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B-41 Free Communication/Poster - Physical Activity Interventions in Youth

Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise: May 2014 - Volume 46 - Issue 5S - p 227–235
doi: 10.1249/01.mss.0000451142.78008.03
Abstract

Wednesday, May 28, 2014, 1:00 PM - 6:00 PM

Room: WB1

851 Board #266 May 28, 2:00 PM - 3:30 PM

Physical Activity: Intensity and Associated Energy Expenditure During a Youth Weight Management Camp

Amanda Gier, Nicholas M. Edwards, Jose Jimenez-Vega, Christopher Kist, Philip R. Khoury, Robert Siegel, Shelley Kirk. Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH.

(No relationships reported)

PURPOSE: To determine amount of time spent in activity and intensity and energy expenditure of specific activities during a weight management camp for obese youth.

METHODS: Obese youth (n=78), ages 9 to 13, voluntarily participated in a 6-day weight management camp. Informed consent/assent was obtained for 60 (77%) campers. Forty subjects were randomly assigned to wear RT3 triaxial accelerometers during all activities except sleeping, swimming and bathing. Accelerometers were worn on 4 full camp days. Data was analyzed to determine energy expenditure and intensity associated with individual activities and overall time spent in sedentary (SED), light (LPA), moderate (MPA) and vigorous (VPA) activity.

RESULTS: Usable data was obtained from 31(78%) accelerometers (26 girls, 5 boys). Mean age (± SD) was 12 ± 1.3 years. Mean BMI was 34 ± 7.0 kg/m2, with a BMI z-score of 2.37. Over 4 days of camp, participants accumulated on average 1.9 ± 1.7 hours of VPA, 6.6 ± 1.8 hours of MPA, 20 ± 3.9 hours of LPA and 26 ± 5.5 hours of SED. Daily, boys accumulated on average 34 ± 24 minutes of VPA, 128 ± 36 minutes of MPA, 306 ± 69 minutes of LPA and 344 ± 107 minutes of SED; girls accumulated on average 27 ± 30 minutes of VPA, 93 ± 37 minutes of MPA, 299 ± 98 minutes of LPA and 390 ± 127 minutes of SED. Boys spent more time engaged in MPA (P = 0.0064). There was no significant difference between genders for minutes engaged in SED, LPA or VPA. Activities that led to highest energy expenditures (EE) were Morning Group Exercise (189 kilocalories/hour), Sports/Games (153 kcal/hr), Archery/Fishing (120 kcal/hr), and Outdoor Education/Survival Skills (102 kcal/hr). Activities with lowest EE were Arts/Crafts/Singing/Tie-Dye (67 kcal/hr), Hiking/Walking (65 kcal/hr), Meals/Snacks (57 kcal/hr) and Showers/Changing/Cleaning Cabins (49 kcal/hr). Nearly half of time (45%) in Morning Group Exercise was of moderate-vigorous intensity (MVPA), whereas 12% of time spent in Hiking/Walking was of MVPA.

CONCLUSION: Youth attending a weight management camp accumulated at least twice the recommended amount of daily physical activity, with boys accumulating more moderate physical activity than girls. Energy expenditure of group exercise was nearly three times that of hiking/walking. There is wide variability in energy expenditure between scheduled camp activities.

852 Board #267 May 28, 2:00 PM - 3:30 PM

Effect Of Regular Soccer Play On Body Composition In Youth

George Nassis, Olav Versloot, Darren Paul. Aspetar, Doha, Qatar.

(No relationships reported)

Regular soccer play has been considered as a viable activity for promotion of health in adults. Indeed, a number of studies have shown that regular soccer play may improve body composition, cardiovascular and metabolic health in normal weight and overweight/obese adults. However, limited evidence is available on the effect of soccer play on health related parameters in youth. This is despite the facts that i) childhood obesity is an emerging health issue, and ii) soccer play is a very popular activity among young people.

PURPOSE: To examine the effect of regular soccer play on body composition in youth.

METHODS: Seventy two children and adolescents aged 14-18 years old (mean±SD: 16.0±1.6 years) participated in this study. Body mass, height, skinfold thickness (biceps, triceps, subscapular, suprailiac, supraspinal, abdominal, thigh, calf) were assessed before and after an 8 month period of regular soccer play. During the intervention period youths participated in soccer team training 2-4 times per week for about 90 min each. Training consisted of warm-up, technical and tactical drills and small-sided games. Most of the players also performed a 40-90 min competitive match per week. Pre-post comparisons were assessed with paired t-tests.

RESULTS: Body mass and height increased (p< 0.01) pre- to post-intervention and this was due to growth. Although sum of skinfolds remained unchanged (Pre: 60.7±25.4, post: 60.0±27.1 mm) sum of skinfolds per kg body mass was 5.7% lower after the intervention (Pre: 1.06±0.32, post: 1.00±0.32 mm/kg body mass, p<0.05).

CONCLUSIONS: Regular soccer play may decrease relative body fat in youth. Soccer is an attractive activity for youth and besides competition it could also be used for public health promotion. More studies with larger sample size and control group are needed in this area.

853 Board #268 May 28, 2:00 PM - 3:30 PM

Does Significantly Increasing Girls’ Step Counts Effect Their Motivation in Organized Youth Sports?

Justin M. Guagliano1, Chris Lonsdale1, Gregory S. Kolt1, Richard R. Rosenkranz2. 1University of Western Sydney, Sydney, Australia. 2Kansas State University, Sydney, Australia. (Sponsor: Jason Siegler, FACSM)

(No relationships reported)

Participation in organized youth sports (OYS) has been recommended as an opportunity to increase young peoples’ physical activity (PA). Girls, however, spend a substantial proportion of time during OYS inactive. Research has shown that coaches are aware of the opportunity to increase PA during OYS for girls, yet are cautious about doing so because of the belief that it could result in reduced motivation and dropout.

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate between-group differences in girls’ motivation while participating in a 5-day basketball program designed to increase PA during training sessions.

METHODS: The effect of the basketball program was tested using a two-arm, parallel-group randomized controlled trial. Participants were 76 girls, aged 9 to 12 yr (mean 10.5±1.0), recruited from Greater Western Sydney, Australia. The intervention group received coaching from participants who attended two coach education sessions versus a no treatment control group. Girls wore one sealed pedometer, placed on the right hip during two 45-min training sessions that took place each day of the basketball program. Girls also completed a questionnaire that included items from the Situational Motivation Scale at baseline (Day 1) and follow-up (Day 5). Linear mixed models were used to analyze both outcomes.

RESULTS: There were no significant between-group differences at baseline for steps/min or motivation scores. Substantial increases in mean steps/min from baseline to follow-up were found in the intervention group (29.8±14.8) and little change was found in the control group (3.3±18.2). Mean motivation scores showed relatively little change at follow-up (intervention -0.7±11.5; control 2.1±13.1). Between-groups, steps/min were significantly increased in the intervention group compared to the control group (MD = 26.5, SE = 4.05, p0.05).

