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Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise:
doi: 10.1249/01.mss.0000417529.22755.ed
Abstracts

Abst D-FreeCommPosters

Free Access

A-29 Exercise is Medicine/Poster - Body Composition, Diabetes, Cancer, Disease Management

May 30, 2012 7:30 AM - 12:30 PM

ROOM: Exhibit Hall

1220 Board #1 May 30 9:30 AM - 11:00 AM

Sitting Time Was Highly Associated With Physical Activity Level And Obesity In Brazilian Public Employees

Luiz Guilherme G. Porto1, João Luis A. E. S. P. Leitão2, Évelin D. R. dos Santos2, Felipe F. Cavalcante2, Allan R. Mello2, Rayane G. A. Costa2, Leiriane V. Gregório2. 1Brazilian Supreme Labor Court Health Service and University of Brasilia Faculty of Medicine - Cardiovascular Laboratory, Brasilia, Brazil. 2Brazilian Supreme Labor Court Health Service, Brasilia, Brazil.

(No relationships reported)

Public health recommendations for physical activity (PA) have focused on the minimal PA that everyone should accumulate on a regular basis. Recently, studies have shown that sedentary behavior, as sitting time, could also be important in the public health context.

PURPOSE: To analyze the association between sitting time, PA level and body composition among Brazilian civil servants from the Superior Labour Court (TST).

METHODS: A cross-sectional study was done with a sample of 404 TST employees (189 women - 46.8%), aged 42.1±10.1 yrs and BMI: 26.0±4,3 kg/m2, randomly recruited and stratified by sex. Sitting time (ST) was assessed by questionnaire as proposed by Katzmarzyk et al (Med Sci Sports Exerc 41(5)), with data grouped in 2 categories: those who reported Longer ST Period (≥3/4 of day time - LSTP) and those who reported a Shorter ST Period (≤1/2 of day time - SSTP). PA level was characterized by the IPAQ Questionnaire, considering 2 PA categories: Insufficient Active group (IA - those who didn’t met PA recommendations) and Active group (AT - those who met PA recommendations). Body composition was analyzed by BMI and obesity was considered when BMI≥30 kg/m2. Chi-square (X2) was used to analyze variable associations and Odds Ratio (95% CI) (OR) was calculated to evaluate the strength of the associations. Differences were considered statistically significant when p<0.05.

RESULTS: 181 volunteers (44.8%) reported a LSTP, 193 (47.8%) were IA and 68 (16.8%) were obese. ST frequencies and association analysis are shown on Table 1.

CONCLUSIONS: We observed a negative association between ST and PA level as for the body composition. Volunteers who reported a longer ST period showed a higher risk (estimated by OR) of been insufficiently active and obese.

1221 Board #2 May 30 9:30 AM - 11:00 AM

Table 1: Absolute an...
Table 1: Absolute an...
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Body Mass Index of North American Participants at the World Masters Games

Mark DeBeliso1, Joe Walsh2, Kent J. Adams, FACSM3, Mike Climstein, FACSM4, Ian T. Heazlewood5, Stephen Burke2, Jyrki Kettunen6. 1Southern Utah University, Cedar City, UT. 2Australian Catholic University, Sydney, Australia. 3California State University Monterey Bay, Seaside, CA. 4Bond University, Gold Coast, Australia. 5Charles Darwin University, Darwin, Australia. 6Arcada University, Invalidisäätiö, Finland.

(No relationships reported)

World Masters Games (WMG) athletes have either pursued a physically active lifestyle for an extended period of time or have initiated exercise/sport in later life. This unique cohort of middle- to older-aged adults remains relatively uninvestigated with regards to various measures of health. With a need for multifaceted solutions to the obesity epidemic, investigating special populations such as those competing in sport at older ages may further the understanding of the nexus between aging, physical activity and obesity.

PURPOSE: To investigate the body mass index (BMI) of North American WMG competitors with respect to national health guidelines and demographics.

METHODS: An online survey was utilized to collect demographic information from athletes competing at the Sydney WMG. BMI was derived using the participant’s height and body mass.

RESULTS: A total of 928 (46.7% male, 53.3% female) participants from Canada and the United States (age 52.6±9.8 yrs, range 27 to 87 yrs) completed the survey. The top 5 sports in which participants competed were football (25.6%), track/field (15.4%), swimming (8.4%), volleyball (8.2%), and softball (7.8%). Female and male BMI (kg/m2) across all sports were: >30 (obese-13.9%), 25-29.9 (overweight-34.1%), 18.5-24.9 (normal-50.3%), and <18.5 (underweight-1.7%). Data indicated that BMI was a health risk factor for 13.9% of the participants and a developing risk factor for 34.1% of the participants. Analysis demonstrated a significantly reduced (p<0.001) classification of obesity of the North American WMG competitors when compared to summary statistical values for the Canadian and United States national populations.

CONCLUSIONS: It is believed that adherence to exercise improves indices of general health. A key index of health (obesity) is significantly lower in incidence for North American WMG competitors when compared to Canadian and US populations.

1222 Board #3 May 30 9:30 AM - 11:00 AM

The Health Benefits of Exercise are Independent of Weight Loss in Obese Men and Women.

Phillipa Caudwell1, Catherine Gibbons1, Mark Hopkins1, Neil King2, Erik Naslund3, Graham Finlayson1, John Blundell1. 1University of Leeds, Leeds, United Kingdom. 2Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Australia. 3Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.

(No relationships reported)

Exercise is often prescribed as a method of weight loss and weight management, whilst other health benefits of exercise are less emphasized. Weight loss is not the only benefit of exercise and may not be the most appropriate marker of health.

PURPOSE: To examine the relationship between weight change and changes in health parameters during a supervised exercise program.

METHODS: METHODS: 107 overweight and obese men (n=35) and women (n=72) with a mean BMI=31.4±4.2kg/m2 and age= 40.9±9.2years, completed a supervised 12 week exercise program designed to increase gross energy expenditure (EE) by 2500kcal/wk at an intensity of 70% of their maximum heart rate. Various health markers including blood pressure (BP), aerobic fitness (AF), resting heart rate (RHR), and body composition were measured at weeks 0 and 12.

RESULTS: There was a significant reduction in mean body mass (-3.2±3.2kg, p<0.0001), however, there was large individual variability (range: -14.7 - +3.7kg) and approximately half (n=59) failed to change body composition as predicted - body mass (-0.81±2.11kg) and fat mass (-1.3±2.1kg). Despite this, their mean improvement in measured health markers was statistically significant; AF (+5.6±7.2ml/kg/min-1, p<0.0001) and fat free mass (+0.56±1.3kg, p=0.002) significantly increased, while RHR (-3.7±7.5bpm), Diastolic BP (-2.4±6.6mmHg, p=0.008), waist circumference (-3.2±2.7cm, p<0.00001) and % fat mass (-1.4±1.8, p<0.0001) significantly decreased. Improvements in blood pressure changes were more marked when hypertensive (135/90mmHg) individuals were examined separately. This group became normo-tensive by reductions in systolic (-13.0±10.1mmHg) and diastolic (-8.3±5.9mmHg) BP, which were independent of weight loss.

CONCLUSIONS: These data demonstrate that significant and meaningful exercise-induced health benefits can be achieved even with little or no weight loss. Therefore, the current public health focus on weight loss should be reduced and more attention focussed on improving general health. Supported by: Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BB51/B/05079 and BB/G005524/1).:

1223 Board #4 May 30 9:30 AM - 11:00 AM

Minimal Changes in Breathing Mechanics at Peak Exercise in Endurance-trained Obese Individuals

Santiago Lorenzo1, J. Todd Bassett2, Raksa B. Moran2, Jessica N. Pineda2, Tony G. Babb, FACSM3. 1Texas Health Presbyterian Hospital Dallas and UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX. 2Texas Health Presbyterian Hospital Dallas, Dallas, TX. 3UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX.

(No relationships reported)

PURPOSE: Alterations in respiratory mechanics predisposes healthy obese individuals to low lung volume breathing at rest and during exercise, which places them at risk of developing expiratory flow limitation (EFL). The high ventilatory demand in endurance-trained obese adults further increases their risk of developing EFL as well as their work of breathing. Therefore, we measured breathing mechanics and ventilatory dynamics during exercise in endurance trained obese individuals.

