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Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise:
doi: 10.1249/01.mss.0000433601.15987.14

A-26 Thematic Poster - Fitness Assessment Strategies for Children and Adolescents

Free Access

May 29, 2013, 9:30 AM - 11:30 AM

Room: 207

85 Chair: Avery D. Faigenbaum. The College of New Jersey, Ewing, NJ.

(No relationships reported)

86 Board #1 May 29, 9:30 AM - 11:30 AM

Comparing Aerobic Capacity Estimates In Children Of Long-term Healthy And High-risk Body Fat

Loran D. Erdmann, Cathy S. McMillan. Western Illinois University, Macomb, IL. (Sponsor: Michael P. Godard, FACSM)

(No relationships reported)

With high childhood obesity rates, body fat (BF) and aerobic capacity (AC) are important health-related physical fitness parameters commonly tested in schools.

PURPOSE: To compare AC of 11-year-olds with long-term healthy and high-risk BF and report AC healthy fitness zone (HFZ) classification rates by sex-and-BF group, using FITNESSGRAM® & ACTIVITYGRAM® Test Administration Manual, Updated Fourth Edition (2010).

METHODS: Examined were school-based health-related physical fitness test data from 269 boys and 248 girls with body mass index (BMI, kg.m-2) and BF% (from triceps and medial calf skinfolds) values at ages 8, 9, 10, and 11 yrs, and 1-mile run/walk elapsed time at age 11 yrs. We considered 85 boys and 58 girls with BF% in the HFZ at each of the 4 ages to have long-term healthy BF. We also considered 26 boys and 31 girls with high-risk BF% at each of the 4 ages to have long-term high-risk BF. At age 11 yrs, AC ( was predicted from age, gender, BMI, and 1-mile run/walk time. In separate gender analyses, independent t tests were used (p < 0.05) to compare AC of long-term healthy and long-term high-risk BF groups. HFZ classification rates were also found for boys and girls by BF groups.

RESULTS: AC was significantly higher in long-term healthy BF boys compared to long-term high-risk BF boys (m+sd = 50.5+3.8 v. 37.0+3.5, t(109) = 16.20, p < 0.001). AC was also significantly higher in long-term healthy BF girls compared to long-term high-risk BF girls (m+sd = 45.5+2.9 v. 34.6+2.8, t(87) = 17.10, p < 0.001). All 85 boys and all 58 girls with long-term healthy BF achieved AC values in the HFZ, whereas only 4 of 26 boys (15%) and 1 of 31 girls (3%) with long-term high-risk BF were classified in the HFZ for AC.

CONCLUSION: In upper-elementary-aged boys and girls with long-term healthy BF, AC is approximately 4 and 3 METs higher than in their long-term high-risk BF counterparts, respectively. The likelihood that AC is satisfactory in upper-elementary-aged children with long-term healthy BF is extremely high, whereas AC needs improvement in the vast majority of those with long-term high-risk BF.

87 Board #2 May 29, 9:30 AM - 11:30 AM

High Intensity Aerobics Training Induces Robust Improvements In Cardiopulmonary Function In Healthy Adolescent Boys

Azmy Faisal1, Khaled Hammouda2. 1Queen’s University, Kingston, ON, Canada. 2Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt.

(No relationships reported)

Aerobics training has shown to induce distinct changes in cardiopulmonary fitness; however, little is known about the “optimal” aerobics training intensity to improve the cardiopulmonary function in healthy adolescents.

PURPOSE: This study compared the effects of 3 interval aerobics programs on the cardiopulmonary function in healthy adolescent boys.

METHODS: 56 active boys (13.6 ± 0.4 years, 166 ± 4.5 cm, 61 ± 5.5 kg) were divided into 4 homogeneous groups; 3 experimental groups (A,B,C) and control group. The experimental groups had participated in 11 weeks of interval aerobics training, 4 times a week (45 min per session). Training intensities were determined as a percentage of heart rate reserve (HRR); Group A (60-75%), B (70-85%) and C (80-95%). Maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max), resting lung functions, as well as post exercise heart rate (HR)recovery and blood lactate [La-] were measured before and after training interventions in the experimental groups and within 12 weeks in the control group.

RESULTS: Following training programs there were significant differences between the 3 experimental groups and the control group in all variables, as well as between pre and post training measurements within all the experimental groups. High intensity aerobics programs in Group B and C had shown greater improvements in VO2max, HR recovery, maximal voluntary ventilation (MVV), and post exercise [La-] compared to the moderate aerobics program in Group A. VO2max had increased in Groups B and C by 18.1% and 17.7 % (B: 47.3 to 55.8; C: 47.3 to 55.7 ml/kg/min) compared to 13.7% in Group A (46.8 to 53.2 ml/kg/min). Improving VO2max could be linked to increase stroke volume and oxygen delivery. MVV had increased in Groups B and C by 25.2% and 25.8% (B: 115 to 144; C: 24 to 156 l/min) compared to 17.3% in Group A (117 to 137 l/min). Enhancing MVV could result from improving respiratory muscle contractility and lung volumes. Post exercise [La-] had decreased in Groups B and C by 71.7% and 64.6% (B: 9.2 to 2.6; C: 9.1 to 3.2 mM) compared to 55.2% in Group A (9.3 to 4.2 mM). Lower post exercise [La-] could be associated with the augmentation of skeletal muscle oxidative capacity.