CONCLUSION: Despite significantly increasing girls’ step counts in the intervention group, no significant between-group difference in girls’ motivation scores was found. Coaches can have greater confidence that increasing PA during training will not have a detrimental effect on girls’ motivation towards OYS.

854 Board #269 May 28, 2:00 PM - 3:30 PM

Recreational Soccer to Prevent Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Obese Adolescents: Effect of Weekly Frequency

Fabrício Vasconcellos1, André Seabra2, Paulo Farinatti3. 1Faculty of Sport, University of Porto, Porto, Portugal / State University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. 2Faculty of Sport, University of Porto, Porto, Portugal. 3State University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

(No relationships reported)

The increasing prevalence of obesity in pediatric age has become a major concern. This phenomenon is associated with a higher prevalence of risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Team sports have proven to be a good alternative of physical activity to prevent obesity in adults, but few studies have been conducted with obese adolescents.

PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of a recreational soccer intervention performed 1 or 3 times a week on the body composition, total cholesterol (TC), HDL, LDL, triglycerides and fasting glucose in obese adolescents.

METHODS: 20 obese adolescents (7 girls) (BMI Z-score > 2) participated in a 12-week recreational soccer program either 3 times/wk (G3W) (n= 10; age= 14.8 ±1.5 yrs) or 1 time/wk (G1W) (n= 10; age 13.8 ±1.4 yrs). The recreational soccer sessions consisted of 10 min warm-up, followed by 50-80 min of soccer in a reduced pitch area with na average intensity of 80% maximal heart rate. Height, body mass, and waist circumference (WC) were evaluated according to standardized procedures. Body composition was assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. TC, HDL, LDL, triglycerides and fasting glucose were analyzed by phlebotomy after 12-hr fasting.

RESULTS: At baseline, no difference was found between groups. From baseline to post-intervention, G3W exhibited more favorable changes than G1W in weight (kg) (Δ G3W= -2.55 vs Δ G1W= 5.19, P = 0.01), fat % (Δ G3W = -2.02 vs Δ G1W= -0.33 P= 0.02), WC (cm) (Δ G3W= -6.47 vs Δ G1W = -1.51, P= 0.02), BMI (kg.m-2) (Δ G3W= -0.8 vs Δ G1W= 1.3, P < 0.001), TC (mg.dL-1) (Δ G3W= -14.4 vs Δ G1W= 12.7, P= 0.01), triglycerides (mg.dL-1) (Δ G3W= -20.5 vs Δ G1W= 25.1, P = 0.01), fasting glucose (mg.dL-1) (Δ G3W= -1.4 vs Δ G1W= 6.7, P = 0.02), and HDL (mg.dL-1) (Δ G3W= 11.5 vs Δ G1W= -8, P = 0.04). The LDL (mg.dL-1) increased in GW1 (Δ= 17.4, P = 0.02) but not in GW3 (Δ= 5.7, P= 0.37).

CONCLUSIONS: A 12-week recreational soccer intervention performed 3 times/wk was more effective than once a week to induce improvements in weight, fat percentage, WC, BMI, TC, triglycerides and HDL. Therefore, the weekly frequency seems to be as an important issue within soccer intervention programs aiming to reduce the risk for cardiovascular disease in obese adolescents.

855 Board #270 May 28, 2:00 PM - 3:30 PM

The Effect of In-Line Skating Program in Adolescents with Intellectual Disabilities

I Chiao Chung1, Po-Jen Hsu2, Chien-Yu Pan3, Chia-Liang Tsai4, I-Lin Kung5. 1Madou Junior High School, Tainan, Taiwan. 2The Affiliated School for Students with Hearing Impairments of National University of Tainan, Tainan, Taiwan. 3National Kaohsiung Normal University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan. 4National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan. 5National University of Tainan, Tainan, Taiwan.

(No relationships reported)

People with intellectual disabilities (ID) are more likely to engage in low levels of physical activity (PA) and show high rates of obesity. There is a need to identify modes of exercise program to increase PA with this population.

PURPOSE: To examine the effect of a 12-week in-line skating program on motor skills, physical fitness, and adaptive behaviors in adolescents with ID.

METHODS: Forty-two male ID students, aged 15-19 years, participated: experimental group (EG), n=21; control group (CG), n=21. The in-line skating program was 60 min in length and held twice per week for 12 weeks. It consisted 5-10 min of the warm-up period, 40-50 min of the in-line skating training, and 5-10 min of group games. The Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency (Second Edition), Brockport Physical Fitness Test, and Chinese version of the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale were used. Between group differences were analyzed using one-way ANCOVAs and MANCOVA controlling for pre-test scores. Paired t tests were used to compare within group differences after the intervention.

RESULTS: Findings indicated that (1) EG had better scores on strength and agility (40.29±6.74 vs. 33.76±6.32, F=4.59, p<0.05), 20-meter Progressive Aerobic Cardiovascular Endurance Run (PACER) (28.95±17.85 vs. 12.57±6.61, F=8.20, p<0.05) and push-up (39.81±0.87 vs. 27.44±14.81, F=8.07, p<0.05) as compared to CG after training. In addition, BMI was significantly higher in EG (22.56±4.69) than those in CG (22.41±5.41) (F=4.27, p<0.05). (2) For EG, participants demonstrated significantly higher scores on motor skills (total motor composite, +2.95, t=4.25, p<0.01; strength and agility, +3.57, t=5.99, p<0.01; body coordination, +3.86, t=4.17, p<0.01; manual coordination, +2.76, t=2.61, p<0.05) and physical fitness (20-meter PACER, +10.05, t=4.84, p<0.01; sit-and-reach, +4.76, t=2.76, p<0.05; BMI, +0.63, t=2.63, p<0.05) after the intervention. (3) For CG, the scores on total motor composite (+2.95, t=2.65, p<0.05) and strength and agility (+3.57, t=2.61, p<0.05) were significantly higher relative to their baseline in the pretest, but not in the physical fitness and adaptive behaviors.

CONCLUSION: A 12-week in line skating program has the capacity to effectively improve motor skills, cardiorespiratory and muscular fitness in adolescents with ID.

856 Board #271 May 28, 2:00 PM - 3:30 PM

Sedentary and Physical Activity Behaviors of Adolescents with Obesity

Elizabeth K. Balk1, Brooke E. Starkoff2, Rick L. Petosa1, Ihuoma U. Eneli3, Andrea E. Bonny3, Robert P. Hoffman3, Steven T. Devor, FACSM1. 1The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH. 2The College at Brockport, SUNY, Brockport, NY. 3Nationwide Children’s Hospital, Columbus, OH.