METHODS: Seven (5W/2M) endurance-trained obese adults (35±3yr, 37±5%body fat, 33±4 BMI, mean±SD) underwent hydrostatic weighing, pulmonary function testing, submaximal and maximal cycle exercise testing, and the determination of the oxygen cost of breathing during eucapnic voluntary hyperpnea (EVH).

RESULTS: Pulmonary function was normal (FVC 109±14%predicted, FEV1 108±11%predicted, PEF 119±13%predicted, MVV 129±6%predicted, TLC 101±13%predicted, FRC 45±6%TLC). Peak VO2 and work rate were 135±16 and 133±9%predicted, respectively. Peak ventilation, tidal volume, and breathing frequency were 125±36L/min (77±11%MVV), 2.6±0.6L (56±5%FVC), and 49±8bpm, respectively. During submaximal exercise end-expiratory lung volume dropped slightly but it returned to resting levels at peak exercise (rest 41.5±5.7, submaximal 38.1±8.5, peak 42.0±7.2%TLC). Slight EFL at peak (16±5% of tidal volume) without desaturation (98±1%) was observed in 6 subjects (5W/1M). During submaximal exercise the ventilatory response (VE/VCO2 slope) was 25±1, and at peak exercise the rating of perceived breathlessness (Borg 0-10 scale) was 7.7±1.6. The estimated oxygen cost of breathing during EVH was 1.75±0.74ml/L and during peak exercise averaged 7±3% of peak VO2.

CONCLUSIONS: Fit obese individuals were able to adequately increase ventilation and match the elevated metabolic demand associated with high fitness without substantial alterations in breathing mechanics. We conclude that endurance-trained obese individuals with normal lung function are not limited by breathing mechanics, which is good news for otherwise healthy obese adults who wish to participate in vigorous exercise training.

1224 Board #5 May 30 9:30 AM - 11:00 AM

Fat Free Mass Response Of Overweight Males Following 12 Weeks Of High-intensity Intermittent Exercise

Mehrdad Heydari1, Judith Freund2, Stephen H. Boutcher, FACSM1. 1University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia. 2St Vincent’s Hospital, Sydney, Australia. (Sponsor: Stephen Boutcher, FACSM)

(No relationships reported)

The effect of high-intensity intermittent exercise (HIIE) on fat free mass (FFM) of overweight males is undetermined.

PURPOSE: To examine the effect of a 12-week HIIE intervention on FFM levels of sedentary overweight men.

METHODS: Thirty eight males aged 24.9±4.3 years, with a BMI of 28.7±3.1 kg/m2, and body mass of 88.4±11.9 kg underwent a VO2max test pre- and posttraining. Total body fat and FFM was assessed by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. Subjects, who were randomly assigned to HIIE (n=20) or control groups (n=18), exercised three times a week for 12 weeks under supervision. The HIIE group completed 20 minutes of exercise (8 s sprint, 12 s recovery) each session, whereas controls performed no structured exercise for 12 weeks. Dietary intake was monitored through food diaries.

RESULTS: VO2max was significantly improved, P<0.05, by an increase of 15% in the HIIE group (34.2±4.4 to 39.4±3.5 ml.kg-1min-1) and remained unchanged in the control group. Total FFM was significantly increased, P<0.05, in the exercise group by 1.2 kg (54.3±6.5 to 55.5±6.1 kg) and remained unchanged in controls (53.8±6.5 to 54.2±6.1 kg). FFM increased by 0.4 kg in the leg (18.6±2.5 to 19.0±2.4 kg) and 0.7 kg in the trunk (24.9±3.1 to 25.6±3.0 kg) and was unchanged in the arm. Total fat mass in the HIIE group was significantly reduced (29.8±7.1 to 27.8±6.9 kg; P<0.05) by 7%, whereas in the controls fat mass was unchanged (31.7±9.3 to 31.8±9.9 kg).

CONCLUSIONS: Twenty minutes of HIIE, three times a week for 12 weeks, led to a significant decrease in fat mass and a significant increase in FFM in overweight, young males.

1225 Board #6 May 30 9:30 AM - 11:00 AM

A Multidisciplinary Intervention Results in Sustained Improvements in Fitness and Metabolic Profile in Overweight Youth

Karissa L. Peyer1, R Randall Clark1, Jens Eickhoff2, Aaron L. Carrel2. 1University of Wisconsin Hospital and Clinics, Madison, WI. 2University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, WI.

(No relationships reported)

PURPOSE: To evaluate the impact of a clinical intervention on body composition, aerobic fitness, cholesterol, and insulin sensitivity in a clinic for overweight children.

METHODS: 79 children (age 10.56 ± 3.24 years, BMI z-score 1.15-3.48) were followed for 24 months at a Pediatric fitness clinic. All children were seen for initial visit (T0), at 12 months (T12), 24 months (T24), and often for addition follow-up visits between these time points. All children had height, weight, and blood pressure assessed and BMI z-score was computed. DXA and a submaximal treadmill test were used to assess body composition and aerobic fitness. Many children also had carbohydrate and lipid metabolism assessed. Children and parents attended appointments with physicians, registered dieticians, and exercise physiologists to assess lifestyle habits and establish goals for healthy change. Follow-up intervals were set on an individual basis and typically ranged from 6 weeks to 3 months. Changes from baseline were evaluated using the nonparametric Wilcoxon Signed Rank test. Spearman’s rank correlations were also performed to assess relationships between variables.

RESULTS: At T12, significant changes (mean ± SD) were seen in VO2max (1.39 ± 3.25 ml/kg/min, p = 0.001), %fat (-2.18 ± 2.79%, p < 0.001), BMI z-score (-0.09 ± 0.21, p < 0.001), and Total Cholesterol (-19.72 ± 44.42 mg/dL, p = 0.01). There were no significant changes in fasting glucose, insulin or blood pressure. There were no significant differences between genders. All improvements remained significant at T24 [VO2max (1.32 ± 3.98 ml/kg/min, p = 0.006), %fat (-1.25 ± 2.87%, p = 0.006), BMI z-score (-0.13 ± 0.28, p < 0.001), and Total Cholesterol (-11.82 ± 22.77mg/dL, 0.025)]. Correlation analysis revealed a significant negative correlation (p<0.001) between changes in BMI z-score and VO2max levels from baseline to T12 (r = -0.67) and T24 (r = -0.71).

CONCLUSIONS: A personalized, multidisciplinary intervention focusing on lifestyle changes in nutrition and exercise for children yielded significant improvements in cholesterol measures, aerobic fitness, body composition and BMI for 2 years. Children who displayed positive changes in BMI z-score also saw the greatest improvement in VO2max. Further research should evaluate outcomes at longer follow-up intervals.

1226 Board #7 May 30 9:30 AM - 11:00 AM

Body Mass Index and Parental Efficacy for Children’s Exercise within a Youth Weight Management Program

David Bellar1, Charity L. Bryan1, Lisa Broussard1, Holly Howat1, Lawrence W. Judge2. 1University of Louisiana at Lafayette, Lafayette, LA. 2Ball State University, Muncie, IN.

(No relationships reported)

Childhood obesity is an alarming trend within the United States and other areas of the world. Greater understanding of the predictors of childhood obesity and overweight are necessary to effectively combat this growing problem.

PURPOSE: The present investigation was designed assess the efficacy of parental provision of exercise for children and its relationship to health and fitness in a group of overweight and obese youth.

METHODS: Fourteen parents and children (Male n=5, Female n=9, Age: 11.0±2.0yrs, Height 152.5±12.3cm, BMI 34.75±10.3) volunteered to participate in the present investigation. The participants were selected from the population of a local youth weight management program. After consent and assent were collected, the parents were asked to fill out a modified version of the Self Efficacy Scale for Exercise. The youth were tested for cardiovascular fitness via a progressive 20 meter shuttle run, body composition via two site skinfold testing (calf and tricep), body mass index, muscular endurance via curl up and push up tests, and flexibility through back saver sit and reach as well as trunk lift and shoulder flexibility testing.

RESULTS: In general the youth in the study were classified in the healthy fitness zone for the flexibility assessments, however, for all body mass or body composition assessments and tests of muscular endurance or aerobic capacity participating youth were below the healthy fitness zone. There was a significant negative correlation between the reported efficacy of provision of exercise by the parents and the body mass index of the children (r=-0.522, p=0.05).

CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study suggest that parental efficacy may be a discriminating factor within a population of overweight and obese, low fitness level youth. As such, parental empowerment may be a key to health related fitness within this population.

1227 Board #8 May 30 9:30 AM - 11:00 AM

Effects Of Family-based Behavioral Group Therapy And Exercise Training In Pre-pubertal Obese Children And Their Mother

Nathalie J. Farpour-Lambert1, Albane M. Maggio1, Xavier E. Martin1, Sophie Bucher Della Torre2, Yacine Aggoun1, Maurice Beghetti1. 1University Hospital of Geneva, Geneva 14, Switzerland. 2School of Dietetics HES, Geneva, Switzerland.

(No relationships reported)

PURPOSE: To determine the effects of a family-based behavioral group therapy combined with an exercise training program on body fat and cardio-respiratory fitness in pre-pubertal obese children and their mother.

METHODS: This was a 6-month RCT including 50 pre-pubertal obese children (mean age 9.7 years, 95% CI 9.1-10.1) and their mother (40.5 years, 38.2-43.0) were randomly assigned to an Intervention (I, n=25) or a Control group (C, n=25). The intervention consisted of 14 behavioral group therapy sessions (nutrition, physical activity, body image, motivation, positive reinforcement, social and parental skills) once a week for children and mothers separately. In addition, children exercised (swimming, ball games, resistance training) one hour twice a week, and mothers participated to a one-hour Nordic walking session per week. We assessed changes at 6 months in BMI, waist circumference (WC), total body and abdominal fat by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and cardio-respiratory fitness (VO2max).

RESULTS: At baseline, children’s characteristics were similar among groups. Mothers in the Intervention group had significantly (p<.05) higher WC, total body and abdominal fat than Controls. At 6 months, using mixed linear regression, we observed significant changes in children’s BMI (I-C treatment effect -0.67 g.cm-2), BMI Z-score (-0.15), WC (-1.33 cm), total body fat (-0.94%), abdominal fat (-2.08%), and VO2max (83.7 ml.min-1). In mothers, significant changes in BMI (I-C treatment effect -0.85 kg.cm-2), WC (-9.24 cm), total body fat -0.61%), and abdominal fat -1.43%) were shown.Changes in VO2max were not significant in mothers.

CONCLUSIONS: Family-based behavioral therapy combined with exercise training significantly reduces BMI and body fat in both pre-pubertal obese children and their mother. This is an interesting public health approach to promote behavioral changes and reduce the degree of adiposity at the family level. This study was funded by the Swiss National Science Foundation (#3200B0-120437) and the Geneva University Hospital Research and Development Fund.

1228 Board #9 May 30 9:30 AM - 11:00 AM

Examination of Modifiable Risk Factors for Obesity-Related Disease in African American College Students

Brenda L. Swearingin1, Jamie E. Robbins2, Patricia A. Lynch1, Wi-Young So3, Brandon J. Crooms1. 1North Carolina A&T State University, Greensboro, NC. 2Winston Salem State University, Winston Salem, NC. 3Seoul Women’s University, Seoul, Korea, Republic of.

(No relationships reported)

The disparity in the prevalence of obesity and concomitant risk for cardiovascular disease in African Americans (AA) is a significant medical concern. Obesity-related chronic disease, associated with modifiable behaviors, is being diagnosed in younger AA populations.

PURPOSE: To examine relationships of the following variables in AA college students: 1) social support for healthy behaviors, 2) amount of physical activity (PA), 3) diet, 4) body mass index (BMI), 5) systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressure, and 6) waist circumference (WC).

METHODS: 412 AA students completed a physical exam (BMI, SBP, DBP and WC) and a packet of surveys including the social support survey (SOC), a fruit and vegetable screener (FVS), a fat screener survey (FS), and the Paffenbarger PA questionnaire. Relationships were analyzed using one-way ANOVA, tukey post hoc comparisons and logistical regression.

RESULTS: The prevalence of overweight (OVW) and obesity (OB) was 28.3% and 30.3% respectively in males (N= 198, 20+1.5yrs) and 23.0% and 26.7% respectively in females (N=217, 19.8+1.6 yrs). In males, OVW subjects had WC (p < 0.01) and SBP (p < 0.05) indicating risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and low PA for recreational activities (p < 0.05). The OB group was classified as increased risk for WC (p < 0.001), SBP (p < 0.001), and DBP (p < 0.001) and lower than normal recreational activities (p < 0.05). Female subjects in the OVW group met risk classification criteria for WC (p < 0.001) and SBP (p < 0.05). Female subjects in the OB group had CVD risk classifications for WC (p < 0.001), SBP (p < 0.001), and DBP (p < 0.001) and lower than normal PA (p < 0.05). Logistic regression showed, for both males and females, there was no statistical significance between OVW or OB and SOC, PA, FVS, and FS for males or females. When PA was increased by 1,000 kcal, the prevalence of OB decreased by 9.3% (OR = 0.907, CI = 0.834-0.986, p = 0.022) in males and 9.0% (OR = 0.910, CI = 0.839-0.988, p = 0.025) in females.

CONCLUSIONS: The only significantly different risk factor for obesity in college African Americans is PA. Differences in female PA for normal vs. overweight/obesity existed in total PA; however, males demonstrated significant differences in PA for recreational activities alone. Supported by USDA Grant 0204191.

1229 Board #10 May 30 9:30 AM - 11:00 AM

Student Athletes Have A More Favorable Body Composition And Bone Mineral Density Than Non-athletes

Hattie H. Wright, Chrisna R. Botha, Lize Havemann-Nel. North-West University, Potchefstroom, South Africa.

(No relationships reported)

PURPOSE Data on the relative contribution of planned exercise to body composition and BMD of premenopausal black and white African women is scarce.

METHODS: Volunteer black and white University female students were recruited into groups according to exercise and race, namely white athletes (WA, n=117) and black athletes (BA, n=50), doing ≥5h/wk of planned weight bearing exercise, as well as white non-athletes (WNA, n=44) and black non-athletes (BNA, n=44) doing ≤1h/wk of planned exercise. Students with a body mass index (BMI) <28.0 and not pregnant were included. Exclusion criteria were use of corticosteroids/thiazides for ≥ 6 months and any known bone disease. Alpine spine (APS), femoral neck (FN), total hip (TH), and whole body (WB) BMD as well as body composition were measured with dual energy X-ray absorptiometry.

RESULTS: Mean age, weight, height, and BMI for the total group were 20.3±1.8yrs, 60.7±8.6kg, 1.65±0.1m, and 22.1±2.3kg/m2. WA were younger and heavier than both BNA and BA (p<0.05). Height differed significantly between all groups with WA the tallest and BNA the shortest [median = 1.67(1.64-1.72)m vs. 1.59(1.54-1.64)m, p<0.05]. After adjusting for age and weight BMD were similar between WNA and BNA, as well as WA and BA. WNA had lower BMD at all sites compared to WA (p<0.001). BNA had lower BMD at all sites compared to BA [APS= 0.969(0.912-1.028) vs. 1.087(0.991-1.148)g/cm2; FN=0.821(0.773-0.904) vs. 0.951(0.888-1.028)g/cm2; TH=0.926(0.872-1.012) vs. 1.028(0.959-1.099)g/cm2; and WB=1.072(1.003-1.108) vs. 1.129(1.074-1.180)g/cm2; p<0.001)]. Body fat percentage (BF%) was similar between WNA and BNA as well as WA and BA. WNA had significantly higher BF% than WA, and BNA than BA (p<0.05). Fat-free mass was similar between WNA and BNA, but lower in BNA compared to both WA and BA [38.3(33.5-42.0)kg vs. 46.4(43.3-49.1)kg and 42.3(39.9-46.7)kg, p<0.001). 36.4% WNA and 31.8% BNA had a Z-score between -1.0 and -2.0 at one or more BMD sites compared to 7.7% WA and 10% BA. Positive correlations were found between fat-free mass and height (r=0.7), weight (r=0.8), APS, FN, TH, and WB BMD (r=0.5 for all, p<0.05).