CONCLUSION: High intensity interval aerobics training above 70% HRR seems to be notably more effective in improving the cardiopulmonary function in healthy adolescent boys.

88 Board #3 May 29, 9:30 AM - 11:30 AM

Early Age Gender Differences In Health Related Fitness Components Among Children In Puerto Rico

Olvin O. Rosado-Mendez, Rosimayri Hernandez-Melendez, Lucia del R. Martinez, Farah A. Ramirez-Marrero, FACSM. University of Puerto Rico, Río Piedras Campus, San Juan, PR.

(No relationships reported)

Poor health related physical fitness (HR-fitness) is associated with increased risk of cardio-metabolic diseases starting early in life, and gender differences are usually apparent after the age of 9 yrs. Children in Puerto Rico (PR) are at a high risk of inactivity and poor nutritional habits. However, physical fitness characteristics have not been documented in this group.

PURPOSE: To describe HR-fitness in 6-7 year old children in PR, and identify gender differences and associations between HR-fitness components.

METHODS: A pilot study was conducted to evaluate HR-fitness components in a group of 79 children (40 girls, 39 boys): muscle strength and endurance, flexibility and body composition using the Fitnessgram protocol (curl-ups, push-ups, back-saver sit and reach, trunk lift, shoulder stretch, height, weight, and triceps and calf skinfolds). A vertical jump and hand grip strength tests were also included. A t-test was used to detect differences by gender. Spearman correlations, lineal and logistic regression were used to test association between variables.

RESULTS: BMI (group mean±sd=17.1±2.8 kg/m2) and the proportion of children classified as normal, overweight and obese according to age and gender specific BMI percentiles (group=86%, 6%, and 8%, respectively) were similar between boys and girls. There was a tendency for boys to be taller and to have lower triceps skinfolds compared to girls. Boys also had less body fat and higher left hand grip strength compared to girls (17.7±7.4 vs. 20.7±5.9%, 9.9±1.8 vs. 8.5±2.3 kg, respectively, P≤0.05); but girls had higher sit & reach values with either right or left leg compared with boys (11.9±1.5 vs. 10.2±1.7 in; 11.6±1.6 vs. 10.2±1.9

in, respectively, P<0.001). Although BMI was not correlated with HR-fitness, skinfold thickness was significantly associated with flexibility and vertical jump.

CONCLUSION: Unlike other studies, gender differences in strength and flexibility in children as young as 6-7 years of age suggest that factors other than maturation might play a role possibly influencing fitness development later in life.

89 Board #4 May 29, 9:30 AM - 11:30 AM

The Effects Of Sport Type And Angular Velocity On Isokinetic Hamstrings To Quadriceps Ratio In Adolescent Female Subjects

Gul Baltaci, FACSM, Gulcan Harput. Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey.

(No relationships reported)

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of sport type and angular velocity on hamstring to quadriceps peak torque ratio in healthy adolescent female subjects .

METHODS: A total of 85 female adolescent subjects, including 30 sedentary subjects (mean age:15.3±2.8yrs, body mass:54.9±9.9kg, height:158.8±17.7cm, BMI:20.9±3.5kg/m2), 31 volleyball players (mean age:14.8±0.7yrs, body mass:61.7±6.5kg, height: 172.5±7.1cm, BMI: 20.5±1.5kg/m2) and 24 soccer players (mean age:14.7±1.1yrs, body mass: 51.7±6.7kg, height: 159.7±5.6 cm, BMI: 20.3±2.6 kg/m2) voluntarily participated to this study. Isokinetic knee strength of both dominant (D) and non-dominant (ND) knees was evaluated by Isomed 2000 isokinetic dynamometer at 180 °/s and 60 °/s angular velocities. Multivariate analysis of variance (sport type × angular velocity) was used for identifying significant interactions and main effects. Bonferroni test was used for pairwise comparison.