(No relationships reported)

The independent association between sedentary behavior (SB) and physical activity (PA) is such that, regardless of the amount of accumulated daily PA, high amounts of SB are still detrimental to overall health. There are few studies where accelerometry has been utilized to track daily SB among adolescents with obesity.

PURPOSE: Our aim was to measure the levels of SB, and light (LT) and moderate (MOD) PA in adolescents with obesity via accelerometry. We also sought to profile activity patterns in free-living environments.

METHODS: 34 adolescents with obesity (BMI ≥ 95th percentile for age and sex as defined by the Centers for Disease Control) agreed to participate in an exercise intervention study. Adolescents who already participated in vigorous activity 2 or more days per week were excluded from study participation. Subject activity was recorded using accelerometery during the hours between 07:00 and 23:00. Accelerometer readings exhibiting 0 counts per minute for 180 minutes or more were eliminated due to non-use. 16 subjects (5 males and 11 females;14.8 ± 1.5 yrs) recorded at least 3 weekdays and 2 weekend days of accelerometry data.

RESULTS: Subjects spent a majority of time with SB (727.6 ± 101.2 min/d), followed by LT (212.4 ± 91.6 min/d) and MOD PA (20.5 ± 23.1 min/d). Compared with a cross-sectional sample of 12-19 year old children in the United States, our subjects had substantially greater amounts of SB (727.6 ± 101.2 min/d vs. 451.8 ± 6.0 min/d).

CONCLUSIONS: In addition to low levels of PA, adolescents with obesity accumulated a substantial number of daily SB minutes. Along with increasing LT and MOD PA during adolescence, reductions in SB will likely further contribute to reduced obesity rates and, subsequently, decreased risk of CVD.

This work was supported by the Nationwide Children’s Hospital Research Institute, Columbus, OH and Award Number UL1RR025755 from the National Center For Research Resources.

857 Board #272 May 28, 2:00 PM - 3:30 PM

Is Access To Renovated Schoolyards Associated With Children’s Leisure-time PA? Evidence From Three Complementary Measures

Claudio R. Nigg1, Katie Amato1, Raymond C. Browning, FACSM2, Christine A. Schaefer2, Alana D. Steffen3, Md Mahabub ul Anwar1, Sarah Lampe4, Eve Kutchman5, Elizabeth Brunner5, Lisamarie Bensman1, Peter Anthamatten6, Lois Brink5, James Hill5. 1University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI. 2Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO. 3University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL. 4Colorado Association of Local Public Health Officials, Denver, CO. 5University of Colorado, Aurora, CO. 6University of Colorado, Denver, CO.

(No relationships reported)

PURPOSE: Concluding on the effectiveness of an intervention or a program on just one method may miss important related outcomes. The purpose of this study was to explore the association (at baseline) of schoolyard renovations and PA in children during leisure-time using 3 types of complementary measures (observation, accelerometers, and self-report survey).

METHODS: Baseline data for IPLAY was collected from 12 schools with Learning Landscapes (LLs) and 12 schools with no schoolyard renovation (non-LLs) in Spring 2010 and Spring 2011 in Denver, Colorado. For observation data, SOPLAY methodology was used at 24 schools and resulted in energy expenditure rate (EER) (kcals/kg/min) per child in each schoolyard area during recess. In a subsample of 8 schools, accelerometer and survey data were also collected and resulted in percentage MVPA during recess, and minutes of MVPA during leisure-time respectively. Analyses were at the school-site level, therefore Cohen’s d was used for interpretation.

RESULTS: SOPLAY results indicate that children’s activity levels did not differ between LLs and non-LLs (per child EER at recess: F (1,22) = 0.47, Cohen’s d = 0.07) and was approximately 0.1 kcal/kg/min per child, consistent with a “walking” activity level. Survey results show a positive but small to medium effect for leisure time MVPA/day (F (1,6) = 6.89, Cohen’s d = 0.35); accelerometer data results show another positive, but small effect of LLs and percentage of MVPA during recess (F (1,2) = 2.01, Cohen’s d = 0.46.

CONCLUSIONS: Differences in MVPA indicate that schoolyard renovations do have some beneficial effect on the MVPA of children. Two thirds of the indicators showed higher levels of PA during recess on renovated playgrounds. Future research should investigate the meaning and content of differences and in the information captured by different methods.

858 Board #273 May 28, 2:00 PM - 3:30 PM

Weight Status and Eating Habits in Children. Effects of two Physical Activity Interventions.

Sara Iazzoni, Maria Chiara Gallotta, Gian Pietro Emerenziani, Marco Meucci, Laura Guidetti, FACSM, Carlo Baldari, FACSM. University of Rome, Foro Italico, Roma, Italy.

(No relationships reported)

Low levels of physical activity (PA), sedentary behaviors, and diet are the common causes of childhood obesity.

PURPOSE: This study examined the effect of two PA interventions on weight status and eating habits in primary school children.

METHODS: Weight, height, percentage of fat mass (%FM) were assessed in 230 primary school children of Grade 3, 4 and 5, aged 8-11. With reference % FM , they were classified in overweight (n=21) and obese (n=32). The overweight/obese children were assigned to a traditional PA (n=22), or coordinative PA (n=20), or control group (no PA intervention, n=11). Intervention period lasted 5 months. Both PA interventions were equivalent in structure, duration, intensity, with a frequency of one hour twice a week. Traditional PA intervention was structured according to the ministerial programs of physical education. Coordinative PA intervention was focused on coordination abilities. Eating habits were assessed by International Physical Activity Questionnaire

RESULTS: %FM was higher in female than male (32.32 ± 2.89 vs 27.79 ± 3.35, p < 0.05). After the intervention period, weight increased more in female (50.37 ± 10.07 vs 51.87 ± 10.34 kg, p < 0.05) than in male (53.08 ± 6.25 vs 54.01 ± 6.31 kg, p < 0.05). The intake of pasta and rice increased after the intervention period only in males (4.78 ± 1.60 vs 5.41 ± 1.05 times per week, p = 0.05). The eggs intake decreased only in Coordinative group (3.15 ± 1.50 vs 2.25 ± 0.79 times per week, p < 0.05). The fruit intake increased over the time (3.94 ± 1.51 vs 5.04 ± 1.60 times per week, p < 0.05). The sweets intake decreased after the intervention period in both Coordinative (3.60 ± 2.20 vs 1.77 ± 1.50 times per week, p < 0.05) and Traditional groups (3.77 ± 2.77 vs 1.45 ± 1.38 times per week, p < 0.05). The snacks intake decreased after the intervention period in both Coordinative (4.20 ± 0.86 vs 1.88 ± 1.70 times per week, p < 0.01) and Traditional group (3.59 ± 1.89 vs 1.91 ± 0.75 times per week, p < 0.01). No change in the intake of sweets and snacks was observed in the control group.