CONCLUSIONS: Exercise seemed to be the main contributing factor towards a higher BMD and a healthier body composition amongst this group of female students; ethnicity did not seem to play a role.

1230 Board #11 May 30 9:30 AM - 11:00 AM

Effect Of Tai Chi During Dietary Weight Loss On Body Composition In Obese, Postmenopausal Women

Lynn A. Katkowski, Marisa C. Benson, Steven Magnanti, Matthew J. Delmonico, Ingrid E. Lofgren, Furong Xu. University of Rhode Island, Kingston, RI.

(No relationships reported)

Obesity is a growing problem for the aging population. Obesity, particularly in older women, is associated with increased risk for chronic disease, disability, and loss of physical functioning. Tai Chi, a low impact form of exercise, has been shown to be effective in improving outcomes including strength and balance in older adults. However, there is no published research examining the effect of Tai Chi during dietary weight loss on body composition in obese older women.

PURPOSE: To examine the additive effect of Tai Chi during dietary weight loss on body composition in obese, postmenopausal women.

METHODS: A 16-week trial was conducted with 27 obese women randomized to a Tai Chi plus weight loss group (TCWL, n=14, age 60.4 ± 5.9 years, BMI = 34.3 ± 5.1 kg/m2) or a weight loss only group (WL, n=13, age 62.7 ± 6.0 years, BMI = 34.8 ± 2.9 kg/m2). Body mass, height, and waist circumference were assessed using standard techniques. Total body mass, fat mass, and fat free mass were assessed using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Thigh tissue composition was assessed using computed tomography. Both groups received a Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension-based weight loss program. The TCWL group also participated in three Tai Chi exercise sessions (∼45 min) per week. Between-group comparisons were analyzed using an analysis of covariance adjusting for baseline values.

RESULTS: Both groups significantly lost body mass (TCWL, -2.2 ± 0.9 kg; WL, -3.7 ± 0.9 kg; both p < 0.05) with no between-group differences. The TCWL group had a borderline attenuation in fat-free mass change compared to the WL group (-0.2 kg vs.-1.2 kg, p = 0.056). There were significant between group differences in thigh high density muscle (-0.54 kg vs. -1.32 kg, p = 0.0311). There were no significant between group changes in BMI, total fat mass, percent body fat, waist circumference, fat area, normal density muscle, or muscle fat.

CONCLUSIONS: Tai Chi appears to aid in preservation of fat free mass but does not have significant additive effect on body fat measures during dietary weight loss in older, postmenopausal women.

1231 Board #12 May 30 9:30 AM - 11:00 AM

Effect Of Martial Arts Exercise On Body Composition, Bone Biomarkers, And Quality Of Life In Overweight Premenopausal Women

Ming-Chien Chyu1, Raul Y. Dagda2, Susan Doctolero2, Eugene Chaung2, Vera Von Bergen2, Yan Zhang2, Michael Ragain2, Jean-Michel Brismée2, Chwan-Li Shen2. 1Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX. 2Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, Lubbock, TX.

(No relationships reported)

INTRODUCTION: Various exercise interventions have been shown to benefit weight control and promote general health, including bone health. Bone mineral density at the spine and hips as well as bone formation markers were found to be significantly associated with the level of physical activity of healthy premenopausal women. However, there is no data on the effects of martial arts exercise (MAE) on body composition, bone biomarkers, and quality of life in overweight/obese premenopausal women.

PURPOSE: To evaluate the effects of 12 weeks of MAE intervention on body composition, bone biomarkers and quality of life in overweight/obese premenopausal women.

METHODS: After screening, qualified premenopausal women were randomized into two groups: MAE (1 hr/session, 3 sessions/week for 12 weeks) or control group. Body composition (Tanita Body Composition Monitor), serum biomarkers (osteocalcin, C-terminal telopeptide, insulin-like growth factor-I, leptin, and C-reactive protein), and quality of life (SF-36) were assessed at baseline, 6, and 12 weeks. Data were analyzed using paired t-tests.

RESULTS: Twenty-three subjects participated in the MAE group (40.2±5.7 yr, BMI: 36.0±5.4 kg/m2) and 24 in the control group (40.6±6.9 yr, BMI: 35.8±7.1 kg/m2). Fourteen subjects dropped out (7 in MAE, 7 in control) before completing the intervention due to issues such as family, job, personal, and schedule. Compared to the control group, MAE group tended to lose body weight (P=0.09) along with decreased fat-free mass (P=0.007) and muscle mass (P=0.022). The MAE group demonstrated an increase in serum insulin-like growth factor-I concentration (P=0.045), but no change in other serum biomarkers including osteocalcin (bone formation biomarker), C-terminal telopeptide (bone resorption biomarker), leptin and C-reactive protein. The results of SF-36 revealed that subjects in the MAE group reported a significant improvement in general health, vitality, role-emotional, and mental health as compared to those in the control group.

CONCLUSIONS: MAE may be a feasible, low-cost, and effective approach to improve body composition and quality of life in overweight/obese premenopausal women. Our study underscores the need for further long-term studies using larger sample size to establish the benefits of MAE in this/other populations.

1232 Board #13 May 30 9:30 AM - 11:00 AM

Exercise Vital Sign Correlates with Diabetes Control

Robert Sallis, FACSM1, Eunis Ngor2, Karen Coleman2. 1Kaiser Permanente Medical Center, Fontana, CA. 2Southern California Permanente Medical Group, Pasadena, CA.

(No relationships reported)

The Exercise is Medicine campaign calls for physicians to evaluate the exercise habits of their patients and Kaiser Permanente in Southern California (KPSC) was the first major healthcare system to begin using an exercise vital sign to record patient activity levels at every visit. Use of the “Exercise Vital Sign” (EVS) began in October of 2009, with every patient reporting the minutes per week of moderate or greater exercise they typically engage in. In addition, the role of physical activity in both the treatment and prevention of diabetes has been well established. It stands to reason that patients who report doing recommended amounts of regular exercise are likely to have improved control of their diabetes.

PURPOSE: To evaluate the correlation between self reported exercise level (using the EVS) and diabetes control as assessed by hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels.

METHODS: Data were abstracted from the KPSC electronic medical records of 362,856 adults 18 years and older who had at least one HbA1c value during 4/1/2010 to 3/31/2011. Possion regression analyses were done to determine the association of the following predictors with HbA1c values >= 7.0: age, gender, race/ethnicity, body mass index (BMI), Charlson comorbidity index, and median exercise min/wk.

RESULTS: Independent of all other predictors including BMI and disease burden, adults who were completely sedentary (0 min/wk) had 16% increased risk of HbA1c >= 7.0 as compared to adults who were regularly active (150 min/wk; p < .001).

CONCLUSIONS: Based on data from the EVS, we conclude that self reported physical activity is strongly correlated with improved diabetes control. It is well known that improved diabetes control is a major factor in reducing complications and costs associated with diabetes. For this reason, it seems logical that all diabetic patients who report they are not doing any exercise should be targeted with interventions designed to increase their weekly levels of physical activity.

1233 Board #14 May 30 9:30 AM - 11:00 AM

Effect Of Exercise Training On Neuromuscular Function Of Arm And Leg Muscles Of Diabetic Patients

Massimo Sacchetti1, Ilenia Bazzucchi1, Francesco Felici1, Susan Dewhurst1, Antonio Sgadari2, Giuseppe De Vito1. 1University of Rome Foro Italico, Rome, Italy. 2Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Rome, Italy. (Sponsor: Carl Foster, FACSM)

(No relationships reported)

Diabetes is associated to muscle weakness and physical disability. On the other hand, exercise training has the potential of counteracting the diabetes-associated derangement of neuromuscular function.

PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of exercise training on neuromuscular function of arm and leg muscles in type 2 diabetic patients.

METHODS: Eight type 2 sedentary diabetic patients (D, 61.0±2.3) and eight sedentary healthy matched control subjects (H, 63.9±3.8) underwent a 16-week supervised combined aerobic and resistance exercise training program. Before and after training, maximal isometric (MVC) and isokinetic (15, 30, 60, 120, 180 and 240°/s) muscle strength of the elbow flexors (EF) and knee extensors (KE) were assessed to investigate the torque-velocity relationship. Simultaneously, the EMG activity from the biceps brachii (BB) and the vastus lateralis (VL) muscles was recorded by means of array electrodes, in order to estimate the muscle fibre conduction velocity (MFCV).