RESULTS: There was no significant sport type × angular velocity interaction in H: Q ratio of D (F 2, 163=2.2 p=.1) and ND (F 2, 163=0.46 p=.6) knee. The main effect of angular velocity (D: F 1, 163=12.8, p<.001, ND: F 1, 163=19.5, p<.001) and sport type (D: F 2, 163=9.5, p=<.001, ND: F 1, 163=4.3, p=.02) was found significant.Volleyball players had lower H:Q ratio than soccer players in both D (p<.001) and ND (p=.01) and sedentary subjects in D knee (p=.02). Soccer player showed higher H:Q ratio than the others. All groups showed lower H:Q ratio in 60°/s angular velocity than 180°/s in D (p=.005) and ND (p<.001) knees; respectively.

CONCLUSIONS: It has been found that athletes with a concentric H:Q ratio closer to 1.0 may have a reduced risk of hamstrings strain and ACL injuries. In this study, soccer players showed higher H: Q ratio than volleyball players and sedentary subjects. Therefore, sedentary subjects and volleyball players were at a risk of injury because the H:Q ratio was below 75%. In addition, all groups showed higher H: Q ratio at 180 °/s angular velocity. Therefore, isokinetic training with 180 °/s angular may be effective for improving the H: Q strength ratio than 60°/s in adolescent female subjects.

90 Board #5 May 29, 9:30 AM - 11:30 AM

Profiling 11-year-old Male Soccer Players By Position: Size, Maturation, Aerobic Fitness, Training And Competition Time

António J. Figueiredo1, Vítor Severino1, Ricardo Rebelo-Gonçalves1, Amândio C. Santos1, Carlo Castagna2, Manuel J. Coelho-e-Silva1, Robert M. Malina, FACSM3. 1Faculty of Sport Sciences and Physical Education - University of Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal. 2Football Training and Biomechanics Lab, Italian Football Federation (FIGC), Florence, Italy. 3University of Texas, Austin, and Tarleton State University, Stephenville, Texas, Austin, TX.

(No relationships reported)

Elite adolescent soccer players 15-16 years show a clear gradient in stature by playing position: defenders > midfielders > forwards, and a different gradient for weight: defenders > forwards > midfielders. In contrast, elite 13 year old players do not differ in estimated VO2max by playing position. Corresponding variation in physical and functional characteristics of younger soccer players by position is not well documented.

PURPOSE: This study examines variation in body size, peak oxygen uptake and training/playing volume by playing position in Under-12 soccer players.

METHODS: A sample of 28 male soccer players with a mean chronological age (CA) of 11.9±0.3 years were classified by playing position: defenders (n=9), midfielders (n=11) and forwards (n=8). Anthropometry included body mass and stature and skinfolds. Skeletal age (SA) was estimated with the Fels method. Aerobic power was directly assessed with a maximal progressive treadmill protocol. All measurements were taken at the early phase of the competitive season. Information on training and playing time was obtained from the coaches. ANOVA was used for comparisons of characteristics by playing position. Significance was set at p<0.05.

RESULTS: The following trends (means) were noted in sequence among defenders, midfielders and forwards, respectively: CA (12.1, 11.7, 11.9 yrs, p=0.003); SA (12.8, 12.1, 11.6 yrs, p=0.060); SA-CA (0.71, 0.40, -0.31 yrs; p=0.256); height (151.5, 144.2, 142.6 cm; p=0.098); weight (46.3, 35.7, 35.1 kg, p=0.056); peak oxygen uptake (2.66, 2.21, 2.18 L/min; p=0.048); training volume (7053.3, 6283.6, 6322.5 min, p=0.790); played time (712.8, 535.9, 433.4 min, p=0.021).

CONCLUSION: Under-12 soccer players are reasonably differentiated in size, maturity, aerobic fitness and training/playing time by position, especially defenders compared to forwards and midfielders. Longitudinal studies are needed to examine developmental changes and eventual career success of young soccer players specialized in different positions at relatively early ages.

Partially supported by FCT Grant SFRH/BD/69447/2010

91 Board #6 May 29, 9:30 AM - 11:30 AM

Reliability of Hip and Knee Isometric Strength Testing in Young Athletes

Joanne L. Parsons, Michelle M. Porter. University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB, Canada.

(No relationships reported)

The ability to quantify lower extremity neuromuscular strength in young athletes may aid in identifying deficiencies that increase the risk of knee injury. However, the outcome measure must be reliable in order for interventions to be appropriately assessed.

PURPOSE: To determine the relative and absolute test-retest reliability of hip abduction/adduction and hip and knee flexion/extension isometric average (AT) and peak torque (PT) using an isokinetic dynamometer in athletes aged 10-14 years.

METHODS: Fifty-two athletes (26 girls) were tested twice about one week apart (T1 & T2). Hip strength was tested in standing and knee strength in sitting. Relative reliability was assessed using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs), and absolute reliability was assessed using standard errors of measurement (SEM), coefficients of variation of the typical error (CVTE) and ratio limits of agreement (RLOA).