CONCLUSION: PA interventions did not affect children’s weight and %FM. However, both PA interventions induced positive change on eating habits. This study suggest that a longer PA intervention could have positive effects on %FM by promoting lifestyle and inducing positive nutritional behaviors.

859 Board #274 May 28, 2:00 PM - 3:30 PM

The Effect of Motor Skills Training on Physical Activity in Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder

Jie Yu1, Cindy H.P. Sit1, Angus F. Burnett1, Catherine M. Capio2, Amy S.C. Ha1. 1The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China. 2The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China. (Sponsor: Stephen H. Wong, FACSM)

(No relationships reported)

Regular physical activity (PA) contributes to the development of physical and psychological well-being in children. The mastery of motor skills is considered one of the potential factors that facilitate PA engagement. Fundamental movement skills (FMS) are foundations for developing context-specific movements. Children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) exhibit delays in motor skills including FMS and experience restrictions in PA participation. However, few studies have examined whether improvements in FMS proficiency promote PA engagement in children with DCD.

PURPOSE: To determine the effect of FMS training on PA in children with DCD when compared to typically developing (TD) children.

METHODS: Participants consist of 84 children (7-10 yrs) who were allocated into either FMS training (22 DCD-FMS, 17 TD-FMS) or control group who underwent regular physical education lessons (16 DCD-C, 29 TD-C). FMS training was conducted in a school setting for six weeks, twice per week and 35 minutes per session. FMS were tested using the Test of Gross Motor Development-Second edition. PA was subsequently monitored using accelerometers over seven consecutive days. Each participant attended all scheduled tests three times (i.e., before intervention, 1-week post intervention, 6-week post intervention). Repeated-measured ANCOVA was used to determine the intervention effect utilizing baseline scores and other key confounders as covariates.

RESULTS: The DCD-FMS group scored significantly better in jumping (1-week: 6.09±1.85 vs. 3.69±1.99, p<0.05) and catching (1-week: 5.23±0.87 vs. 4.19±1.64, p<0.05; 6-week: 5.45±0.72 vs. 4.31±1.58, p<0.05) than the DCD-C group. The TD-FMS group scored significantly poorer in jumping (1-week: 5.41±1.84 vs. 6.52±1.70, p<0.05) than the TD-C group. The DCD-FMS group showed significantly lower PA volume (393.06±64.50 vs. 431.72±87.53 counts/min, p<0.05) and spent more time in sedentary pursuits (52.54±6.55 vs. 50.40 ±7.22%, p<0.05) in the follow-up test than in the posttest. No significant difference in PA levels was found among groups.

CONCLUSION: Children with DCD improved their FMS proficiency after receiving FMS training. However, the improvements in FMS performance in children with DCD did not transfer into improving their PA participation.

860 Board #275 May 28, 2:00 PM - 3:30 PM

Appalachian Children Increase Moderate-to-vigorous Physical Activity Through An Empirically-based Afterschool Physical Activity Intervention

Brett C. Winner1, Michael Kushnick2, Jay Shubrook2, Sofiya Alhassan, FACSM1, Cheryl A. Howe2. 1University of Massachusetts Amherst, Amherst, MA. 2Ohio University, Athens, OH.

(No relationships reported)

The development of childhood obesity has been linked to chronic energy surplus due to poor dietary habits and inadequate physical activity (PA). Researchers have suggested that a sustained increase in moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) can help reduce the prevalence of obesity by correcting for the energy surplus. Changes in US school policies (i.e., more time devoted to academics) have resulted in reduced PA opportunities during the school day. Due to time limitations during school day, researchers have suggested utilizing the afterschool hours as means of improving PA levels in children.

PURPOSE: To assess the effects of a structured, afterschool PA intervention with a known energy expenditure (EE) on PA, body composition (BC), and blood pressure (BP) in Appalachian children.

METHODS: 2nd-4th grade children from an Athens County, Ohio afterschool program were recruited to participate in this study. Children were randomized into either an active group (ACT, n=6) that participated in structured recess-games with a known EE of ≥100 kcals/30 min or sedentary group (SED, n=7) that participated in sedentary, arts/crafts activities. Both interventions were implemented for ∼27 min/day for 16-days over 7-weeks (∼2.3 days/week). BC and BP were measured at baseline and at the conclusion of the intervention. Daily intervention PA was assessed with accelerometers during the course of the program. Changes in baseline to follow-up for BC and BP were compared between ACT and SED using ANCOVA (adjusted for baseline values). Independent t-test compared group differences in average intervention PA intensity and time spent in MVPA.

RESULTS: Thirteen subjects (age: 8.2±1.3 yrs; BMI: 18.9±3.5 m/kg2) completed baseline measures with no significant differences between ACT and SED. Between group differences were observed for average intervention PA METs (ACT=5.29±0.80; SED=2.36±0.24, (p<0.001)), accelerometer counts/min (ACT=2645.33±615.60; SED=293.85±171.35, (p<0.001)), and MVPA minutes (ACT=16.28±5.43; SED=2.56±1.82, (p<0.001)). No other significant differences were observed.

CONCLUSION: PA intensity for ACT met established guidelines; however, total PA volume during intervention was not sufficient to improve BC or BP. Future studies using this structured PA format should increase frequency and duration of PA.

861 Board #276 May 28, 2:00 PM - 3:30 PM

Effectiveness Of Combining Physical Activity With A Numeracy Learning Task In Primary School Children

Melanie Vetter1, Helen O’Connor1, Nicholas O’Dwyer2, Hoi Lun Cheng1, Rhonda Orr1. 1The University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia. 2Charles Sturt University, Bathurst, Australia.

(No relationships reported)

Competency with multiplication skills is a key curriculum outcome for mid-upper primary school students. However, learning multiplication tables (MT) is often found to be challenging.

PURPOSE: To determine the effectiveness of combining aerobic physical activity with a numeracy learning task (MT) compared with a standard classroom approach on general numeracy competence, multiplication skills and cardiorespiratory fitness.

METHODS: This study was a randomized controlled trial with parallel design. Grade four students (9-10y) of mixed gender, ethnicity and socioeconomic status attending an Australian public school were randomly allocated to either Playground (P) or Classroom (C) Math classes. The six-week, 18-session intervention involved 3×20 min sessions per week of either P (aerobic exercise drills while simultaneously completing math games to learn MT) or C (paper-based math games similar to P). Pre- and post- assessment of body weight, body mass index (BMI), fitness (VO2peak via the Shuttle Run), numeracy competence [via an adapted National Assessment Program - Literacy and Numeracy (A-NAPLAN) test] and multiplication skills were conducted. Data: mean±SD.

