prior to prescribing exergaming as an effective form of activity, the physiological and biomechanical responses need to be analyzed.

PURPOSE: To compare physiological and biomechanical responses between playing Wii Badminton (WB) compared to the equivalent real world sport of badminton (AB).

METHODS: Forty-eight college age participants (30 males, 18 females) were fitted with a heart rate (HR) monitor and an Actitrainer. Participants performed ten minutes of both WB and AB separated by five minutes of seated rest. In WB, participants played using the intermediate level, whereas in AB, participants played against another person.

RESULTS: There were obvious biomechanical differences, both qualitatively and quantitatively between the two conditions. Specifically, WB burned on average 5.1 calories per minute while eliciting 58.3% of HRmax with a mean HR of 121.0 bpm. Compared to AB against a real-life opponent, WB burned 3.1 calories less per minute, elicited a HR 12.5 bpm less, and produced a HRmax that was 6.0% lower (p<0.05). Resultant accelerations were also shown to be significantly different between conditions (p<0.001). During both conditions, the majority of activity was classified as light intensity (WB 63.4%vs.AB 52.1%); however, there was significantly more moderate intensity activity during AB (WB 36.5%vs.AB 47.6%, p<0.05). Both conditions produced similar amounts of vigorous intensity activity (WB 0.1%vs.AB 0.3%). When investigating gender differences, males were shown to attain significantly higher levels of moderate intensity activity during AB compared to females, and females produced significantly higher levels of moderate intensity activity during WB (p<0.05).

CONCLUSION: Participating in AB provided more cardiovascular and strength benefits than WB, primarily due to AB requiring entire body movements and swinging a racquet with more weight. Regardless, WB was still shown to elicit a suitable workout and could be a viable option for people who can’t find the time or motivation to leave their house and exercise. Although gender differences may be evident, it seems mimicking real sporting movements as closely as possible is the key to attaining the best possible workout on the Wii.

1843 Board #129 May 29, 2:00 PM - 3:30 PM

Lack of Physical Activity Level Alteration Post-Total Knee Arthroplasty

Roger J. Paxton, Stephanie D. Glick, Jennifer E. Stevens-Lapsley, Edward L. Melanson, FACSM, Cory L. Christiansen. University of Colorado-Denver, Aurora, CO.

(No relationships reported)

More than 650,000 total knee arthroplasties are performed annually to alleviate pain and disability associated with osteoarthritis; a chronic, degenerative condition that compromises the quality of life of 37% of adults over age 60. Despite the decrease in knee pain commonly associated with total knee arthroplasty, little is known about subsequent alterations in physical activity level. Inadequate physical activity in total knee arthroplasty patients has previously been found to result in increased weight gain, decreased functional performance, increased incidence and/or progression of co-morbid conditions, and progression of knee/hip osteoarthritis.

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of total knee arthroplasty on physical activity 1 month and 6 months post-surgery as compared to pre-surgery.

METHODS: Fifteen patients with osteoarthritis (aged 68 ± 12 years, 9 females, 6 males, body mass index = 27.14 ± 2.58 kg/m2) undergoing unilateral total knee arthroplasty were enrolled. Physical activity (steps/day) was measured using hip-mounted monitors (ActiGraph GT1M, GT3X) worn for one week, at each time point. Exclusion criteria included other lower limb orthopaedic conditions or neurological impairments expected to act as barriers to physical activity.

RESULTS: Physical activity was unaltered upon comparison of pre-total knee arthroplasty (4,218 ± 2,302 steps/day) to 1 month post- (3,370 ± 1,596 steps/day, p > 0.05) and 6 months post-total knee arthroplasty (4,783 ± 2,116 steps/day, p > 0.05) values.

CONCLUSION: The present findings suggest a lack of increase in physical activity despite previous studies’ indications of significant reduction in knee pain 6 months post-total knee arthroplasty. A need exists for novel interventions aimed at decreasing the incidence and/or progression of co-morbid conditions in patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty. Such interventions may benefit from the inclusion of a behavioral modification program aimed at enhancing self-managed physical activity. Supported by the NIH (K23 AG029978, R01 HD065900).

1844 Board #130 May 29, 2:00 PM - 3:30 PM

Self-Reported vs. Objectively Measured Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior in Former Bariatric Surgery Patients

Kathleen M. Andersen, Tamara E. Carver, Ryan Reid, Ross E. Andersen, FACSM. McGill University, Montreal, QC, Canada.

(No relationships reported)

An active lifestyle with low levels of sedentary time have both been independently associated with the prevention of weight regain in formerly obese individuals. Most guidelines advocate that patients should strive to lead physically active lives and reduce time spent sitting and lying after bariatric surgery. However, little is known about the accuracy of self-reported activity levels in this population.

PURPOSE: The purpose of this investigation was to compare self-reported vs. objectively measured levels of physical activity and sedentary time in patients who had bariatric surgery many years ago.

METHODS: Thirty patients whose age was 51.8±6yrs, current BMI 37.1±7.5 kg/m2 had gastric bypass surgery 9.7±3.9 yrs earlier. They wore ActivPal™ accelerometers for one week and were also asked to fill in the IPAQ physical activity questionnaire. Paired t-tests were used to compare self-reported vs objectively measured reports of sedentary behaviors and physical activity patterns.

RESULTS: Patients reported sitting or lying 3235±1427 min/wk which was significantly less (p=0.002) than the ActivPal measured 4144±865 min/wk. No differences were seen between self-reported weekly minutes of walking (788±571 min/wk) and objectively measured (635±230 min/wk). On average, patients walked 6699±2598 steps per day and only 13% of participants exceeded 10,000 steps per day. No significant relationships between IPAQ reported values and ActivPal measures were observed (all r-values <.27).

CONCLUSIONS: Healthcare professionals should be aware that former bariatric surgery patients may under-report the time that they spend being sedentary. In addition, most patients are not meeting current physical activity recommendations. New strategies are needed to help patients adopt more active lifestyles while simultaneously reducing the time that they spend being sedentary.

1845 Board #131 May 29, 2:00 PM - 3:30 PM

Understanding Weight Management Perceptions in First-Year College Students Using the Health Belief Model

Bhibha M. Das1, Ellen M. Evans, FACSM2. 1East Carolina University, Greenville, NC. 2University of Georgia, Athens, GA.

(No relationships reported)

The young adulthood period is a critical time for establishing health behaviors. Although obesity afflicts all ages within our society, the 18-29 y/o cohort had the greatest increase in obesity prevalence from 1991 to 1998, a trend that held in recent reports. Within this age cohort, over 18 million students are enrolled in colleges and universities throughout the United States. The college population may be more susceptible to weight gain than the general population. Importantly, college students classified as either overweight or obese went from 29% in 2000 to 34.5% in 2009Nearly a quarter of students gain significant weight during their first semester of college, although the magnitude of the weight gain varies in reports. Moreover, although the average American adult gains approximately 0.9 kg/year, college students gain weight at an even high rater, approximately 1.8 to 4.1 kilograms per year. Thus, weight management remains an important health challenge for this population.

PURPOSE: To examine weight management perceptions, using the Health Belief Model, in first-year, mixed-sex college students.

METHODS: Focus groups (n = 6), utilizing the Nominal Group Technique, were conducted to examine perceptions of benefits and barriers to weight management at a large Southern state university. This focus group protocol requires participants to rank the top three ideas or themes from the total generated list of ideas and themes. Thirty-seven first-year college students participated in the focus groups.

RESULTS: First-year students recognize benefits to weight management beyond physical attractiveness to quality of life domains including social (e.g. bonding opportunities and energy to socially engage) and mental health (i.e. stress management). On average, the participants self-assessed their ability to manage their weight as a 4, or very confident but reported not being able to properly manage their weight due to lack of time management skills, knowledge, and motivation.

CONCLUSIONS: College students are challenged by weight management and want the institution to provide resources, including curriculum, to help them manage their physical activity and nutrition behaviors. Supported by USDA 200-55215-18825.

1846 Board #132 May 29, 2:00 PM - 3:30 PM

The Effects Of Resistive Exercise And Macadamia Nut Oil Supplementation On Plasma Lipids Profile In Overweight Women

Adriana C. Levada-Pires, Luis Carlos C. Batista, Cesar Miguel Momesso, Elaine Hatanaka, Maria Elisabeth Passos, Tania Cristina Pithon-Curi, Renata Gorjão. Cruzeiro do Sul University, São Paulo, Brazil.

(No relationships reported)

PURPOSE: The effects of resistive exercise plus macadamia nut oil supplementation on plasma lipids profile, and body composition were investigated in overweight woman (38-56 years old).