RESULTS: After the training program, no significant changes in EF maximal torque values were noted in both groups. Differently, KE maximal torque values of D were significantly enhanced (p<0.05) during the MVC (+10,8%) and during isokinetic contractions at 15, 30 and 60 °s-1 (+17,1% on average). EMG data mirrored what found for torque, with an increase in MFCV in VL in D during MVC and during isokinetic contractions at 15 and 30 °s-1 (+ 11.2% on average; p<0.01).

CONCLUSIONS: Exercise training is more effective in KE than in EF muscles of diabetic patients, as shown by the shift toward higher values of the torque-velocity relationship and the enhancement of MFCV. This is in line with the more pronounced neuromuscular impairment of the lower than the upper extremities in type 2 diabetes.

1234 Board #15 May 30 9:30 AM - 11:00 AM

Compliance, Safety And Utility Of Smartphone Indicators During A 52 Week Randomized Trial Of Prescriptive Exercise In Rural Patients With Metabolic Syndrome

Robert J. Petrella, FACSM1, Melanie Stuckey1, Kristin Sabourin1, Sheree Shapiro1, Brittany Izanstadt2, John A. Petrella1, Claudio Munoz3, Robyn Fulkerson4. 1U Western Ontario, London, ON, Canada. 2U Waterloo, Waterloo, ON, Canada. 3Gateway Rural Research Institute, Seaforth, ON, Canada. 4Sykes Assistance Services, London, ON, Canada.

(No relationships reported)

PURPOSE: To determine whether remote clinical monitoring technologies can provide markers of intervention compliance, safety and efficacy outside the clinic setting.

METHODS: In a 52 week randomized trial of lifestyle intervention to modify risk factors for metabolic syndrome (Artemis), we used a Smartphone technology- intensive monitoring system linked to a central database in an underserviced rural setting. 75 participants were prescribed a lifestyle intervention and provided with Smartphones and Bluetooth-enabled blood pressure (BP) monitors, glucometers and pedometers. Smartphones transmitted pre-determined daily clinical data to a central database (Healthyanywhere™): BP twice daily; blood glucose (BG) twice daily and steps daily. A customized, proprietary decision support system (DSS) detected abnormal clinical data and life style patterns based on pre-determined clinical threshold algorithms. BP was grouped as normal, high-normal, pre-hypertensive, Stage 1, Stage 2; BG as normal, impaired glucose tolerance, diabetic; steps as sedentary, low active, somewhat active, active and highly active.

RESULTS: 68 participants (48 women) [56.8 (9.8)] years old completed the study and are reported 0-12, 13-24 and 25-52 weeks. No differences were observed for gender. Compliance with data transmission was high (81-94%) across all measures and did not change over time. Surprisingly, BP and BG were more compliant than daily steps transmission. Most clinical data were in the target therapeutic range over time. BP and BG highest 2 groups showed a decline (p<0.05) over the course of the study. 28-30% of patients achieved the target of 10,000 steps per day at each time point. % of patients in the sedentary, low and somewhat active groups declined with time (p<0.05).

CONCLUSIONS: These findings show that clinical data transmission compliance was high and few patients showed clinically relevant alerts during a 52 week lifestyle intervention. High threshold alerts decreased over time while more patients became active. Smartphone monitoring of lifestyle interventions appears to be an important tool for monitoring safety and utility of lifestyle interventions in primary care.

1235 Board #16 May 30 9:30 AM - 11:00 AM

The Reliability of Behavioral Modification (Diet and Physical Exercises) on Metabolic Syndrome Primary Care

Franz H P Burini1, Okesley Teixeira2, Fernando Moreto2, Erick P. de Oliveira2, Roberto C. Burini2. 1USP - PRONUT, São Paulo, Brazil. 2UNESP - Univ Estadual Paulista, Medical School, Botucatu, Brazil.

(No relationships reported)

There is no curative model for the Metabolic Syndrome (MetS), being the primary prevention, such as the combat of sedentary behavior and food-intake inadequacy (lifestyle changes) the aim of the primary care system.

PURPOSE: To evaluate the effects of a protocol including dietary counseling and supervised physical exercises (LSMP) on MetS components.

METHODS: The longitudinal study included 131 subjects (55 ± 9 yrs old, 74% female and 68.7% under 60 yrs old) from a community-based sample that fullfiled the ethical and inclusion criteria of attending the 24 weeks LSMP and to all evaluations. The LSMP included a daily (5×/wk) sessions of supervised aerobic exercises (80 min, 65-80% VO2max), weekly dietary counseling and assessments (baseline and end-study) of treadmill cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF, Balke protocol), dietary intake, anthropometry and blood chemistry. The ATP-NCEP (2003) criteria was used for the MetS diagnosis and the Statistica 6.0 software for the analyses of the data (p=0.05).

RESULTS: At baseline the MetS group (MSG=50.3%) differed from the non-MS (NMS) by the higher body mass index (BMI) and plasma uric acid (UA) and lower in CRF. Both groups responded to LSMP by increasing CRF, health-eating index, lowering the food-energy intake and plasma high sensitive C-Reactive Protein (CRP-hs). The 24.2% MetS reduction with LSMP were due to waist circumference (WC), blood pressure (BP) and HDL-c normalization whereas the appearance of 10.8% MS in the NMS group during the LSMP was associate with the increased levels of plasma glucose and triglycerides (TG) along with a decreased dietary-fiber intake. The predictive variables for the MetS control with LSMP were the higher increasing of HDL-c and the decreasing of BP whereas the predictive risk factors for the MetS appearance with LSMP were the increasing of BMI, plasma glucose, TG and UA, and the lower consumption of dietary fibre.

CONCLUSIONS: These data lead to the conclusion that the MetS treatment by LSMP is primarily due to de lower energy intake (by increasing fibre consumption) and/or lower insulin resistance (by increasing CRF). Supported by CNPq and CAPES

1236 Board #17 May 30 9:30 AM - 11:00 AM

Effect Of Regular Exercise Training On Cardiorespiratory Fitness In Diabetes Mellitus: Meta-analysis

Juan Wang1, Zhengzhen Wang1, Xianbo Zhang2. 1Beijing Sports University, Beijing, China. 2Peking University, Beijing, China.

(No relationships reported)

PURPOSE: Cardiorespiratory fitness is the core element of physical health, and it is not only closely related to the incidence but also directly associated with their mortality. Now there are many studies on exercise and Cardiorespiratory fitness in diabetes mellitus, but these studies had relatively small sample sizes and highly variable results. And few literature reviews focus on this. Therefore this article tries to find out the effect of regular exercise training on cardiorespiratory fitness in diabetes mellitus by using meta-analysis.

METHODS: Medline (1975 to Sep 2011) and SPORT Discus (1936 to Sep 2011) were searched for randomized, controlled trials evaluating effects of regular exercise interventions(not combined other intervention) of 4 weeks or more on cardiorespiratory fitness in diabetes mellitus. All satisfied trials were assessed by Jadad scales. And related data were extracted by two independent researchers. Then all the data were analyzed via software (Review Manage 5.0).

RESULTS: 1) there were 26 studies searched about exercise intervention on cardiorespiratory fitness in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Regular exercise can increase the VO2max about 14.1% in type 2 diabetes mellitus (SWD=1.01SD, p< .05). In the subgroups, Compared to the parallel controlled group, mellitus’s VO2max was different only in 60-79%VO2max intensity exercise group(p< .05) while not occurred in 40-59%VO2max or ≥80%VO2max intensity exercise group(p> .05). The VO2max of type 2 diabetes mellitus both increased in moderate exercise group and moderate plus resistance exercise group, and the former is more effective (p< .05); 2) there were only 4 studies satisfied the criteria in type 1 diabetes mellitus. After regular exercise, VO2max increased 8.6%, no significantly (SWD= 0.33SD, p> .05).

CONCLUSIONS: 1) for type 2 diabetes mellitus, regular exercise is benefit for improving cardiorespiratory fitness, both moderate exercise and moderate plus resistance exercise can, and it’s sure about 60-79%VO2max intensity exercise can improve the VO2max. 2) It’s not sure about regular exercise can improve cardiorespiratory fitness in type 1 diabetes mellitus.