RESULTS: Of the 85 participants recruited, 44 were randomized to P. All baseline variables except BMI (p=0.01) and A-NAPLAN (P: 71%; C: 79%; p=0.04) test scores were similar between the groups. VO2peak positively correlated with A-NAPLAN scores at baseline (r=0.30; p=0.02). After six weeks, fitness increased significantly in P (p<0.01) but not C (p=0.21), although no significant weight and BMI changes were observed within either group (p>0.05). Significant improvements from baseline were observed in P only for A-NAPLAN (71±18 to 77±17%; p=0.02) and multiplication (91±11 to 95±7%; p=0.04) test scores. However, after adjusting for baseline scores and BMI, no significant between-group differences were observed (all p>0.05).

CONCLUSION: While both groups yielded similar post-intervention numeracy and multiplication test scores, combining physical activity with the learning task led to concomitant improvements in cardiorespiratory fitness. As childhood obesity and sedentariness continues to be a major public health issue, this novel approach to learning warrants further investigation in a larger sample and for a longer duration.

862 Board #277 May 28, 2:00 PM - 3:30 PM

School Day Physical Activity Levels among Rural, Low Income, Elementary Age Students in Oregon

Patrick Abi Nader, M.S., Brendan Klein, MPH, Deborah John, PhD, Katherine Gunter, PhD, FACSM. Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR.

(No relationships reported)

Children living in low-income, rural areas are at a disproportionately higher risk of overweight and obesity compared to children living in better-resourced, less rural areas.

PURPOSE: To evaluate the physical activity (PA) levels of low-income, rural elementary children in Oregon.

METHODS: In 2012, we assessed overweight and obesity prevalence among 957 children (grades K-6) attending four, low-income, rural elementary schools. In 2013, we returned to these same schools and measured school-day PA levels using the Walk4Life MVPA pedometer which allows for the measurement of steps, total activity (TA), and moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA). Data were collected over four days at each site over a 5-week period. Children donned pedometers each morning at the first bell, and removed them before leaving at the end of the school day. Data were aggregated over the four days to determine mean activity levels across gender and grades.

RESULTS: Complete data (4 school days) were collected from n=418 girls and n= 462 boys (ages 6-11 years). Mean sample wear time was (363.4 ± 47 min/d). Mean TA across the school day was 47.4 ± 27 min/d. Mean MVPA 18.2 ± 14.5 min/d. Boys accrued significantly more TA (51.6 vs. 43.1 min/d; p<0.001) and MVPA (19.4 vs. 16.9 min/d; p=0.01) compared to girls. PA/MVPA levels declined from 1st through 6th grade (table below). BMI data showed an upward trend in obesity; grades 3 - 6 had significantly higher obesity prevalence versus grade K. Over 34% of children were overweight or obese with prevalence levels up to 44% and 46% in grades 5 and 6 respectively.

CONCLUSION: Data show rural children exhibit declines in school-day PA as early as grade 2. The rise in obesity prevalence paralleling declines in PA reveals an opportunity to reverse both trends.

863 Board #278 May 28, 2:00 PM - 3:30 PM

Integration of Physical Activity into Experiential STEM Lessons to Improve Energy Balance and Academic Performance

Kevin E. Finn, Zi Yan, Kyle McInnis, FACSM. Merrimack College, North Andover, MA.

(No relationships reported)

Afterschool programs offer significant opportunities to increase physical activity levels and improve academic performance of children.

PURPOSE: This study assessed an innovative approach to embed physical activity into academic lessons in science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) in an afterschool community setting.

METHODS: Participants were 47 Hispanic boys and girls (age=10.8 ±0.7 yr) who enrolled in an afterschool program offered at a YMCA located in an economically disadvantaged urban community. The 6-week curriculum included a 30-minute, twice a week, physical activity intervention (e.g., dance, games, sports). All participants wore pedometers and accelerometers and recorded their data after each session using an interactive website developed by the project team. The Active Science (n=16) group then participated in a series of age and grade appropriate academic lessons that involved using their activity data (e.g., steps, distance, and calories) to explore and reinforce important STEM concepts. The Active Only group (n=31) participated in the physical activity component only. The data were collected in fall 2012 and spring 2013.

RESULTS: For the Active Only group, the pre and post science scores increased from M= 46.88(SD=17.68) to M=58.97 (SD =13.26), Cohen’d =.52; For the Active Science group, the pre and post science scores increased from M= 44.75 (SD =13.58) to M=62.65 (SD =19.05), Cohen’d = 1.09. A 2(time)*2(group) repeated MNOVA test showed that interaction effect between time and group was not significant, F(24, 1)=1.26, p>.05. The time effect was significant on steps/hour, F(24, 1)= 43.07, distance/hour, F(24,1)=26.31; calories/hour, F(24, 1)=23.50; and science scores, F(24, 1)= 39.00, all Ps<.001. Time effect on physical attitude and group effect were not significant.

CONCLUSION: A 6-week active education intervention increased physical activity and science test scores among pre-adolescent Hispanic children. Active Science group showed the trend of stronger improvement in science test scores compared to the Active Only group. The results of this study are well aligned with national recommendations that endorse innovative strategies to incorporate movement and activity into diverse school and afterschool curricular programs.

864 Board #279 May 28, 2:00 PM - 3:30 PM

Effect of Classroom-Based Physical Activity Interventions on Physical Activity and Body Mass Index: A Meta-analysis

Amanda Mischo, Spyridoula Vazou. Iowa State University, Ames, IA. (Sponsor: Panteleimon Ekkekakis, FACSM)

(No relationships reported)

The prevalence of physical inactivity among youth has resulted in calls for action to increase physical activity (PA) opportunities within the school environment. One promising approach is the inclusion of short PA bouts (lasting about 10 min) in the academic classroom, either as activity breaks or in integration with the academic subjects. Evidence is emerging that classroom-based PA can have a positive impact on children’s health. However, the literature has not been reviewed meta-analytically.

PURPOSE: The purpose of this meta-analysis was to determine the effect of classroom-based PA interventions on PA levels and body mass index (BMI) in children.

METHODS: A systematic search of electronic databases and examination of the reference lists of relevant studies resulted in identifying 15 studies. Interventions conducted in the classroom, had a control group, and measured PA levels or BMI were eligible for inclusion.

RESULTS: For the meta-analysis, full data were provided from five studies (N=1733; n=1006 intervention) with effects on PA levels and three studies (N=2773; n=1597 intervention) with effects on BMI. The intervention duration ranged from 12 weeks to 3 years. Meta-analyses showed significant, albeit small effects in favor of the intervention on PA levels (g=0.14; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.01- 0.24; p=0.006), and on BMI (g=-0.08; 95% CI: -0.16, -0.01; p=0.03.).