METHODS: Sixteen overweight women were in random order divided in two groups. The supplemented group (eight women) received 5 ml of macadamia nut oil daily for four weeks and performed the resistive exercise. The non-supplemented group (eight women) only performed the resistive exercise. The total body mass (kg), Body Mass Index (BMI), body fat, plasma total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein (LDL) and high density lipoprotein (HDL) were determined before and after supplementation period in women at rest.

RESULTS: The characteristics of the non-supplemented group were as follow: initial (before exercise) - body mass: 75.5 ± 4.9 kg, BMI: 31.4 ± 2.9, body fat: 40.77 ± 2.6 % and after exercise performed during four weeks - body mass: 70.0 ± 4.5 kg, BMI: 28.8 ± 4.8, body fat: 40.7 ± 2.6 %. The characteristics of the group supplemented with macadamia nut oil were the follow: initial (before supplementation and exercise) body mass: 77.2 ± 4.6 kg, BMI: 31.2± 5.2, body fat: 39.2 ± 7.4 % and after supplementation and exercise performed during four weeks - body mass: 70.8 ± 6.2 kg, BMI: 28.4 ± 3.2, body fat: 34.1 ± 5.6%. The total cholesterol was significantly lower in macadamia nut oil supplemented group when compared with non-supplemented group. However, there was an increased in HDL cholesterol in both groups. The LDL cholesterol did not alter when comparing two groups.

CONCLUSION: Taken together these results demonstrates that the macadamia oil supplementation plus resistive exercise have the important effect on lipid profile, reducing the total cholesterol and increasing the HDL. Financial support: FAPESP, CAPES and CNPq.

1847 Board #133 May 29, 2:00 PM - 3:30 PM

Effect of Aerobic Exercise on Oxidative Stress Markers in Saliva of Young Women

Jean C. Zambrano1, Ramón A. Marquina1, Yarelis K. Araque1, J-Bonamí Candales2, Thairy G. Reyes-Valero3, Antonio Rodríguez-Malaver1, Rafael A. Reyes-Alvarez1. 1Universidad de Los Andes-Mérida, Mérida, Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of. 2Universidad de Los Andes-Extensión Valle de Mocotíes, Mérida, Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of. 3NOVA Southeastern University, Fort Lauderdale, FL.

(No relationships reported)

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of physical activity (PA) at low intensity and short duration on oxidative stress markers in the saliva of healthy young women.

METHODS: Eleven women (age: 17.1 ± 0.24 years), who participated voluntarily, were assessed 1 hour prior (1 h) and immediately after (IAE) a 12-minute walking test at an intensity between 110-130 beat/min. Subsequent to rinsing the mouth with water, stimulated whole salivary samples were placed into assay tubes and stored at -5ºC. Before analysis, salivary samples were centrifuged at 3,000 rpm for 10 min. Nitrite concentration (a marker of NO production) was measured by the Griess reaction, UA by an enzymatic kit, TAA by the ABTS method and lipid hydroperoxides (a marker of OS) by the FOX method and total protein (TP) by colorimetry.

RESULTS: Immediately after exercise, lipid hydroperoxide levels decreased as compared to 1 h prior (p <0.001). Further, TAA diminished IAE in comparison to 1 h before (p <0.001).

CONCLUSIONS: Although a decrease of TAA is experienced, PA performed at low intensity and short duration reduces lipid hydroperoxide concentration in saliva of young women, suggesting that physical activity performed at that intensity and duration could be beneficial to modulating the risk of diseases associated with OS.

1848 Board #134 May 29, 2:00 PM - 3:30 PM

The Relationship Of Physical Activity In Different Age Groups With Depressive Symptoms In Epilepsy

Simone T. Kishimoto, Hélio Mamoru Yoshida, Nathália Volpato, Fernando Cendes, Paula Teixeira Fernandes. University of Campinas, Campinas, Brazil.

(No relationships reported)

Epilepsy is a chronic neurological condition characterized by recurrent seizures. According to World Health Organization, epilepsy affects approximately 50 million people worldwide. Considered one of the most stigmatizing diseases, patients with epilepsy are often forgotten and neglected, leaving the shores of physical activity and also more exposed to social dysfunction, presenting depressive symptoms.

PURPOSE: To evaluate the relationship between physical activity and depressive symptoms in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy.

METHODS: We interviewed 80 patients, at the Outpatient Clinic of Neurology of Clinical Hospital at UNICAMP, with mean age of 42 years old (range from 18 to 60 years, SD=10), 49 women and 31 men. Patients were divided into three age groups according to the theory of human development: Group A (18 ∼ 20 years), Group B (21 ∼ 40 years) and Group C (41 ∼ 60 years). To the screening for physical activity, was applied the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) and the subjects were divided into two groups: Active and Not Active Group. To assess depressive symptoms, it was applied the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI).

RESULTS: The physical activity was higher in the group C (41 ∼ 60 years) than in groups A and B (p=0.025). Also, this study showed that the rates of depressive symptoms in patients are less active (6,31) compared to the non-active group (16,21) (p=0.001).

CONCLUSION: Through this study, we found that depressive symptoms appear more frequently in patients with epilepsy less active or sedentary, compared to assets. Thus, we can say that physical activity can be used as an important therapeutic approach in the prevention and improvement of depressive symptoms in patients with epilepsy.

1849 Board #135 May 29, 2:00 PM - 3:30 PM

Early-phase Adaptations Of High-velocity Power Training On Functional Performance In Untrained Type 2 Diabetics

Rodrigo Celes, Martim Bottaro, Jane Dullius, Fabiano Schwartz, Saulo Martoreli, André Martorelli, Bruno Fischer, Ari Rodrigo Assunção. University of Brasília, Brasília, Brazil.

(No relationships reported)

Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disease that widely affects functional performance. Physical exercises have been indicated as a no pharmacological method to treat and improve the diabetic’s quality of life. Although, the resistance training, especially, high-velocity power training (PT) has been used to improve strength and functional performance in elderly, there is a lack of scientific evidence regarding the effect of PT on functional performance in diabetics.

PURPOSE: To examine the early-phase effect of high-speed power training on functional performance in untrained type 2 diabetics.

METHODS: 30 untrained type 2 diabetics (12 men and 18 women; 61 ± 10.97 yrs; 28 ± 7.57 BMI) were randomly assigned into one of two groups: 1) Recreational activities (RA; 7 men and 7 women) and high-velocity power training (PT; 5 men and 11 Women). The study was performed 3 days per week for 6 week. RA performed 20 min walk and 10 min of light stretching every workout day. PT consisted of 5 resistance’s training exercises (3 lower body and 2 upper body exercises) with 90 seconds rest interval between sets and exercises. PT subjects were advised to perform the concentric phase of each exercise as fast as possible for 8 repetitions (60% of 1RM). Functional fitness tests were used to evaluate the functional capacity: 1) 6-min walk test; 2) 30-sec Chair: stand test and 3) 3-meters up-and-go test. Statistical evaluation of data was measured using 2 X 2 ANOVA [group (RA and PT) X time (pre and post)]. The significant level was set at 0.05.

RESULTS: The results were as follows:

CONCLUSION: The present study indicated that, high-velocity power training is better than recreational activity to improve functional capacity, especially on lower body strength (30-sec Chair: stand).

1850 Board #136 May 29, 2:00 PM - 3:30 PM

The Influence Of All-out Exercise Upon Aerobic Capacity And Taste Sensitivities.

Yasuto Nakanishi1, Taro Ito2, Yoshimitsu Inoue3. 1Osaka-Aoyama University, Minoh, Japan. 2Mukogawa Women’s University, Nishinomiya, Japan. 3Osaka International University, Moriguchi, Japan.

(No relationships reported)

PURPOSE: To detect the influence of all-out exercise upon aerobic capacity and taste sensitivities.

METHODS: Four healthy young adult males and one female (23.2+5.5 yrs) served as subjects. The exercise load was set to 80% of maximum workload which was attained by each subject during maximum exercise. Experimental set-up consisted of a computer controlled bicycle ergometer (75XLII, Minato Med Sci Co., Osaka, Japan), an automatic respiratory gas analyzing system (S & ME Ltd). The subjects pedaled an ergometer until their exhaustion and re-pedaled it until their exhaustion one more time after 3 minutes rest of the first pedaling. (1) The exercise was practiced two times a week for four weeks. The Aerobic parameters were analyzed using a series of paired t-tests and Wilcoxon signed-rank tests. (2) Sweetness and acidity sensitivities were tested by triangle test method before and after the exercise. Each subject attempted five taste sensitivity tests for the sweetness and acidity before and after the exercise. Distinction rate of two sensitivities for each subject were calculated using inverse sine transformation. The distinction rate of each sensitivity was analyzed by two

way repeated ANOVA (Exercise x Concentration).