RESULTS: Relative reliability was similar for AT (ICCs=.8-.97) and PT (ICCs=.79-.97) for all muscle groups. Paired t-tests identified systematic bias in some measures (hip adduction PT at T1=45.4 vs. T2=50.5 Nm; hip adduction AT at T1=38.7 vs. T2=43.1 Nm; knee extension AT at T1=86.0 vs. T2=82.5 Nm; p<0.05). Hip flexion and knee extension PT and AT demonstrated better absolute reliability (PT SEM=8.1 & 8.7 Nm, CVTE=9.3 & 12.9%; AT SEM=6.8 & 8.5 Nm, CVTE=12.6 & 10.1%) compared to the other muscle groups (PT SEM=10.3-14.3 Nm; CVTE=24.1-27.0%; AT SEM=9.7-12.5 Nm, CVTE=25.7-28.1%). Ratio limits of agreement analyses also resulted in better hip flexion and knee extension absolute reliability compared to other muscle groups (RLOA=25.7 & 35.7 vs. 66.7-74.8%).

CONCLUSIONS:Clinically, the absolute reliability results of this study can offer a guide as to whether a true change in strength has occurred in individuals or a group in response to an intervention. Generally, isometric strength testing using a dynamometer in 10-14 year old athletes was found to be reliable, however some athletes showed great variability between sessions. Certain strength tests may benefit from an added familiarization session to help eliminate systematic bias. Funding: Manitoba Health Research Council, Canadian Institutes of Health Research & Sport Medicine Council of Manitoba

92 Board #7 May 29, 9:30 AM - 11:30 AM

Reliability and Minimal Detectable Change of Hip Flexibility and Strength Measures in Youth Soccer Players

Darren J. Paul, George Nassis, Rod Whiteley, Joao B. Marques, Dean Kenneally, Hakim Chalabi. ASPETAR Qatar Orthopaedic and Sports Medicine Hospital, Doha, Qatar.

(No relationships reported)

Groin injuries are a significant problem in soccer. The role of regular screening to allow for early identification of groin injury is considered a worthwhile preventative strategy and useful for quantifying match play load. However, to be considered a useful measuring tool, the minimal detectable change (MDC) and test reliability associated with hand held dynamometry (HHD) should be established.

PURPOSE: 1) Identify the MDC for HHD hip strength and flexibility measures 2) Determine inter- and intra- rater test-retest reliability for HHD hip strength and flexibility measures in youth soccer players.

METHODS: Twenty well-trained youth team soccer players (mean±SD age 16.7±1.3; weight 61.±6.1kg; height 174.9±4.9cm) participated in the study. Intra and inter rater reliability was determined for bent knee fall out test, hip abduction and adduction. Reliability was evaluated with the Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC[2,1]) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) and MDC derived from the ANOVA. Internal load was evaluated as rate of perceived exertion (RPE)*match time.


Intrarater reliability (ICC) range: bent knee fall out (0.59-0.70); abduction (0.82-0.93); adduction (0.72-0.96). Interrater reliability range: bent knee fall out test (0.64-0.77); abduction (0.78-0.82) adduction (0.62-0.65).

Table 1
Table 1
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CONCLUSION: A change in muscle force production and flexibility of more than 27 and 35% is necessary to be considered a worthwhile change that is not due to measurement variation. Strength and flexibility measures, when performed by the same tester, possess moderate to high reliability. A threshold may exist in which match play load negatively impacts hip flexibility.

93 Board #8 May 29, 9:30 AM - 11:30 AM

Association Between Flexibility And Knee Alignment In Children And Adolescents

Sophia Luengas, Rafael mancini, Diogo Bezerra, victor matsudo. CELAFISCS, São Caetano do sul, Brazil.

(No relationships reported)

PURPOSE: To analize the association between flexibility of the lower limbs and knee alignment of Brazilian adolescents students of the longitudinal of growth, development and physical lifestyle in Project of Ilhabela. A transverse study.

METHODS: 720 children and adolescents between 6-18 years were measured with IMD (intermalleolar distance), ICD (intercondilar dinstance) and flexibility according to the CELAFISCS protocols, anthropometric variables were: weigh, height and BMI. The sample was divided into female N=353 and male N=367.

RESULTS: The main and standard deviation age was 11,3 (2,5), weight 41,5 (13,3), height 143,9 (28,2), flexibility 24,8 (6,8), ICD 2,5 (1,4), IMD 3,6 (2,5). In the male group we found a significant statistical correlation between flexibility and ICD p .002 r: 0.19, the magnitude of the correlation was weak. We did not found a correlation between IMD and flexibility. In the women group there was not correlation between IMD and flexibility, IMD and ICD.

CONCLUSIONS: although there was a correlation between flexibility and ICD it was weak, therefore we cannot affirm that this hypothesis could happen in other different groups. We suggest going in deep these variables in different groups.

© 2013 American College of Sports Medicine


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