CONCLUSIONS: As PA in the academic classroom is a new school-based strategy to increase PA levels, more intervention studies are needed. However, existing evidence is encouraging, suggesting that classroom-based PA has a positive impact on PA levels and BMI among youth. School policies should include classroom-based PA as an effective synergistic strategy for reducing physical inactivity and childhood obesity.

865 Board #280 May 28, 2:00 PM - 3:30 PM

Integrated Physical Activity With Academics: Objectively-measured Activity Levels In The Classroom

Konstantinos Mantis, Spyridoula Vazou, Pedro F. Saint-Maurice, Gregory J. Welk, FACSM. Iowa State University, Ames, IA. (Sponsor: Gregory J. Welk, FACSM)

(No relationships reported)

In order for children to meet the current guidelines for daily physical activity (PA), current recommendations emphasize taking a “whole-of school” approach. One of the new and promising strategies for increasing PA levels at school is to include PA in the academic classroom. The “Move for Thought” (M4T) kit was developed to integrate PA with the academic subjects in the elementary school classroom.

PURPOSE: The purpose of the study is to examine differences on objectively monitored PA data during lessons that included integrated PA and traditional lessons.

METHODS: Seventy seven 4th grade students (41 boys; body mass index 17.74 kg/m2 ± 2.80) were included either in an intervention (M4T) group (n=46) that utilized the M4T kit with the academic subjects or a control group (n= 31) that did their lessons as usual. Accelerometer data on each student were collected during five complete school days. M4T and control classroom sessions were identified using teachers’ logs and accelerometer data during those periods were extracted, processed separately, and aggregated into a single data set. Students’ percent time at different intensity activities was obtained using accelerometer minute-by-minute predicted METs: sedentary (if METs <2.0), light (if METs >2.0 and <4.0) and moderate to vigorous (MVPA) (if ≥4.0 METs).

RESULTS: One-way ANOVAs on PA levels showed a significant group effect on MVPA (F=5.33, p<0.05) but not on sedentary and light activity levels. Students in the M4T group spent more time in MVPA during a class period (7.08% ± 9.90%) compared to the control group (2.84% ± 3.03%). There were significant differences in the average amount of MVPA provided from the four different M4T activities (F=7.57, p<0.001). The most active integrated lessons provided 10.88 minutes (SD=11.87; 21.38±24.38%) over a 50 min class period (> 20% of total class time).

CONCLUSIONS: Integrating PA with the academic subjects in the elementary school classroom can result in significant increases of MVPA levels compared to traditional lessons. Obtaining 10 min of MVPA in the classroom is feasible and may be achieved while students are engaged in the academic subjects.

866 Board #281 May 28, 2:00 PM - 3:30 PM

Body Composition Education and Assessment in K-12 Schools.

Natalie R. Micinski, David Thomas, FACSM, Jillian Barnas, Kelly Laurson, FACSM, Skip Williams. Illinois State University, Normal, IL. (Sponsor: Dr. Dale Brown, FACSM)

(No relationships reported)

Governmental and scientific organizations have indicated that K-12 schools are the primary battleground for combating the obesity and inactivity epidemics facing the U.S. The primary method of changing patterns of inactivity and poor nutrition revolve around educating students about healthy body composition, how to achieve it, and how to determine if one possess it. However, due to budget cuts, lack of administrator support, low motivation, lack of knowledge and/or inability, it was hypothesized that little body composition education and assessment takes place in K-12 school physical education.

PURPOSE: To determine if physical education teachers include body composition education and assessment in their instruction, what they teach, and how they teach it.

METHODS: Eighty physical education teachers from a state physical education association were randomly selected to participate in the study and sent a survey to complete. Thirty-one physical education teachers (39%) completed and returned the survey.

RESULTS: Physical educators who taught about body composition define basic terminology but not body composition concepts, assessment or interpretation of results. When asked about the importance of body composition assessment, 71% indicated that it was very important to teach. Half do not assess body composition in their programs and 13% were not allowed to perform body composition assessments due to administrative restrictions. Out of the fifteen schools (48%) that perform body composition testing, 60% of them give results to parents. However, 74% recognize the need for additional training to complete assessments and further educate students about body composition.

CONCLUSION: With the results indicating a low emphasis on body composition education, greater emphasis must be placed on providing teachers with the skills and knowledge and removing administrative restrictions to instruction about body composition and assessment if schools are expected to have an impact.

867 Board #282 May 28, 2:00 PM - 3:30 PM

The Effectiveness of SPARK AR in Increasing Recess Physical Activity

Christine A. Schaefer1, Erin M. Strutz1, Jennifer M. Skotak1, Eve M. Kutchman2, Kaitlyn Amato3, Claudio R. Nigg3, Lois A. Brink2, James O. Hill4, Raymond C. Browning, FACSM1. 1Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO. 2University of Colorado Denver, Denver, CO. 3University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI. 4University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, CO.

(No relationships reported)

Recess interventions involving curriculum led by adult instructors have become popular in schools interested in increasing the amount of recess physical activity (PA).

PURPOSE: To examine the effects of a recess curriculum on the accumulation of moderate-vigorous PA (MVPA) during lunch recess.

METHODS: SPARK Active Recreation ® was implemented in 12 elementary schools during lunch recess in Metro Denver during the fall and spring of 2011-2012. We recorded 6 consecutive days of wrist-mounted accelerometry data (75 Hz) in 1st, 3rd and 5th grade students in 8 schools (4 SPARK, 4 control). Accelerometry data were collected after the conclusion of the spring intervention. Using a custom Matlab program, we filtered the data (0.2-15 Hz) and calculated a signal vector magnitude (SVM) per second. We applied published, child-specific cutpoints to the one-second data to distinguish between sedentary, light, moderate and vigorous activity. Factorial ANOVA was used to examine the effects of SPARK, grade, sex and overweight status on percent of recess time spent in MVPA.

RESULTS: Schools receiving the SPARK intervention demonstrated a significantly lower percentage of MVPA during lunch recess compared to control schools (47.0 vs. 51.5%, p < .001). A significant interaction was also observed between SPARK and grade, such that 5th grade students spent a significantly lower percentage of recess time in MVPA after receiving SPARK compared to 1st and 3rd grade students. No effect of sex or overweight status was observed.

CONCLUSIONS: After conclusion of a recess curriculum, MVPA was lower in intervention schools compared to control schools, suggesting that SPARK may not result in the accumulation of more MVPA.

Supported by NICHD/NCI/NIDDK R01HD057229

868 Board #283 May 28, 2:00 PM - 3:30 PM

Development Of An “App” To Decrease Technology-Related Sedentary Behavior In Preschoolers: A Formative Pilot Study

Mary E. Gillis, Carol Ewing Garber, FACSM. Teachers College, Columbia University, New York, NY.