RESULTS: Maximal oxygen uptake (2.52+0.74 vs. 2.84+0.67 ml/min, p<0.05), O2pulse (13.3+3.7 vs. 15.0+3.7 l/beat, p<0.05), maximal minute ventilation (93.4+14.0 vs. 110.5+16.5 l/min, p<0.05) were improved after 4-week training. Main effects of both exercise (Fl,4 =14.09, P<0.05) and concentration (F5,20 =40.03, P<0.001) were detected for the acidity sensitivity.

CONCLUSIONS: The aerobic capacity can be improved in 4-week all-out exercise training if total training quantity is fulfilled and acidity sensitivity after the all-out exercise rise significantly.

1851 Board #137 May 29, 2:00 PM - 3:30 PM

Improving Exercise Adherence and Physical Measures in Latina Women

Lorena Martin1, Arlette C. Perry, FACSM2, Joseph F. Signorile2, Andrew W. Perkins3, Barbara E. Kahn4, Soyeon Ahn2. 1University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA. 2University of Miami, Coral Gables, FL. 3University of Western Ontario, London, ON, Canada. 4University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA. (Sponsor: Arlette C Perry, FACSM)

(No relationships reported)

PURPOSE: Epidemiological data show that physical activity participation is lowest in minority women, particularly in Latinas. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of hypertrophy (HT) and power training (PT) used concomitantly with evaluative (EC) or neutral conditioning (NC) on exercise adherence, lean body mass, and psychosocial variables in Latina women. EC is a behavioral method using paired stimuli to develop and strengthen associations in memory.

METHODS: 142 Latina women (mean ± SD, age 36.8±15.9 yrs.) were randomly assigned to HT or PT and then further stratified into EC or NC.

RESULTS: There was a significant training x conditioning interaction for exercise adherence (Fig. 2). For HT, the EC group demonstrated a significantly longer time spent training than the NC group, (F 1, 184 = 11.874, P < 0.001,ηp2 = .061). For PT, there was no significant difference between EC and NC groups in time spent training. Additionally, a significant time x condition interaction was found for lean body mass, (F 1, 76 = 5.138, P < 0.05,ηp2 = .063) (Fig. 3). A significant time x condition interaction was also observed for exercise self-efficacy (p<0.05; Fig. 4). For the EC condition, exercise self-efficacy significantly increased from pretest to post-test, (F 1, 52 = 6.536, P < .05, ηp2 = .112).

CONCLUSION: Both training modality and EC can impact exercise adherence in Latina women.

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1852 Board #138 May 29, 2:00 PM - 3:30 PM

Effects of the Addition of Yoga to a Standard Behavioral Weight Loss Treatment Program

Amy D. Rickman, FACSM, Kelliann K. Davis, John M. Jakicic, FACSM. University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA.

(No relationships reported)

Yoga has become a popular form of physical activity. However, there is little research examining if the addition of yoga to a standard behavioral weight loss program enhances treatment outcomes.

PURPOSE: To examine the effect of yoga plus aerobic exercise (YOGA) versus aerobic exercise only (AR) on eating behaviors in overweight women in a standard behavioral weight loss program.

METHODS: Thirty-seven women (age=46.8±6.0 years; BMI=30.6±2.9 kg/m2) were randomized to the YOGA (n=18) or AR (n=19) intervention group. Both groups received a reduced calorie diet (1200-1500 kcal/wk) through a behavioral modification program. For YOGA only, exercise prescribed was: 40 min/day, 5 days/wk aerobic + 3 days/wk yoga and for AR: 40 min/day, 5 days/wk aerobic. Weight, eating behaviors (Eating Behavior Inventory (EBI) and Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ)), and physical activity (Paffenbarger Questionnaire) were measured at baseline and 6 months.

RESULTS: Chi-square analysis of retention rates revealed 94.7% YOGA completed the intervention vs. 72.2% AR (p=.078). Completers analysis revealed a significant difference in BMI for YOGA (25.9±2.5 kg/m2) vs. AR (26.7±3.6 kg/m2) (p=.046) and a trend towards significance (p=.076) for %weight loss (YOGA: 15.4±5.9% vs. AR: 11.4±6.3%) at 6 months. There were no significant differences between groups when examining EBI, physical activity, disinhibition or hunger (TFEQ). However, differences in cognitive restraint between the groups (YOGA vs. AR) at 6 months approached significance (p=.073).

CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that the addition of yoga to a standard behavioral weight loss intervention may be an alternative strategy to enhance program participation and improve dietary restraint, which may translate into better weight loss outcomes during treatment and potentially maintenance of weight loss long term. Additional research is needed to understand the influence of yoga on weight and weight-related behaviors.

1853 Board #139 May 29, 2:00 PM - 3:30 PM

Effects of a Translational Education-Based Intervention on Health Habits and Weight Maintenance in College Freshmen

Amanda A. Price1, Anthony A. Musto2, Soyeon Ahn2, Arlette C. Perry, FACSM2, Kevin A. Jacobs2. 1Winston-Salem State University, Winston-Salem, NC. 2University of Miami, Coral Gables, FL.

(No relationships reported)

The transition from high school to college is a critical period for weight gain that corresponds to a decline in healthy behaviors. Thus, exploring intervention programs for this population is needed.

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to test the effectiveness of the THINK (Translational Health in Nutrition and Kinesiology) - College Edition program in promoting weight maintenance and favorable anthropometric changes, physical activity (PA), positive nutrition habits, and psychological well-being in college freshmen women.

METHODS: Participants (N=53) were full-time, first-semester, female college students between the ages of 18 and 22 years old, who lived on campus and were interested in participating in a scientific weight management and health promotion program. They were split between intervention (n=26) and control (n=27) groups. The intervention was 8-wks, with 2-h weekly sessions focused upon educating participants on concepts of health, PA, and nutrition. Physical, health, nutrition, and psychological measures were taken at baseline (PRE) and immediately after the intervention (POST).

RESULTS: Only those in the intervention group showed significant improvements in waist circumference (p=.039) and the positive eating habits scale of a health behavior survey (p=.016) between PRE and POST.

CONCLUSIONS: An intervention in the first semester of college can be effective in promoting favorable anthropometric changes and improving eating behaviors. These findings may have important positive health consequences.

Supported by the University of Miami, School of Education and Human Development.

1854 Board #140 May 29, 2:00 PM - 3:30 PM

Are 10,000 Steps Per Day Predictive of Meeting Physical Activity Guidelines?

Lynette L. Craft, FACSM1, Theodore Zderic2, Juned Siddique1, Susan M. Gapstur3, Marc Hamilton2. 1Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL. 2Pennington Biomedical Research Center, Baton Rouge, LA. 3American Cancer Society, Atlanta, GA.

(No relationships reported)

Accumulating 10,000 steps·day-1 has been recommended as a simple guide for meeting the recommendation of 30 min·day-1 of moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity (MVPA). Most studies examining the relationship between step count and MVPA assessed total daily accumulated MVPA, rather than MVPA accumulated in at least 10-minute bouts (as identified in the federal physical activity guidelines). The few studies that addressed the 10-minute bout requirement included highly specialized samples such as Chinese speakers residing in China or individuals with, or at high-risk for, knee osteoarthritis. Thus, it is not clear if those studies’ findings generalize to healthy individuals in the United States.

PURPOSE: To determine the number of steps·day-1 predictive of acquiring 30 minutes·day-1 of MVPA accumulated in at least 10-minute bouts.

METHODS: We recruited 91 healthy women, aged 40-75 years, from a mammography clinic at Northwestern Memorial Hospital in Chicago, Illinois. Women completed demographic and lifestyle questionnaires and had their height and weight measured. Participants wore an ActivPal monitor for seven days following enrollment. The ActivPal contains an accelerometer, inclinometer, and step count functions. It is validated for the assessment of sedentary and ambulatory behaviors. Minutes·day-1 of MVPA, accumulated in at least 10-minute bouts, and total steps·day-1 were generated from the ActivPal data. Receiver operating curve (ROC) analyses were used to determine the number of steps·day-1 that most accurately predict the 30-minute MVPA recommendation.

RESULTS: Participants averaged 53 years of age (SD=9.2), with a mean body mass index (BMI) of 26.9 (SD = 6.3). Participants achieved the MVPA recommendation (> 30 minutes) on 30% of monitored days and had an average daily step count of 9663 steps (SD = 5044). ROC analyses indicated an optimal threshold of 10,500 steps and resulted in 78% sensitivity and 75% specificity for identifying participants who accumulated at least 30 minutes·day-1 of MVPA in at least 10-minute bouts.

CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that in a sample of healthy middle and older-aged women, approximately 10,500 steps·day-1 could be used as a guide to achieve the MVPA recommendation. Subgroup differences in optimal steps·day-1, based on BMI, will also be presented.

1855 Board #141 May 29, 2:00 PM - 3:30 PM

Effects of Acute Exercise and Cardiorespiratory Fitness on BDNF and Task Switch Performance in Adults

Shih-Wen Huang1, Feng-Ying Chou1, Chia-Liang Tsai1, Chien-Yu Pan2, Chun-Hao Wang1. 1National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan. 2National Kaohsiung Normal University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan.