1237 Board #18 May 30 9:30 AM - 11:00 AM

Additional Benefits of W-3 Oil Supplements on Metabolic Syndrome Care in Exercise Protocol Intervention

Erick P. de Oliveira, Lidiana C. Talon, Fernando Moreto, Viviane M R Acerra, Katia C P McLellan, Roberto C. Burini. UNESP - Univ Estadual Paulista, Medical School, Botucatu, Brazil.

(No relationships reported)

Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) is a cluster of diseases associated with sedentary and food inadequacy. Lifestyle modification programs (LSMP) including physical activity and nutrition re-education are the aim of the primary care of MetS being the management of body adiposity and plasma lipids one of the goals. Dietary supplements of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (W-3 PUFA) have those properties.

PURPOSE: To compare the additional effect of dietary supplements of W-3 PUFA to a LSMP in treated MetS of free-living adults.

METHODS: In a prospective clinical trial, we studied 61 adults (50±13.8 years old), 85% of women, clinically screened to participate in a LSPM. The subjects were randomly assigned in two groups: LSMP (G1, n=26), including daily sessions (5×/wk) of supervised exercises of walking (3×/wk, 60-70% VO2max) and strength (2×/wk, 65-80% 1RM) along with a weekly dietary counseling. The other group (G2, n=35) also under LSMP received W-3 PUFA (3g/day). Anthropometric measurements (waist circumference, body mass index, body fat percentage), dietary intake (24-hour recall), cardiorrespiratory fitness (Balke protocol in treadmill, CRF), blood pressure (BP), and plasma biomarkers for MetS were performed at baseline (M0), and after 20 weeks (M1) of intervention. For statistical analysis it was used anova-two way, adjusted for gender, age, BMI and total caloric intake, and significancy when p<0.05.

RESULTS: After 20 weeks both groups increased the CRF, but only G2 showed significantly decrease in waist circumference (1.3%) followed by MetS reduction (29%) mainly due to the normalization of BP (33,3%) and triglycerides (27,3%).

CONCLUSIONS: The dietary-supplements of W-3 PUFA potentiated the MetS treatment effects of LSMP by its effects on abdominal fat and some blood markers. Supported by CNPq, CAPES and FUNDAP

1238 Board #19 May 30 9:30 AM - 11:00 AM

Effect Of Exercise Training On The Inflammation Status Among People With Metabolic Syndrome.

dorthe Stensvold, Ulrik Wisløff, Stig A. Slørdahl. Department of Circulation and Medical Imaging, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trond, trondheim, Norway.

(No relationships reported)

Metabolic syndrome is associated with chronic low-grade inflammation, a condition thought to play a key role in the pathogenesis of the syndrome. Among a number of pro-inflammatory cytokines, interleukin 18 (IL 18) seem to be the best marker for inflammation among people with metabolic syndrome.

PURPOSE: The aim of the study was to examine the effect of aerobic training versus strength training on circulating IL 18 and other pro-inflammatory markers in people with metabolic syndrome.

METHODS: Thirty-one inactive men and women (49.8 ± 9.1 years) with metabolic syndrome were randomized to either high intensity interval training (AIT, n=11), strength training (ST, n=10), or to a control group (n=10). Exercise training was carried out 3 times per week for 12 weeks. Serum insulin, high sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), interleukin 18 (IL 18), interleukin 6 (IL 6), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) were measured before and after the intervention.

RESULTS: Serum IL 18 was reduced by 43% after AIT (p<0.001). Although AIT had no change in TNF-αfrom baseline, the levels were lower compared to ST (p=0.032) and control group p= 0.039) after the intervention. Total body fat was reduced after AIT (from 33.9 ± 7.3% to 32.2 ±7.9%, p<0.001) and ST (from 31.2 ± 3.9% to 29.7 ± 3.4%, p=0.025). There were no changes in serum IL 6, insulin, or hs-CRP within or between the groups.

CONCLUSIONS: Both strength training and high intensity aerobic exercise reduces fat mass, however, only the latter intervention is associated with a more favourable inflammatory status among people with metabolic syndrome.

1239 Board #20 May 30 9:30 AM - 11:00 AM

Development of a Minimal Exercise Regimen With Maximal Benefits for Type 2 Diabetics

Kathleen Broomall1, Avi Milgrom1, Dan Carl2. 1Miami University, Hamilton, OH. 2University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH.

(No relationships reported)

PURPOSE: To examine the effectiveness of a novel, minimal exercise regimen based upon brief, strategically timed bouts of moderate intensity in attenuating postprandial glucose spikes as well its effectiveness in weight management over hours, days and years for type 2 diabetics. The regimen requires no exercise clothing or equipment; thus it can be readily integrated into a busy day in a “built environment” –unlike other brief-interval regimens The underlying premise, documented in the literature, is that muscle contractions can shunt blood glucose from the blood stream into muscle using interval style muscle work.

METHODS: Blood glucose levels were mapped over two time scales: hours and years. The short-term studies were to preliminarily explore how the exercise regimen attenuates blood glucose spikes; thus metabolic cart data was gathered in addition to blood glucose. Specifically, the short term studies mapped blood glucose curves as well as fat and carbohydrate utilization from repeated 2 minute bursts of physical activity in three scenarios: no exercise before or after eating (AUC 6095), exercise after eating but with diminished exercise frequency before the meal (AUC 5680), and normal frequency before and after the meal (AUC 1962). The long-term studies tracked daily blood glucose levels and appropriately timed HbA1C’s over a 30-month period.

RESULTS: Short-term blood glucose attenuation was significantly more effective with the proposed exercise regimen using the third scenario. Additionally, carbohydrate utilization was significantly greater with the proposed regimen. Finally, glucose management yielded significantly improved A1C’s as a clinical measure of glycemic control. Inhibition of weight regain with subsequent additive weight loss also seemed a long term trend of this regimen.

CONCLUSIONS: An exercise regimen of repeated brief bouts of moderate intensity executed after caloric intake can be effective in managing blood glucose and long term weight management in type 2 diabetics. Proposed research will map HbA1c values against degrees of adherence to the regimen and will identify psychological and physical factors moderating adherence. The ultimate goal is to deliver the regimen to clinicians with guidelines for the selection of viable candidates.

1240 Board #21 May 30 9:30 AM - 11:00 AM

Glucose Tolerance: A Comparison Of Sitting vs. 0.5 Mph Walk On The Active Workstation

Ronald Cox, Christina Ohlinger. Miami University, Oxford, OH.

(No relationships reported)

A growing body of literature suggests that striking differences in metabolic responses to nutritional challenge can be demonstrated when the postural condition of the individual is changed from sitting to standing.

PURPOSE:To describe the possible differences in glucose clearance, in young healthy individuals, in response to a glucose tolerance test performed under standard sitting conditions or while using an Active Workstation at very low speeds.

METHODS: Nine students, eight females and one male (21±1 yrs) performed a series of glucose tolerance tests. After a minimum of an 8-hour fast a baseline glucose measurement (Accu-Chek®) was obtained. Subjects then ingested 75 gm of glucose solution (Trutol®75) within a ten-minute period. In a counterbalanced manner, subjects either spent the two hours sitting or walking at 0.5 mph on an Active Workstation. During the session, a blood sample (finger stick) was obtained every 30 min for the next two hours.

RESULTS: Table 1 shows the means ± SD for blood glucose for each time period under the two conditions. All subjects showed a lower blood glucose curve during walking. The levels at 90 and 120 min were significantly lower (p< 0.05) in the walking condition.

CONCLUSIONS:These results support the impact of even very low levels of physical activity on metabolic response to glucose ingestion compared to sitting in healthy people. In fact, walking at a speed of 0.5 mph is a near proxy for standing. This result has implications for the standardization of glucose tolerance tests and reaffirms the potentially deleterious effects of sitting while offering support for the benefits of movement in normalizing blood glucose.

1241 Board #22 May 30 9:30 AM - 11:00 AM

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Dietary-fibre Adequacy Potentiates Physical Exercises In Metabolic Syndrome Management

Livia S. Gonçalves1, Marita S. Mecca1, Franz H P Burini2, Reinaldo C. Dalanesi1, Vanessa L. Peresi1, Roberto C. Burini1. 1UNESP - Univ Estadual Paulista, Medical School, Botucatu, Brazil. 2USP - PRONUT, São Paulo, Brazil.