(No relationships reported)

Physical inactivity is a major problem among preschool children and enjoyable tools that would facilitate physical activity (PA) are needed. Apps are attractive and accessible, but it is unknown if they can be effective in promoting physically active play in young children.

PURPOSE: The purpose was to assess the content and appeal of a PA themed, smart-phone application, “Mad Dash!” geared towards preschoolers, ages 3 to 5 years old. A secondary aim was to measure the PA levels children achieved while playing the game.

METHODS: Twenty children and 17 adults participated in a 20-minute testing session for a total of seventeen parent/child dyads (3 parents played with 2 siblings simultaneously). The sessions took place in outdoor parks in Pittsburgh, PA. Parents received an overview of the game and a tutorial on how to use the iPhone App. Pedometers were placed on the right hip of each child to measure the PA levels achieved during the 20-minute play session. At the game’s end, pedometers were collected and step counts recorded. Parents and children filled out a post-evaluation questionnaire designed specifically for this research to assess the content and appeal of “Mad Dash!”.

RESULTS: Table 1.1 shows characteristics of study participants. Children averaged 526 steps during the 20-minute play session.

CONCLUSION: This pilot study provides preliminary evidence to support creatively driven, PA themed media in an effort to decrease technology-related sedentary behavior among young children, ages 3 to 5. This is important when sedentary behavior as a direct result of increased technology use continues to rise among this population.

869 Board #284 May 28, 2:00 PM - 3:30 PM

Factors That Influence Youth Sport Coaches’ Decisions

Kelly D. Pagnotta, Jessica C. Martinez, Thomas H. Trojian, Stephanie M. Mazerolle, Lindsay J. DiStefano. University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT. (Sponsor: Douglas J. Casa, FACSM)

(No relationships reported)

Lower extremity injury prevention programs (IPP) reduce injury rates, but are not widely adopted across youth sport. Coaches are often tasked with implementing these IPPs. Therefore, efforts to improve IPP adoption should be focused on coaches. Knowledge about factors that influence coaches’ decisions to modify practice plans and adopt IPPs may greatly improve IPP dissemination.

PURPOSE: To determine what factors influence youth basketball (BB) and soccer (SOC) coaches’ decisions regarding their practice plans.

METHODS: An electronic survey was distributed to Connecticut youth (middle and high school) BB and SOC. Six questions were asked to investigate the influence of supervisors (SUP), parents (PAR), successful coaches (SC), famous professional athletes (FPA), the national governing body (NGB), the national coaching organization (NCO) and the coaches’ players (PLAY) on the coaches’ practice plans. All questions utilized a 5-point Likert scale (5=strongly agree, 1= strongly disagree). These responses were dichotomized (1-3= not influenced, 4-5= influenced). Chi-Square tests were performed on all variables to evaluate if influencing factors were sport-specific. Odds ratios (OR) were calculated if a significant (p < 0.05) association was observed. If responses were not sport-specific, chi-square tests were performed across all coaches. Pearson correlation coefficients were calculated to evaluate associations between influencing factors.

RESULTS: 197 coaches (97 BB, 100 SOC, Age: 41.77+11.11 years) completed the survey. SOC reported being influenced more than BB for FPA (χ2(1, N=146)=3.66, p=0.04)(OR= 2.24, 95% CI = 1.15, 4.36) (BB: 23%, SOC: 38%), NGB ((χ2(1, N=146)=5.67, p=0.01) (OR=2.23, 95% CI = 1.15, 4.36) (BB-36%, SOC 56%), NCO ((χ2(1, N=145, p=0.003) (BB 31%, SOC 54%). All coaches reported being influenced by SC [χ2(1, N=147)= 12.58, p<0.001), but not influenced by PAR [χ2(1, N=146)= 96.30, p<0.001), SUP [χ2(1, N=146)= 19.97, p<0.001), FPA [χ2(1, N=146)= 23.04, p<0.001. All influencing factors were positively correlated with each other (p<0.05).

CONCLUSIONS: Surprisingly, youth sport coaches do not appear to be greatly influenced by parents or their players. IPPs should be marketed toward governing bodies, and from successful coaches to encourage coach adoption into sport practices.

870 Board #285 May 28, 2:00 PM - 3:30 PM

Is African-American Girls’ Perception Of Their Mother-Daughter Relationship Associated To Psychosocial And Physical Activity Variables?

Sarah Burkart, Brett Winner, Cory Greever, Sofiya Alhassan, FACSM. University of Massachusetts Amherst, Amherst, MA.

(No relationships reported)

It has been reported that mother-daughter relationship can influence psychosocial variables such as physical activity (PA) self-efficacy in Caucasian girls. Currently, there is very little data on the impact of African-American girls’ perception of their relationship with their mother and psychosocial variables.

PURPOSE: To examine the association between mother-daughter relationship, PA self-efficacy and PA levels in African-American girls.

METHODS: Baseline data from mothers (n=28; age=37.0±6.7 years; BMI=33.5±10.6 kg/m2) and daughters (n=32; age=9.0±1.2 years; BMI=20.4±5.7 kg/m2, 90th percentile) participating in an afterschool mother-daughter PA study was used in this analysis. PA was measured for 7 continuous days using accelerometers. Parental Responsiveness (PR) and Adolescent Openness to Parental Socialization scales were used to assess mother-daughter relationship. Daughters’ self-esteem and depressive symptoms were assessed with the Rosenberg Self-Esteem (RSE) scale and Child Depression Inventory (CDI), respectively. Participants’ PA self-efficacy (PA-SE) was assessed with validated questionnaires. Spearman correlations were used to examine associations between mother-daughter relationship, psychosocial variables, and PA levels. Daughters’ scores for the PR scale were divided into tertiles. Between group (high versus low perception of mother-daughter relationship) differences in psychosocial variables and PA were assessed with t-tests.

RESULTS: Daughters’ perception of their mother-daughter relationship was positively correlated with RSE (r=0.36, p=0.04). Daughters’ percent time spent in MVPA was negatively correlated with CDI (r= -0.42, p=0.03) and positively correlated with their mothers’ PA-SE (r=0.44, p=0.04). With respect to daughters’ PR scale, significant differences in RSE score (HIGH=23.82±4.33; LOW 18.20±4.87, p=0.01) and percent time spent in sedentary activity (HIGH=27.83±32.31; LOW=57.41±20.93, p=0.02) were observed between the highest and lowest tertiles.

CONCLUSION: African-American girls’ perception of their relationship with their mother seems to be associated with their self-esteem, depressive symptoms and sedentary pursuits. Thus, future studies should target interventions that also improve mother-daughter relationship.