(No relationships reported)

Thus far, there seem to have been no studies on exploring the relationship between changes in behavioral and electrophysiological performance and serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels after a bout of moderate acute aerobic exercise in young adults with different levels of cardiorespiratory fitness.

PURPOSE: To examine behavioral and electrophysiological indices after acute aerobic exercise and to understand the potential mechanisms of the effects of such exercise using the BDNF biochemical index in young adults with different cardiorespiratory fitness levels when performing a task switching paradigm.

METHODS: Fifty-four undergraduate students were classified into the high-fit group (HF, n=18) and the low-fit group (LF, n= 18) based on their VO2max levels, and non-exercise-intervention (control) group. All participants performed a task switching paradigm coupled with event-related potential recording, and the blood was withdrawn before and after an acute bout of 30-minute moderate intensity aerobic exercise.All independent variables were separately analyzed with a repeated-measures ANOVA.

RESULTS: Both HF and LF groups exhibited faster reaction time across trial types (switch trial: 746.00±169.20 vs. 635.89±159.68 ms; non-switch trial: 625.77±144.62 vs. 556.50±128.08 ms; both ps<0.001) after acute exercise. In terms of ERPs, the HF group showed greater P3 amplitude relative to the LF group in the post-exercise session (HF: 11.33±5.53 vs. LF: 7.40±5.11μV, p<0.05) but not in the pre-exercise session. In addition, elevated BDNF levels (86.76±71.25 vs. 54.47±36.30 pg/ml, p<0.05) were only shown in the HF group after acute exercise. However, there were no significant correlations among the changes in BDNF levels and behavioral and ERPs performances with acute exercise.

CONCLUSIONS: Young adults with higher cardiorespiratory fitness showed particular neural efficiency regarding the attentional allocation after acute aerobic exercise when performing the task switch paradigm. However, such a beneficial effect could not be attributed to the changes in BDNF levels.

1856 Board #142 May 29, 2:00 PM - 3:30 PM

Midday Moves: Initiative to Promote Activity in an Urban University

Michelle B. Stockton, Marian Levy, Barbara S. McClanahan, Robynn Hopkins, James Vest, Jasmine Ellis, Marshall Varnum, II, Rosie P. Bingham. University of Memphis, Memphis, TN. (Sponsor: Heather Chambliss, FACSM)

(No relationships reported)

PURPOSE: Physical inactivity imposes significant health and economic burdens on individuals, communities and society. Recognizing the potential of organizational influence on individual decisions, the university president and vice president of student affairs of a large metropolitan university charged an established interdisciplinary initiative “Memphis Healthy U” (MHU) with providing a daily opportunity for students, faculty and staff to participate in physical activity.

METHODS: In response to the administrative charge, MHU used the stages of the Preceed-Proceed model to inform the development, implementation and evaluation of a new program, “Midday Moves” (MM). In consideration of the priority population and potential predisposing, enabling and reinforcing factors, MHU developed and prioritized goals; hired graduate assistants to coordinate the day-to-day operations; engaged stakeholders; established shared responsibility for activity leadership across colleges, departments, and the community; constructed a website; developed a marketing strategy; established timelines; and developed process and outcome evaluations.

RESULTS: To promote an organizational culture of health, shared responsibility for physical activity leadership was established across campus. Seventeen university departments and community organizations participated in program implementation. A variety of activities (i.e. yoga, football toss, Tai Chi, zumba, etc.) have been implemented during the first semester of MM. Over a 9-week period, 1,491 participants have attended a MM event, with an average of 33 participants per session. During a recent MM event, the University of Memphis has unofficially set a Guinness World Record for the most people doing a sit-up for 1 minute with 402 participants. Qualitative feedback concluded that the activities hosted are fun and that participants want to continue to attend.

CONCLUSIONS: Individuals are influenced by their surroundings. The development and implementation of health promoting strategies may lead organizations to establishing a culture of health and encouraging employees, students and the community to be more active. MM is an environmental strategy that supports a sustainable model for the creation of a campus culture of health and associated benefits.

1857 Board #143 May 29, 2:00 PM - 3:30 PM

A Comparison of Body Mass Index Classifications and Health and Fitness Outcomes of College Students

Jamie Aweau, Brady S. Redus, Trey Cone, III. University of Central Oklahoma, Edmond, OK.

(No relationships reported)

Having a body mass index (BMI) categorized as overweight or obese can lead to metabolic diseases, cardiovascular diseases, and overall reduced health outcomes. Individuals who have an above normal BMI classification at a younger age have an even higher risk of developing these diseases.

PURPOSE: To compare the BMI classifications of college students with health and fitness measures.

METHODS: Subjects were college students (n = 56) enrolled in kinesiology and health studies classes during the fall 2011 or the spring 2012 semesters. The subjects were fitness tested utilizing Polar TriFIT® 700 integrated health management system. This included BMI, blood pressure, resting heart rate, bicep strength, sit and reach, 12 minute run/walk, and body composition (bio-electrical impedance scale). For each participant the Polar TriFIT® generated an overall fitness score from each of the 7 tests administered. The Polar TriFIT® 700 categorized each subject in one of 5 levels of fitness classifications (0-20 poor, 21-40 fair, 41-60 average, 61-80 good, 81-100 excellent). BMI data were separated into two groups for statistical testing: Underweight/Normal (UN) and Overweight/Obese 1/Obese 2/Obese 3 (O). The UN and O groups were compared against the measurements for systolic blood pressure, VO2max, resting heart rate, and overall fitness.

RESULTS: On average, the O group had significantly lower overall fitness scores (55.9 ± 12.2) than the UN group (70.1 ± 7.6), t(54) = 5.3, p < .001. Systolic blood pressure was higher in the O group (128.6 ± 15.5 mmHg) than the UN group (120.9 ± 15.4 mmHg) and approached significance, t(54) = -1.85, p = .069. There were no significant differences found between the O and UN groups for VO2max or resting heart rate.

CONCLUSIONS: Significantly lower overall fitness scores for the O group indicate a reduced level of physical activity, which is a known contributor to higher body composition, metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. Although the difference in systolic blood pressure was not statistically significant, it is noteworthy because the average systolic blood pressure of the O group would be clinically classified as prehypertension.

1858 Board #144 May 29, 2:00 PM - 3:30 PM

Evaluation of Community Based Participatory Research in Building Active Community Environments

Barbara S. McClanahan1, Michelle B. Stockton1, William R. McClanahan2. 1University of Memphis, Memphis, TN. 2City of Bartlett, Bartlett, TN. (Sponsor: Heather Chambliss, FACSM)

(No relationships reported)

PURPOSE: Recommendations to build activity-friendly spaces have recently emerged to combat the enormous health and economic burden of physical inactivity. The Partnership for Active Community Environments (PACE) utilized Community Based Participatory Research (CBPR) to take action toward building activity friendly spaces within an urban-sprawl metropolitan area. After establishing the ‘community’ to be interdisciplinary built environment professionals, a plan was developed to document the CBPR process and perceptions about 1) involvement in decision-making, 2) incorporation of community perspective in action items, 3) promotion of communication across disciplines, 4) enhancement of movement toward building activity friendly spaces, and 5) confidence in the process to result in positive outcomes.

METHODS: Multiple methods were used to document perceptions across three levels [investigative team (n = 5), interdisciplinary advisory board (n = 11), community participants (n = 175)], including key informant interviews, focus groups and survey responses. Responses were assessed and emerging patterns from interviews and focus group transcripts were categorized according to salient themes.

RESULTS: Ratings for participation in the decision-making process, action item identification, and communication was high for all three groups. Conversely, ratings of confidence in the process leading positive outcomes was uniformly low and reflected perceptions of a large dependence on external funds. Several critical issues emerged including heavy dependence on external funding, the imposition of funding agency guidelines on the process, the need for increased guidance by health professionals and increased need for data to document need and progress.

CONCLUSIONS: CBPR emerged as an attractive process for the research team, advisory board, and community participants for gaining community insight, involvement, and prioritizing action items. All groups viewed the CBPR process as positive and inclusive; however, concerns about progress being negatively impacted by external funding resources and requirements were noted. A follow-up evaluation will assess the effectiveness of the CBPR process on the development and implementation of policies aimed at building activity friendly spaces.

1859 Board #145 May 29, 2:00 PM - 3:30 PM

An Onsite Corporate Health Initiative Program Reduces Metabolic Syndrome Risk Factors

Melinda W. Valliant, Bethany Garner, John C. Garner. The University of Mississippi, University, MS.