(No relationships reported)

Lifestyle modification focusing on dietary and exercise behaviors is the preferred first-line treatment for the management of metabolic syndrome (MetS), its components and co morbidities. However attempts to modify diet by reducing food intake are often unsuccessful due to the low compliance. Adequate-to-high fibre intake appears as an alternative for limiting energy intake in a society with high energy-dense food consumption.

PURPOSE: To investigate the effects of fibre intake on exercised-MetS patients in a prospective dynamic cohort study.

METHODS: The subjects that fulfilled all the inclusion criteria totalized 253 (mostly 35-60 years old and females). They all accomplished a protocol of lifestyle modification program (LSMP) including supervised physical exercise of walking (3 X/wk: 60-70% maximal heart rate) and strength (2 X/wk: 65-80% of one repetition maximal) along with a weekly dietary counseling. A group of 131 subjects was studied on traditional LSMP during 24 weeks (G1), another group of 72 subjects were randomized in either fibre (G2A = 25-30 g fibre/day) and non fibre (G2B) adequacy groups in a 20 weeks-lasting intervention, and the remainders 50 patients also received similar treatment of fibre intervention (G3A) or only LSMP (G3B) but in a shorter (10 weeks) experiment. The statistical analysis (paired Student’s t test) were used to compare moments (p<0.05).

RESULTS: MetS varied from 40% to 50.4% (NCEP-ATP III, 2003 criteria) at the baseline and the recalled dietary fibre intake averaged 16,0 ± 7,1 g/day. There was a decreasing in MetS with the LSMP alone lasting either 24 wks (-24.2%) or 20 wks (-11.5%) but not after 10 wks (+6%). These decreasing was optimized by dietary fibre interventions from 24% (G3A: 10 wks) to 36.4% (G2A: 20 wks). At the end of the experiment the increase of fibre intake varied from 7.2 g/d (G1) to 14.6 g/d (G2A) and 16.9 g/d (G3A), above the baseline values. The reduced obesity rate varied from 7% to 9% in the fibre-intervened groups.

CONCLUSIONS: The present data support the use of fibre adequacy as reducing factor for energy-dense food consumption and consequently body weight loss and then accelerating MetS decrease in a complementary physical exercise protocol. Supported by CNPq and FUNDAP

1242 Board #23 May 30 9:30 AM - 11:00 AM

The Impact Of Breaking Sitting Time On Postprandial Response To Three Separate Meal Replacement Beverages.

Meredith C. Peddie, Nancy J. Rehrer, FACSM, Murray Skeaff, Tracy L. Perry. University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand.

(No relationships reported)

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of breaking continuous sitting with short regular exercise breaks or one continuous bout of exercise on postprandial serum glucose, insulin, and triglyceride responses to three meal replacement beverages.

METHODS: Seventy participants (Mean (SD) VO2max 42.9 (10.3) ml·kg·min-1, Body mass index 23.6 (4.0)) completed three 9 h interventions. During the prolonged sitting intervention (SIT), participants sat continuously for 9 h; in the exercise intervention (EX) participants sat for 15 min, walked on the treadmill for 30 min, then sat continuously for 8 h and 15 min; in the breaking sitting time intervention (BRK) participants regularly interrupted their sitting with eighteen 1 min 40 s bouts (total of 30 min) of exercise. In each intervention participants were fed a MRB at 60, 240 and 420 min. Each MRB contained 31.4 ± 6.6 g fat, 36.8 ± 7.7 g protein 76.4 ± 16.1 g CHO and 3105 ± 652 kJ energy. Blood samples were obtained at baseline and hourly for 9 h, with additional samples collected 30 and 45 min after each feeding. Postprandial area under the curve (AUC) responses were calculated in response to the three separate MRB. Comparisons between interventions were made using mixed model regression.

RESULTS: The triglyceride AUC in BRK was 8% (95% CI 0.5 to 16.0% p=0.03) greater compared to SIT in response to the 2nd MRB. There were no differences between conditions in response to the 1st or 3rd MRB. The glucose AUC in BRK was 5.8% (95% CI 2.5 to 9.1% p=0.04) less than SIT in response to the 1st MRB. These differences were maintained in response to the 2nd MRB, but where no longer apparent in response to the 3rd MRB. The insulin AUC in BRK was 11.2% (95% CI 1.8 to 20.7% p=0.01) less than SIT in response to the 1st MRB. In response to the 2nd MRB BRK was 41.9% (95% CI 15.4 to 68.3% p=0.02) less than SIT. The response to the 3rd MRB was similar to the 1st MRB.

CONCLUSIONS:Breaking sitting time reduces postprandial insulin responses throughout the day. Health promotion guidelines should promote regular physical activity breaks during periods of prolonged sitting, particular for those at risk of insulin resistance.

1243 Board #24 May 30 9:30 AM - 11:00 AM

Chronic Exercise Training Effects on Fatigue in Multiple Sclerosis: A Meta-Analysis

Tina A. Mattila, Megan Nickrent, Lara A. Pilutti, Robert W. Motl, Steven J. Petruzzello, FACSM. University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL.

(No relationships reported)

Fatigue is a common, disabling, and poorly managed symptom of multiple sclerosis (MS). Chronic aerobic exercise training may be an effective behavioral strategy for reducing fatigue in persons with MS.

PURPOSE: Provide a quantitative review of research examining the effect of exercise training on fatigue in MS.

METHODS: Electronic databases (Web of Science, PubMed, PsycInfo, Medline, Google Scholar, and Current Contents Plus) were searched for articles published up to September 2011 by using the key words exercise, fatigue, tiredness, energy, mood, lassitude, physical activity, rehabilitation, and fitness in conjunction with MS. Manual search of bibliographies of the retrieved papers was also done and study authors were contacted about additional studies. Thirty-five journal articles were located and reviewed, and 25 provided enough data to compute effect sizes (ES) and include in the meta-analysis. The meta-analysis was conducted with Comprehensive Meta Analysis using a random effects model and the overall ES was expressed as Hedge’s g.

RESULTS: Twenty-five ESs were retrieved from the 25 studies with 606 MS participants and yielded a weighted mean ES of 0.55 (95% CI = 0.37, 0.78). The weighted mean ES was heterogeneous, Q = 50.71, df = 24, P = 0.001, supporting a search for moderator variables.

CONCLUSIONS: The cumulative evidence supports that exercise training is associated with a fairly sizable reduction in fatigue among persons with MS.

1244 Board #25 May 30 9:30 AM - 11:00 AM

The Effect Of Aerobic Exercise On The Quality Of Life Amongst HIV Positive Persons

Louis J. Holtzhausen, Sorita Viljoen, Marlene Schoeman. University of the Free State, Bloemfontein, South Africa. (Sponsor: Jon Patricios, FACSM)

(No relationships reported)

The positive effects of regular exercise on the physiological well-being of HIV positive (+) persons have been well documented. Although evidence exist for HIV+ persons to retain muscular strength and improving work-related performance through regular exercise without compromising their immune capacities, limited research has been done to assess the effect of exercise on non-physiological parameters such as pain, functional limitations and social functioning which influence overall quality of life (QoL). Aerobic exercise results in several health benefits and consequent QoL improvements in HIV negative populations. However, it is uncertain how aerobic exercise would influence the QoL (self-perceived physical and mental well-being) of HIV+ persons.

PURPOSE: To determine the effect of an aerobic exercise intervention on the QoL in HIV+ persons.

METHODS: Twenty eight HIV+ persons were randomised into two groups (aerobic intervention and control, n=14 each). The intervention group was exposed to a 12 week supervised aerobic intervention, while the control group was exposed to a supervised stretching program to limit drop-out without inducing physiological adaptation. Participants were assessed for their aerobic capacity, immunological status (CD4 and viral load) and QoL score before and after the intervention. Significance between pre- and post intervention results were set at p < 0.05.