871 Board #286 May 28, 2:00 PM - 3:30 PM

The Influence Of 20 Week Trampoline Training On Body Mass Index And Motor Proficiency In Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders

Carla Lourenço1, Dulce Esteves1, Rui Corredeira2, André Seabra2, Paulo Pinheiro1. 1Beira Interior University, Covilhã, Portugal. 2Faculty of Sport of the University of Porto, Porto, Portugal.

(No relationships reported)

Regular physical exercise potentially promotes several benefits in people with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) (SOWA, 2012). Children with autism spectrum disorders present significant and widespread changes in motor performance (Fournier, 2010). The use of trampolines potentially improves balance and motor proficiency of children with learning disabilities (Giagazoglou, 2013).

PURPOSE: This study aims to evaluate the efficacy of a twenty-weeks trampoline training (TT) program on body mass index (BMI) and motor proficiency for children with ASD.

METHODS: Seventeen children (5 girls and 12 boys, age 4-10) were assigned to either a supplemental trampoline training (TG) or control group (CG). Both groups continued to participate in their regular education curriculum.

BMI was evaluated by height and weight measurement and motor proficiency used the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency (2nd ed.), (BOT). The groups were evaluated in the beginning (baseline) and in the end of program (after 20 weeks). Group results were compared using multivariate analysis of variance (ANOVA).

RESULTS: The TT program resulted in significant increases motor proficiency (p=.000): TG children evolved from a total BOT score of 21.33±17.682 (baseline) to 35.17±17.747 after 20 weeks, while control group evolved from a total BOT score of 28.27±10.001 to 30.27±7.55. No statistical differences were found on BMI.

CONCLUSION: Trampoline training is an effective option to develop motor proficiency for children with ASD.

872 Board #287 May 28, 2:00 PM - 3:30 PM

Low-intensity Physical Activity Reduces Postprandial Insulin Secretion In Obese Adolescents Consuming High-fructose And High-glucose Diets

Timothy D. Heden, Ying Liu, Young-min Park, Nathan C. Winn, Lauryn M. Nyhoff, Jill A. Kanaley, FACSM. University of Missouri, Columbia, MO.

(No relationships reported)

Low-intensity physical activity (LIPA) reduces postprandial glucose and insulin concentrations in adults, but it is unknown if LIPA improves postprandial glucose and insulin concentrations in obese adolescents consuming high-fructose (HF) or high-glucose (HG) diets.

PURPOSE: To determine if LIPA would improve postprandial glucose and insulin concentrations in obese adolescents consuming HF and HG diets.

METHODS: Seven obese male and female adolescents (18 ± 1 yr, 97th BMI percentile) performed four, 15 d trials in random order including 1) HF diet (50 g fructose/d added to normal diet) with only normal activities of daily living (7,548 ± 285 steps/d), 2) HG diet (50 g glucose/d) with only normal activities of daily living (7,915 ± 680 steps/d), 3) HF diet with LIPA added (13,730 ± 796 steps/d), and 4) HG diet with LIPA added (12,918 ± 721 steps/d). On the 15th d of each trial, the participants reported to the lab for mixed meal testing in which they consumed three liquid shakes (one shake every 4 h, either HF or HG, each shake 450 Calories, 45% Carbohydrate [16.7 g fructose or 20.1 g glucose], 40% fat, 15% protein), over a 12 h period with frequent blood samples taken throughout each trial and assayed for glucose, insulin, and c-peptide concentrations. During the HF and HG trials, the participants took < 2,000 steps while in the lab. During the HF + LIPA and HG + LIPA trials, the participants performed treadmill walking at a self-selected pace (walked for 5 min every h and for 1 h straight prior to the last shake) so that they took > 13,000 steps during testing. Insulin secretion rates (ISR) were calculated using the ISEC deconvolution program and hepatic insulin clearance was calculated as the molar ratio of insulin to c-peptide.

RESULTS: Postprandial glucose, ISR, or insulin clearance was not different between HF and HG diets. LIPA did not alter postprandial glucose concentrations or insulin clearance (P > 0.05). However, the ISR was 52% and 34% greater during the HF and HG sedentary trials, respectively, compared to the HF + LIPA and HG + LIPA trials (P < 0.05).

CONCLUSIONS: Replacing some sitting time with walking at a low intensity reduces postprandial insulin secretion while consuming a HF and HG diet. Independent of diet, LIPA is potentially an important clinical strategy for reducing an adolescent’s risk of developing diabetes.

873 Board #288 May 28, 2:00 PM - 3:30 PM

These Boots are Made for...sitting? Associations of Girls’ Clothing with Physical Activity in Afterschool Programs

Rebecca Kyryliuk, Morgan Hughey, Robert G. Weaver, Michael W. Beets. University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC.

(No relationships reported)

Girls have consistently displayed lower physical activity (PA) levels than boys as early as elementary school, with further declines into adolescence. Many efforts have been made to increase girls’ PA levels, with largely mixed results. Targeting girl’s clothing and shoes that restrict PA may be a relevant avenue for PA interventions in youth.

PURPOSE: To evaluate the impact of non-active clothing and shoes on the time elementary-aged girls spend sedentary and in moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) in afterschool programs (ASPs).

METHODS: PA and sedentary time were measured via accelerometers, placed on the waist, on a random sample of 597 female students (mean age = 8 ± 1.8 yrs) with 1445 total observations in 20 ASPs in the Spring of 2013. Evenson cutpoints were used to determine MVPA. Matthews cutpoints were used to measure sedentary time. Trained researchers recorded whether the students were wearing non-active clothing or shoes. Non-active shoes were defined as boots, shoes with a heel, and sandals or any open-toed shoe. Non-active clothing included any skirt or dress worn without leggings. Multilevel multivariate linear regression, controlling for age and total time in attendance, was used to determine associations. Any students attending the ASP for fewer than 55 minutes per observation were excluded.

RESULTS: Wearing non-active clothing (N=61 observations) was associated with 3.92 ± 1.1 fewer minutes of MVPA (p=0.00, CI=-6.01,-1.83) and 8.68 ± 2.0 more minutes spent in sedentary time (p=0.00, CI=4.67, 12.68) for girls in ASPs. Wearing non-active shoes (N=267 observations) was associated with 1.39 ± 0.6 fewer minutes of MVPA (p=0.02, CI=-2.58,-0.20) and 2.68 ± 1.2 more minutes spent in sedentary time (p=0.02, CI=0.38,4.97). No association was found for the interaction of clothing and shoes (N=17 observations) with MVPA (p=0.41) or sedentary behavior (p=0.30).

CONCLUSION: Girls in ASPs accumulate significantly fewer minutes of MVPA and spend more time sedentary when wearing non-active clothing or shoes. ASPs can increase the likelihood of MVPA and decrease sedentary time for girls by adopting policies that encourage children to avoid dress clothes and wear active clothing and shoes.

© 2014 American College of Sports Medicine