(No relationships reported)

Corporate health initiatives are gaining momentum as health care costs surge. Metabolic Syndrome is commonly used within corporations to assess the health of their employees and look for ways to reduce health related costs. A well-designed worksite wellness program has the capacity to greatly improve the health and well-being of participants, thus improving their productivity.

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate participation in a corporate wellness program and the result of participation on risk factors for metabolic syndrome.

METHODS: Data from program participants collected in January 2011 and July 2013 were analyzed. Data evaluated included Body Mass Index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), blood glucose (BG), triglycerides (TG), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL), low density lipoprotein (LDL) and blood pressure (BP). To test for statistical significance of differences in biometrical outcomes, paired sample t tests between pre and post assessments were utilized.

RESULTS: Data comparisons resulted in a statistically significant improvement (p < 0.001) in BMI, WC, LDL and (p< 0.01) in BG, HDL, TG of participants (n=86) (individual coaching and group fitness) . Further evaluation of participation revealed that those who attended individual coaching sessions more frequently showed the greatest improvement in the analyzed biometrics (correlation 0.88) compared to group fitness participation (0.71). However, those who participated in both showed the greatest improvement and strongest correlation (0.90).

DISCUSSION: Based on the results reported to the manufacturing plant, more new participants are joining the initiative. This may provide the opportunity to have a greater impact on employee health of the plant as a whole. Consideration should be made to encourage participation in both individual and group activities to facilitate improvement in overall health.

1860 Board #146 May 29, 2:00 PM - 3:30 PM

Low-volume Aerobic Interval Exercise For Sedentary Adults: VO2max, Cardiac Mass And Heart Rate Recovery

Tomoaki Matsuo1, Kousaku Saotome2, Satoshi Seino2, Miki Eto2, Nobutake Shimojo2, Akira Matsushita2, Motoyuki Iemitsu3, Hiroshi Ohshima4, Kiyoji Tanaka, FACSM2, Chiaki Mukai4. 1National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health, Japan, Kawasaki, Japan. 2University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Japan. 3Ritsumeikan University, Kusatsu, Japan. 4Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, Tsukuba, Japan.

(No relationships reported)

It is unclear whether high-intensity interval exercise has a greater impact on VO2max, cardiac mass, and heart rate recovery (HRR) when performed for a substantially shorter duration and at a lower volume compared with traditional, moderate-intensity continuous exercise.

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to compare the effects of high-intensity interval aerobic training (HIAT) on VO2max, left ventricular (LV) mass and HRR with moderate-intensity continuous aerobic training (CAT) in sedentary adults.

METHODS: Twenty-four healthy but sedentary male adults (aged 29.2 ± 7.2 years; baseline VO2max 40.0 ± 8.0 ml·kg-1·min-1) participated in an 8-week, 3 days/week, supervised exercise intervention. They were randomly assigned to one (n = 12) of two groups: HIAT consisting of three sets of 3-min cycling at 80∼85% VO2max with a 2-min active rest at 50% VO2max between sets (13 min, 180 kcal); and CAT consisting of 40 min of cycling at 60∼65% VO2max (40 min, 360 kcal). VO2max, LV mass (3T-MRI), and HRR at 1 min (HRR-1) and 2 min (HRR-2) after maximal exercise were measured pre- (PRE) and post- (POST) intervention.

RESULTS: No significant differences were found in any values at baseline between the two groups. There were significant (P <0.05) changes in VO2max (HIAT, 8.7 ± 3.2 ml, 22.4 ± 8.9%; CAT, 5.5 ± 2.8 ml, 14.7 ± 9.5%) and resting HR (HIAT, -9.0 ± 5.4 bpm, -13.1 ± 7.5%; CAT, -5.1 ± 6.4 bpm, -6.8 ± 8.8%) in both groups, while the VO2max improvement with HIAT was greater than with CAT (P = 0.02). LV mass in HIAT increased (5.1 ± 8.4 g, 5.7 ± 9.1%, P = 0.05) but not in CAT (0.9 ± 7.8 g, 1.1 ± 8.4%, P = 0.71). No significant changes were observed for HRR-1 in both HIAT and CAT. In the HIAT group, however, HRR-2 was significantly (P < 0.01) greater at POST (65.4 ± 9.7 bpm) than at PRE (55.9 ± 11.1 bpm). In the CAT group, there was no significant change for HRR-2 (PRE, 59.1 ± 9.7 bpm; POST, 60.7 ± 9.7 bpm). The change in HRR-2 for HIAT (9.5 ± 6.4 bpm, 19.0 ± 16.0%) was significantly (P = 0.03) greater than for CAT (1.6 ± 10.9 bpm, 3.9 ± 16.2%).

CONCLUSIONS: This study found that the impact of HIAT on VO2max and HRR, despite a lower volume and shorter duration, was greater than that of CAT. This suggests that HIAT has potential as a time-efficient training mode to improve VO2max and HRR in sedentary adults.

1861 Board #147 May 29, 2:00 PM - 3:30 PM

Characteristics Of Walking Group Leaders Versus Members In A Community-based Study

Sara Wilcox, FACSM, Melinda Forthofer, Patricia A. Sharpe, Brent Hutto. University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC.

(No relationships reported)

PURPOSE: Little is known about the characteristics of individuals who volunteer to be walking group leaders. This study compared walking group leaders to members on sociodemographic, health, attitudinal, and behavioral variables.

METHODS: Sumter County On The Move! (SCOTM!) is a community-based program that uses strategies for mobilizing, supporting, and reinforcing existing social networks to increase walking. Residents of Sumter County, SC interested in becoming walking group leaders were recruited to form groups of 4 to 8 members. Although those with medical contraindications to exercise were excluded, no exclusion criterion based on exercise level was used. At baseline, leaders and members completed a survey assessing sociodemographic, health, attitudinal, and behavioral variables and wore an Actigraph accelerometer for one week. Leaders and members were compared using chi-square analyses for categorical variables and t-tests for continuous variables.

RESULTS: The sample included 294 adults (85% women, 67% African American, 45% college or technical school graduate, 52% married, 75% employed). Walking group leaders (n=64) were similar to members (n=230) with respect to most sociodemographic characteristics (race, sex, education), and in self-rated health and body mass index, but were somewhat older (52.1 vs. 48.6 years, p=.06). Although leaders and members did not differ with respect to the proportion of time spent in sedentary behavior or moderate-to vigorous-intensity PA, leaders reported higher levels of self-regulation for goal setting (2.8 vs. 2.4, p=.003), greater exercise self-efficacy (4.6 vs. 4.0, p=.003), and greater exercise social support (2.7 vs. 2.4, p = .004) than members. Walking group leaders also reported greater use of outdoor trails (5.5 vs. 3.9 days, p=.06) and other outdoor recreation areas (5.0 vs. 3.1 days, p=.02) for PA in a typical month than did members.

CONCLUSIONS: Although individuals who enrolled as walking group leaders were no more active than those recruited as members and did not differ appreciably by sociodemographic characteristics or health status, leaders did appear to be more ready for change. The study will examine how leader characteristics relate to member changes in PA over time.

Supported by grant U48/DP001936 from the CDC.

1862 Board #148 May 29, 2:00 PM - 3:30 PM

A Comparison of High Velocity versus Low Velocity Resistance Training among Balance Confidence and ESE

Cody C. Sodowsky, Antonio Ross, Melissa Powers, Paul House. University of Central Oklahoma, Edmond, OK.

(No relationships reported)

Falls are a considerable health problem among the elderly population.

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to determine if high-velocity resistance training improves balance confidence and exercise self-efficacy more than low-velocity resistance training. It was expected that high-velocity training would have a greater impact on balance confidence and exercise-self efficacy than low-velocity training.

METHODS: A group of 14 participants (age 71 +/- 6 years) were randomly assigned to a high-velocity (HV; n=6) or low velocity (LV; n=8) resistance training group. HV group were instructed to “lift as quickly as possible”. The LV group lifted over a 2-3 second period. The participates trained for 12 weeks at 60% of 1-repetition maximum. The subjects completed eight exercises that

targeted all major muscle groups. The Activities-specific Balance Confidence Scale and the Self-efficacy for Exercise Scale were administered at baseline, 6-weeks, and 12 weeks. Repeated measures ANOVA were used to analyze differences between groups over time

RESULTS: Researchers found no significant interaction or main effects for balance confidence or exercise self-efficacy (p > .05). Due to the small sample size, univariate effect sizes were calculated for each variable. A small decrease in balance confidence occurred over the 12 weeks (d = 0.30), while a moderately large effect was observed for exercise self-efficacy (d = 0.81).

CONCLUSION: In this study, both high and low velocity resistance training resulted in a slight decline in balance confidence and exercise self-efficacy. The decline may be due to the fact that participants were high functioning and began with high levels of confidence and self-efficacy. The resistance training intervention may have made participants more aware of their balance and activity limitations. Some of the limitations of this study include high functioning participants, small sample size, and short time frame of the study (12 weeks).

1863 Board #149 May 29, 2:00 PM - 3:30 PM

Influence of Providing a Pedometer and Physical Activity Literature on Weekly Physical Activity and Fitness

Clarence M. Lee, Susan Forsman, Marialice Kern, FACSM. San Francisco State University, San Francisco, CA.

(No relationships reported)

PURPOSE: To evaluate the influence of providing individuals with a walking kit, consisting of a pedometer and information on the health benefits of walking, on their physical activity (PA) and physical fitness.

METHODS: Thirty-five apparently healthy adults (age: 47.5±10 yr ; 4 males) were recruited from the San Francisco Bay Area. After giving written informed consent, participants were assessed for body mass index (BMI), waist and hip circumference, resting blood pressure, and 1-mile walk time. Furthermore, questionnaires were used to examine weekly PA and current stage of change (STG) according to the Transtheoretical Model. Participants were then randomized into 4 groups. G1 was given the complete walking kit, consisting of a pedometer and a booklet highlighting current PA recommendations, the health benefits of walking, and maps of neighborhood walks; G2 was given the booklet only; G3 was given the pedometer only; and G4 served as a control group. Participants returned for post-testing, which was identical to the pre-testing, 12 weeks later. The pre-posttest data were analyzed using a 4 x 2 (group x time) ANOVA and post-hoc analysis was used to further examine differences when significance as found. All tests were considered significant at the 0.05 level.

RESULTS: There was a significant group*time interaction on 1-mile walk time such that G1 exhibited a significant improvement in walk time (pre: 961.3±34 s; post: 910.9±36 s), whereas the other groups did not. There were also main effects of time on PA and STG such that all groups improved over the 12-week period [PA (kcal/wk): G1: 1831± 440 to 3054±534, G2: 1954±343 to 2992±415, G3: 2971±492 to 3888±657, G4: 1624±314 to 2178±450; STG: G1: 3.2±0.5 to 3.9±0.4, G2: 4.1±0.3 to 4.7±0.3, G3: 3.9±0.3 to 4.6±0.2, G4: 3.1±0.4 to 4.3±1]. There were no significant interactions or main effects of time on BMI, circumference measures, or resting blood pressure.

CONCLUSION: Providing individuals with both a pedometer and information about PA and the health benefits of walking, results in improved 1-mile walk time, suggesting both are useful in improving aerobic fitness. However, since all groups increased their weekly PA and progressed in STG, it’s possible that an increased awareness of the benefits of PA is enough of a stimulus to facilitate an increase in PA.

1864 Board #150 May 29, 2:00 PM - 3:30 PM

Computer Based Health Management System and Overall Optimism in College Age Students

Trey Cone, III, Brady S. Redus. University of Central Oklahoma, Edmond, OK.

(No relationships reported)

PURPOSE: To determine if college age students who have higher fitness scores when measured by a health management system (Polar TriFIT® 700) also have increased levels of optimism.

METHODS: Subjects were college students (n = 56) enrolled in a major within the Kinesiology and Health Studies Department at the University of Central Oklahoma during the fall 2011 or the spring 2012 semesters. Subjects’ optimism was measured prior to completing the fitness testing by the Life Orientation Test-Revised (LOT-R). The LOT-R has a scoring range between 0-40, with higher scores indicating higher levels of optimism. The subjects were fitness tested utilizing Polar TriFIT® 700 integrated health management system. This included body mass index, blood pressure, resting heart rate, bicep strength, sit and reach, 12 minute run/walk, and body composition (bio-electrical impedance scale). For each participant the Polar TriFIT® generated an overall fitness score from each of the 7 tests administered. The Polar TriFIT® 700 categorized each subject in one of 5 levels of fitness classifications (0-20 poor, 21-40 fair, 41-60 average, 61-80 good, 81-100 excellent).

RESULTS: Pearson correlation revealed that a significant correlation exists for college age students (r =.544, p =.002) between the measure of overall fitness (63.8 ± 12.1) and levels of optimism (16.04 ± 5.1).

CONCLUSIONS: Finding a correlation between fitness scores and levels of optimism suggests that physical activity could be a mechanism for improvement of mood and mental wellness.

1865 Board #151 May 29, 2:00 PM - 3:30 PM

Active Wii Gaming Reduces Exercise Induced Muscle Pain

Keith Naugle1, Sukyoon Chang2, Kelly M. Naugle1, Jeffrey J. Parr3. 1University of Florida, Gainesville, FL. 2Baylor School, Chattanooga, TN. 3University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA.

(No relationships reported)

Experimental studies showing that acute exercise reduces sensitivity to painful stimuli typically use exogenous pain induction methods involving thermal or pressure stimulation. Little is known regarding the analgesic effect of exercise on exercise-induced delayed-onset muscle pain, which is considered a more clinically relevant model of acute pain. Further, no studies have examined whether exercise with active gaming can produce an analgesic effect.

PURPOSE: To determine whether active gaming or light concentric exercise (LCE) produce an analgesic effect on exercise-induced muscle pain.

METHODS: Thirty healthy young adults completed an eccentric exercise protocol of the non-dominant elbow flexors to induce delayed onset muscle pain. Subjects were then randomized into one of three interventions (10 subjects per group): 1) active gaming (Wii Boxing), 2) light concentric exercise (LCE) (constant elbow flexion and extension with 1lb resistance), or 3) a control condition (quiet rest). Subjects completed 20 minutes of the intervention 24 hours after the eccentric exercise protocol. The following measures were taken prior to the eccentric exercise protocol, and pre and post intervention on Day 1: pain free elbow flexion and extension range of motion (PF-ROM), pressure pain thresholds on the bicep (PPT), muscle pain ratings during flexion and extension (0-100 scale), and pain using the Brief Pain Inventory (BPI: 0-10 scale). An Intervention × Time (pre/post on Day 1) ANOVA with repeated measures on Time was conducted on each pain measure.

RESULTS: Wii boxing significantly 1) increased PF-ROM during elbow flexion (pre=144.7o, post=146.8o; p<.05), 2) increased PPT’s (pre=2.37kg, post=2.83kg; p<.05), 3) reduced pain during elbow flexion (pre=23.6, post=16.0; p <.05) and extension ( pre=25.3, post=18.4; p <.05). LCE significantly decreased PF-ROM during elbow flexion (pre=146.3o, post=144.3o; p<.05) and increased worst pain as reported on the BPI (pre=3.24, post=4.28; p<.05). No significant changes were found for the control group.

CONCLUSION: Movement of the painful muscles using Wii boxing temporarily reduced the perception of exercise-induced muscle pain. Active gaming may be a valuable tool in reducing other types of painful conditions. However, the LCE group did not produce an analgesic effect.

1866 Board #152 May 29, 2:00 PM - 3:30 PM

A Comparison of Providing Services to Individuals with Disabilities in a Rural and Urban Area

Ashley Walker, Moya Alfonso, Li Li, FACSM, Kristina Kendall, Gavin Colquitt, Theophile Dipita. Georgia Southern University, Statesboro, GA.

(No relationships reported)

Adolescents with disabilities report lower self-perceived quality of life and poor health outcomes due to disparities such as access to community resources. Both young people with intellectual disabilities and their families have less access to health-related services. Due to the existence of barriers due locality (i.e. rural versus urban) and disability status, a deeper understanding of the interplay of these barriers is needed.

PURPOSE: To examine barriers and facilitators to providing services to individuals with disabilities in a rural versus urban area.

METHODS: Individual interviews were conducted by trained facilitators with service provides in one rural county in southeast Georgia (N = 12) and in one urban county in north central Georgia (N = 11). Each interviewer used an interview guide adapted from the National Survey of Children with Special Health Care Needs 2009-2010. The guides covered questions specific to the families and barriers and facilitators to services. All interviewers were recorded for transcription. An a-priori code list was created based on the interview guide. Additional codes were added after the initial coding. Once a final code list was developed, all transcripts were coded. Content analysis was used to identify emergent themes and supporting quotes.

RESULTS: Content analysis of the transcriptions revealed 12 emergent themes in each contexts. Both rural and urban service providers indicated that families of children with disabilities faced many challenges. Service providers in the rural area reported facing complex barriers to providing services to families of youth with disabilities including cost, lack of insurance, and lack of transportation. Families in the rural area faced additional barriers to opportunities for physical activity within the community that in turn affected their motivation to access needed services. Although service providers in the urban area faced difficulties in providing services, many of their clients had at least partial access to the services they needed.

CONCLUSIONS: Professionals in rural areas face multiple, complex barriers to providing services to families of children with disabilities.

1867 Board #153 May 29, 2:00 PM - 3:30 PM

Health Promotion Efforts as Predictors of Opportunities for Physical Activity

Elizabeth M. Glowacki1, Erin E. Centeio2, Daniel J. Van Dongen1, Russell L. Carson3, Aaron Beighle4, Darla M. Castelli1. 1University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX. 2Wayne State University, Detroit, MI. 3Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA. 4University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY.

(No relationships reported)

Enacting a comprehensive school physical activity program (CSPAP) is an effective way to address obesity in this country by ensuring that students partake in at least 60 minutes of physical activity (PA) a day.

PURPOSE: Grounded in the diffusion of innovations model, the purpose of this study was to identify how in- and out-of-school promotions of health facilitate students’ opportunities for PA.

METHOD: Physical education (PE) teachers (N=256) nationwide were recruited to complete the CSPAP Index that was designed to identify teachers who were providing opportunities for PA within a school setting. A three-step hierarchical linear regression was used to predict the relationship between promotion of PA and the number of PA opportunities offered within a school context. In the first step, teacher gender and years of experience were simultaneously entered as covariates; in the second step, school setting (urban/rural) was entered; in the third step, teachers’ reported level of PA promotion within six different areas (PE, before school, during school, after school, among staff, and family and community members) were simultaneously entered.

RESULTS: The regression analysis revealed that the total number of PA opportunities offered was significantly predicted by teachers’ promotion of PA. Gender and years of experience were significant covariates, F (2,253) = 1.15, p=0.35. When rural/urban teaching environments were added on the second block, the prediction model was statistically significant, F (3,252) = 8.34, p<0.001, adj. R2 = 0.08. The third model increased substantially in its predictive power, F (9,246) = 16.93, p<0.001, adj. R2 = 0.36, with the strongest predictors being promotion of PA for family and community (=0.33, p<0.001), promotion of PA for staff members (=0.18, p<0.01), promotion of PA during the school day (=0.12, p<0.05), and promotion of PA before school (=0.12, p<0.05). Promotion of PE and PA after school were not significant predictors.

CONCLUSIONS: Given the predictive power of the promotion variables, in order to increase PA engagement, a greater emphasis should be placed on promotion and communication that extends beyond the student level. This support for a CSPAP highlights the importance of family, staff, and community member involvement when trying to increase PA engagement among students.

1868 Board #154 May 29, 2:00 PM - 3:30 PM

Influence of Pedometers on Habitual Physical Activity Patterns in Patients with Vascular Disease

Heather Hayes Betz1, Jonathan Myers, FACSM2, Alyssa Jaffe2, Kimberly Smith2, Ronald Dalman3. 1Albion College, Albion, MI. 2VA Palo Alto Health Care System, Palo Alto, CA. 3Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA.

(No relationships reported)

Pedometers have long been used to measure physical activity, while also motivating individuals to be more active. Access to pedometers has increased, allowing widespread use in a variety of populations, including those with vascular disease. However, little is known regarding the impact of the conditions surrounding issuing a pedometer, i.e., are directions given, are the goals of wearing a pedometer explained, etc.

PURPOSE: To explore the influence of pedometers, with no additional information, direction, or encouragement, on the level of daily physical activity in patients with vascular disease.

METHODS: Subjects included males (n=45) and females (n=5) (mean age 70.9+/-7.4 years) with abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) disease from the AAA STOP trial. Subjects in the No Contact (NC) group (n=25) were mailed a packet containing a pedometer, 12 monthly log sheets, and 12 postage-paid return envelops. No letter or instructions were included. Interviews were conducted at the 12-month follow-up visit to ascertain information regarding use of the pedometer, i.e., benefits/barriers to exercise, ease of use, etc. Subjects in the Exercise Treatment (ET) group (n=25) received their pedometers at their first study visit, at which time the pedometers were set up for each individual and goals were discussed. Additionally, they received weekly follow-up and reminders to use their pedometers and increase their daily physical activity.

RESULTS: Twelve of the 25 (48%) subjects in the NC group returned >6 monthly logs. Energy expenditure (kcals/week) significantly differed between the NC and ET groups at both the 12-month (1331.8+/-244.1 kcals/week vs. 2357.3+/-369.6 kcals/week, p=0.024, respectively) and 24-month follow-up (1053.6+/-227.3 kcals/week vs. 2371.9+/-434.6 kcals/week, p=0.010, respectively). There were no significant differences at either follow-up between those in the NC group who turned in >6 monthly logs and those who didn’t. Only 8% (2/25) in the NC group stated that they changed their exercise routine due to wearing the pedometer, while 16% (4/25) stated that they increased their exercise volume due to wearing the pedometer.

CONCLUSION: The mere act of receiving a pedometer, without encouragement, guidance, or goals, did not aid in increasing daily physical activity in adults with vascular disease.

1869 Board #155 May 29, 2:00 PM - 3:30 PM

Changes in Intensity of Physical Activity during a University Incentive-Based Weight Loss Challenge

Jessica E. Mospan1, James M. Pivarnik, FACSM2, Jeremy L. Knous1. 1Saginaw Valley State University, University Center, MI. 2Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI.

(No relationships reported)

With health care costs for conditions associated with excess weight exceeding $200 billion/year and new laws for health care required by employers, strategic options to decrease these costs are necessary. Worksite health and wellness programs across the nation have been eager to offer employees programs which promote healthy lifestyles to decrease the prevalence of overweight, obesity, and other chronic disease risk factors.

PURPOSE: To determine if moderate (MPA), vigorous (VPA), and/or total physical activity (TPA) increased and was related to weight loss during a university incentivized Weight Loss Challenge (WLC).

METHODS: Following the WLC, 6 males and 16 females completed a survey which evaluated MPA and VPA participation prior to and during the challenge. MET/MIN were used to quantify amount of PA (MPA=4 METS, VPA=6 METS). TPA was calculated by adding MPA and VPA. The following variables were created: MET/MIN for MPA, VPA, and TPA prior to and during the WLC, and the change in MET/MIN between like intensities prior to and during the WLC. Additionally, change in pre-post WLC weight was calculated. A t-test was conducted to determine if the change in weight post WLC was significantly different from pre WLC values. Also, a t-test compared the like intensity variables prior to and during the WLC. Finally, correlations were run between each intensity variable versus change in weight to determine any relationships between intensity and weight change.

RESULTS: Weight significantly decreased over the WLC (-6.8±7.8 lbs.). VPA MET/MIN increased significantly (ρ=0.0029), while MPA MET/MIN decreased and TPA MET/MIN increased, but neither were statistically significant (ρ=0.8499, ρ=0.1101 respectively). When variables were correlated with change in weight, none displayed a significant relationship (r=0.010788-r=0.38735).

CONCLUSION: Overall, since TPA did not significantly increase, MPA decreased, and VPA increased significantly, it is possible that participants substituted time spent in MPA with VPA to attempt to increase daily energy expenditure. Additionally, although questions about diet were not asked, dietary alterations may have affected overall weight loss significantly. Further research is necessary to determine the interaction between diet and PA during programs such as weight loss challenges.

1870 Board #156 May 29, 2:00 PM - 3:30 PM

Core Stability Exercise Versus General Exercise For Chronic Low Back Pain Meta-analysis

Xueqiang Wang, Peijie Chen. Shanghai University of Sport, Shanghai, China.

(No relationships reported)

PURPOSE: To determine the effects of core stability exercise or general exercise for patients with chronic low back pain.

METHODS: Published articles manuscripts from 1970 to October 2011 were identified by using electronic searches. Two reviewers independently selected relevant Randomized controlled trials. And RCTs only about core stability exercise versus general exercise for treatment of patients with chronic LBP were identified in this systematic review. Data were extracted independently by the same two review authors who conducted the selection of studies.

RESULTS: From the 28 potentially relevant trials, a total of 5 trials, involving 414 participants, were included. The pooling revealed that core stability exercise was better than general exercise for pain [MD (95% CI) = -1.29 (-2.47, -0.11), P = 0.003], disability [MD (95% CI) = -7.14 (-11.64, -2.65), P = 0.002] at short-term follow-up. And there was no significant difference between core stability exercise and general exercise in reducing pain at 6 months [MD (95% CI) = -0.50 (-1.36, 0.36), P = 0.26] and 12 months [MD (95% CI) = -0.32 (-0.87, 0.23), P = 0.25].

CONCLUSIONS: Compared with general exercise, core stability exercise could decrease pain and may improve physical function in patients with chronic low back pain at short-term. But no significant difference was found for pain at long-term follow-up between core stability exercise and general exercise.

1871 Board #157 May 29, 2:00 PM - 3:30 PM

Effects Of Acute Aerobic Exercise On BDNF And Cognitive Performance In Lower- And Higher-fit Adults

Shu-Yu Huang1, Chia-Liang Tsai1, Chien-Yu Pan2, Chun-Hao Wang1, Fu-Chen Chen3. 1National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan. 2National Kaohsiung Normal University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan. 3National Pingtung University of Science and Technology, Pingtung, Taiwan.

(No relationships reported)

Although previous studies have demonstrated acute exercise and cardiorespiratory fitness are positively related to cognitive performance, only two studies investigated the mechanisms underlying this process using behavioral and neuroelectric indices and at the moment the results are equivocal. In addition, there have been no previous studies examining relationship between changes in cognitive performance and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels after acute exercise in individuals with different levels of cardiorespiratory fitness.

PURPOSE: The present study aimed to examine the effects of an acute aerobic exercise on the behavioral and neuroelectric indices and to explore the potential neurophysiological mechanisms using the BDNF in young adults with different levels of cardiorespiratory fitness when performing a visuospatial attention task.

METHODS: Fifty-four healthy young adults were divided into one non-exercise-intervention and two exercise intervention (e.g., EIH: higher-fit and EIL: lower-fit) groups according to their VO2max performance. Their cognitive performances and BDNF levels were measured before and after an acute bout of 30-minute moderate intensity aerobic exercise. All independent variables were separately analyzed with a repeated-measures ANOVA.

RESULTS: Both EI groups showed shorter reaction time (EIL: 266.69±33.51 vs. 240.07± 31.64 ms; EIH: 238.80±34.47 vs. 221.52± 34.06 ms, ps<0.05) following a bout of acute exercise. However, only the EIH group exhibited a greater P3 amplitude (EIH: 9.55±3.01 vs. 12.19± 3.96 μV, p<0.05 ) after compared to before the acute exercise. Increased BDNF levels were found after acute exercise for both EI groups (EIL: 52.34±4.25 vs. 75.51± 74.13 pg/ml; EIH: 95.42±100.80 vs. 120.96± 83.30 pg/ml, ps<0.05). However, there was no significant correlation between the changes in BDNF levels and behavioral and neuroelectric performances.

CONCLUSION: Young adults with higher cardiorespiratory fitness showed particular neural efficiency with regard to attentional resource allocation after moderate acute aerobic exercise. However, the facilitating effects could not be attributed to the change in BDNF levels.

Supported by National Science Council grant in Taiwan (NSC 100-2410-H-006-074-MY2)

1872 Board #158 May 29, 2:00 PM - 3:30 PM

An Energy Balance and COPE Intervention for Division I Female Athletes

Brenda C. Buffington1, Michael F. Zupan1, Bernadette Mazurek Melnyk2, Shelly Morales1, Amanda Lords1, Stan Nunley1. 1United States Air Force Academy, USAF Academy, CO. 2The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH. (Sponsor: Nanna Meyer, Ph.D., FACSM)

(No relationships reported)

Since 1990, there has been an upward trend in body fat percentage for Division I female athletes. However, this population is simultaneously plagued with athletes who have dangerously low body fat usually seen in gymnasts, cheer, or dance teams. Educational and psychosocial awareness is needed to help these athletes maintain proper health and improve their athletic performances.

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate if there were benefits of an energy balance educational intervention and a Creating Opportunities for Personal Empowerment (COPE) intervention for Division I female athletes. Benefits would entail improvements in body composition, energy balance knowledge, stress, anxiety levels, and choice of appropriate lifestyle behaviors.

METHODS: 109 Division I female athletes were randomly selected to be in one of three groups; Experimental Groups 1 & 2 (E1 & E2), or Control Group (C). E1 was given both educational and COPE interventions once per week for 10 weeks, E2 was only given COPE interventions each week, and group C was given no interventions. DXA Scan for body fat percentage, written analyses, and a 24 Hour Food Recall were tested prior to and after 10 weeks of interventions.

RESULTS: E1 showed statistically significant decreases in percent body fat, t(18) = 2.406, p =.027, and a significant improvement in their written analysis scores (t(xx) = , p=.0001. No significant differences were seen for groups E2 and C in % fat and they scored only 2 points higher on the written test.

CONCLUSION: The results suggest that the Energy Balance and COPE interventions made a positive difference in the nutritional choices and lifestyle behaviors of Division I female athletes. Further research is needed in this area.

1873 Board #159 May 29, 2:00 PM - 3:30 PM

Objective Assessment of Sedentary Behavior during and after Prolonged, Intensive Aerobic Exercise Training

Ann M. Swartz, FACSM, Nora E. Miller, Whitney A. Welch, Young Cho, Scott J. Strath, FACSM. University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee, WI.

(No relationships reported)

Observational studies have shown that individuals can be both highly sedentary and highly active, and active people sit as much as those who do not meet the physical activity guidelines. It is not known how sedentary behavior changes in response to significant exercise training, such as training for a marathon.

PURPOSE: To determine time spent in sedentary behavior while training for, and after completion of, a marathon.

METHODS: Participants included adults who self- selected to run a marathon. Sedentary behavior was assessed using an accelerometer-based motion sensor (Actigraph GT3X) for seven consecutive days during seven assessment periods (-3, -2, and -1 month prior to the marathon, within 2 weeks of the marathon, and +1, +2, and +3 months after completing the marathon). Data were summed into 60-second epochs. Body fat was assessed with dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (GE Lunar Prodigy). Models were fitted with multiple imputation data using STATA mi module. Random intercept GLS regression models were used to predict the sedentary behavior with 7 waves of repeated measures.

RESULTS: Twenty-three individuals, 15 females (33.3 ± 7.9y, 23.2 ± 2.4kg/m2, 26.7 ± 8.1% fat) and 8 males (35.4 ± 13.3y, 23.7 ± 2.4kg/m2, 16.2 ± 6.8% fat) completed the study. Marathon finishing times ranged from 220- 344 min (271 ± 40 min) for women and 185- 276 min (227 ± 32 min) for men. Time spent in sedentary behavior varied by only 30 min or 6.5% over the 7 month period (month -3: 653.7 ± 27.1 min, 66.9%, month -2: 634.7 ± 16.8 min, 71.6%; month -1: 622.2 ± 19.5 min, 70.2%; marathon month: 647.1 ± 21.3 min, 72.6%; month +1: 638.8 ± 18.6 min, 73.4%; month +2: 633.6 ± 18.8 min, 72.8%; month +3: 635.7 ± 16.6 min, 72.9% of daily wear time). Daily sedentary behavior did not change over the seven month training, marathon, and post-marathon period, after accounting for age, percent body fat, and wear time (t=.72, p=.47).

CONCLUSIONS: This prospective study supports the notion that physical activity and sedentary behavior are distinct behaviors, showing that sedentary behavior was not impacted while training for a marathon.

1874 Board #160 May 29, 2:00 PM - 3:30 PM Abstract Withdrawn

1875 Board #161 May 29, 2:00 PM - 3:30 PM

Meeting Physical Activity Guidelines Does Not Result In Less Sedentary Time

Kristen C. Conway1, Liam Fitzgerald1, Haydn Jarrett2, Cemal Ozemek1, Leonard A. Kaminsky, FACSM1. 1Ball State University, Muncie, IN. 2University of Worcester, Worcester, United Kingdom.

(No relationships reported)

Physical activity (PA) has long been associated with reduced all-cause and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality. More recently, time spent in sedentary behaviours has emerged as an independent risk factor for all-cause and CVD mortality. It is not well known if meeting PA guidelines reduces the amount of time spent in sedentary behaviours.

PURPOSE: To determine if meeting PA guidelines is associated with less time spent daily in sedentary behaviours.

METHODS: Subjects (n=84; age 45.5±20.5 yr, BMI 24.9±4.5 kg/m2) wore an initialised (60Hz) ActiGraph GT3X+ accelerometer, positioned at their right hip, for a minimum of 4 days with 10 hours valid wear-time per day. Raw accelerometry data were processed in ActiLife v6.8.0 using a 60s epoch. Cutpoints developed by Freedson et al. (1998) were used with uniaxial accelerometer data for the determination of sedentary time (9642 cpm]). MVPA was determined by summing the daily minutes in moderate, vigorous, and very vigorous over one week. Relative time spent in sedentary behaviour was calculated as a percentage of the total valid wear-time. Subjects were classified as active or inactive based on the criteria of accumulating >150 minutes/week of MVPA, or >75 minutes/week of vigorous PA, in >10 minute bouts. Relative (%) and absolute (minutes) sedentary time were compared between PA classifications (active or inactive) using independent samples t-tests, with significance set at p<0.05.

RESULTS: There were no significant differences between active and inactive subjects for relative (64% vs. 63%, p>0.05) or absolute (517±77 vs. 527±99 minutes, p>0.05) time spent in sedentary behaviours.

CONCLUSION: The results indicate that active and inactive subjects spent a similar length of time in sedentary behaviours. Studies looking at the prevalence of the population meeting PA guidelines should consider sedentary behaviour analysis in order to give a broader context to the understanding of activity-related risk factors among the general population.

© 2014 American College of Sports Medicine