RESULTS: Following the intervention, a significant improvement (p = 0.02) in aerobic capacity were seen for the intervention group, while their CD4 counts and viral loads remained unchanged. Interestingly, both groups displayed significant improvements in their self-perceived physical and mental well-being (p = 0.003 and p = 0.002 for the intervention and control group respectively). Based on research in other population groups, the improved QoL in the control group is speculatively attributed to a placebo effect achieved through the personal attention received during exercise supervision.

CONCLUSIONS: Aerobic exercise leads to an improved aerobic capacity without compromising the immune capacities of HIV+ persons. Supervised exercise seems to improve QoL for HIV+ persons, irrespective of the type and intensity of the exercise and should therefore be promoted in the holistic disease management of HIV+ persons.

1245 Board #26 May 30 9:30 AM - 11:00 AM

Effects of Self-Selected and Imposed Intensity Acute Exercise on Psychological and Cortisol Responses

Kyoko K. Wardwell, Brian C. Focht, FACSM, Courtney A. DeVries, Ann A. O’Connell, Janet Buckworth, FACSM. The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH.

(No relationships reported)

PURPOSE: The primary purpose was to examine psychological responses to self-selected and imposed-intensity acute exercise in inactive women with high levels of stress. The secondary purpose was to examine potential psychobiological mechanisms (HPA-axis response and self-efficacy) for changes in psychological states.

METHODS: Nineteen participants (age = 23.58 ± 5.30 yr) completed 3 trials of treadmill exercise at self-selected intensity, 10% above and 10% below relative self-selected intensity. Exercise duration was determined to expend 150 kcal. Affective responses and salivary cortisol were measured prior to, during, and following exercise. Self-efficacy was also measured during and post-exercise. Future exercise intention was measured post exercise.

RESULTS: Affect and self-efficacy improved significantly over time at all exercise intensity conditions (all variables were p < .005). Moreover, positive engagement was higher at self-selected than imposed intensity during and post exercise (p < .05). No significant associations were observed between affect, self-efficacy and cortisol levels. However, affect and self-efficacy did significantly predict future exercise intentions.

CONCLUSIONS: Acute bouts of exercise at intensities proximal to and lower than ventilatory threshold are associated with positive affective responses during and after exercise in women with high levels of stress. Self-selected intensity may be effective for eliciting more favorable experiences during and following acute bouts of exercise, and promote future intentions for exercise. Findings provide partial support for self-efficacy during exercise as a potential mechanism for positive affective responses, especially at self-selected intensity.

1246 Board #27 May 30 9:30 AM - 11:00 AM

Regular Exercise Attenuates Oxidative Stress in Aging Rat Liver : Apoptosis and Fibrosis Signal Pathway Toward Anti-Aging Medicine

Kai-Wen Chang1, Chi-Chang Huang1, Wan-Teng Lin2. 1National Taiwan Sport University, Taoyuan County, Taiwan. 2Tunghai University, Taichung, Taiwan.

(No relationships reported)

Regular exercise is known to exhibit various health benefits in reducing risks of age-related diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes and cancer. However, there is no report about the protective effects of exercise training on liver senescence.

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate whether a 12-week swimming exercise training can suppress senescence-oxidative stress markers of liver tissues.

METHODS: Twenty-three male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into the following four groups: (1) vehicle control (n = 6), (2) aging (n = 6), (3) swimming exercise (n = 5), and (4) aging with swimming exercise (n = 6). Rats in groups A and AS were intraperitoneal injection with D-galactose (150 mg/kg/day) for 12 weeks to induce aging. Rats in groups SE and ASE were subjected to swimming exercise for 60 min/day × 5 days/week for 12 weeks. Body weight, liver weight, epididymal fat mass, histopathological, TUNEL analysis and and expressions of Cytochrome C, Bax, Bcl-2, Caspase 9, cleaved Caspase 3, cleaved PARP, MMP2 and MMP9 in liver apoptosis and fibrosis pathway are detected.

RESULTS: The results show that apoptosis index cleaved Caspase 3 and cleaved PARP were significantly lower in C and ASE than in A group (P < 0.05) ; apoptosis protective protein Bcl-2 is significantly higher than A group (P< 0.05). In ASE group through increasing PI3K-Akt signaling activities and inhibiting apoptosis and fibrosis pathway activities compared with aging group. be a major mechanism of anti-aging.

CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that a 12-week swimming exercise may suppress apoptosis and fibrosis markers in the liver tissues of D-galactose induced aging rats. This study was supported by a research grant from the National Science Council, Taiwan (NSC99-2410-H029-059-MY2)

1247 Board #28 May 30 9:30 AM - 11:00 AM

Exercise Training Counterbalances Chronotropic Incompetence and Delayed Heart Rate Recovery in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

Fabiana Benatti, Renata Miossi, Ana Lúcia de Sá Pinto, Fernanda Lima, Eduardo Borba, Danilo Prado, Bruno Gualano, Eloísa Bonfá, Hamilton Roschel. University of São paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.

(No relationships reported)

PURPOSE: To evaluate the efficacy of a three-month exercise training program in counteracting the chronotropic incompetence and delayed heart rate recovery in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus.

METHODS: A 12-wk, randomized trial was conducted. Twenty four inactive SLE patients were randomly assigned into two groups: trained (T, n=14, three-month exercise program) and non-trained (NT, n=10). A gender-, BMI-, and age-matched healthy control group (C, n=8) also underwent the exercise program. Subjects were assessed at baseline (PRE) and 12 weeks after training (POST). Main measurements included the chronotropic reserve (CR) and the heart rate recovery (ΔHRR) as defined by the difference between HR at peak exercise and at both first (ΔHRR1) and second (ΔHRR2) minutes after the exercise test.

RESULTS: Neither the non-trained SLE (NT) patients nor the healthy control group (C) presented any change in the chronotropic reserve (NT PRE: 72.1±11.1, POST: 75.6±19.2 %, p=0.96; C PRE: 93.5±4.9, POST: 95.9±10.4 %; p=0.99) or in ΔHRR1 (NT PRE: 26.6±11.8, POST: 26.7±10.7, p=1.0; C PRE: 33.8±6.6, POST: 38.2±10.0, p=0.95) and ΔHRR2 (NT PRE: 38.8± 13.5, POST: 39.5±15.6, p=1.0; C PRE: 52.0±5.7, POST: 53.6±7.6; p=0.99). The exercise training program was effective in promoting significant increases in chronotropic reserve (T PRE: 79.4±13.5, POST: 95.4±9.6 %, p=0.003) (POST T vs. NT, p=0.0003; ES=1.15), and in ΔHRR1 (T PRE: 23.1±9.6, POST: 41.0±10.7, p=0.0006) (POST T vs. NT, p=0.02; ES=1.12) and ΔHRR2 (T PRE: 39.0±10.5, POST: 57.3±12.4, p=0.0007) (POST T vs. NT, p=0.01, ES=1.11) in the SLE trained group (T) when compared with the NT group. Moreover, the heart rate response in SLE patients after training achieved parameters comparable to the healthy control subjects, as evidenced by the ANOVA and by the Z-score analysis (p>0.05, T vs. C). SLEDAI scores remained stable throughout the study.

CONCLUSIONS: A 3-month exercise training program was safe and capable of reducing the chronotropic incompetence and the delayed heart rate recovery observed in physically inactive SLE patients.

Supported by Fapesp (11/08302-0)

1248 Board #29 May 30 9:30 AM - 11:00 AM

Parasympathetic Tone And Its Adaptation To Aerobic Training (Fitwalking®) In HIV Patients On Anti-Retroviral Therapy

Giampiero Merati1, Antonio La Torre1, Matteo Bonato1, Gaspare Pavei1, Simona Bossolasco2, Laura Galli2, Paola Cinque2. 1University of Milan, Milan, Italy. 2San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy.

(No relationships reported)

Recent evidences showed that in HIV patients Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) and HIV per se may affect parasympathetic tone; this may increase the cardiovascular risk and contribute to HIV associated lipodystrophy. Such impairment may be reversed by a regular physical activity, which is known to increase vagal tone. PURPOSE: To evaluate vagal tone and its change after 3 months of aerobic training in HIV patients on HAART.

METHODS: 12 non-hypertensive and non-smoker patients (F/M 2/10; 47±5 yrs; 71±14 kg) with HIV infection (H) on HAART were enrolled. A group of 12 control (C) subjects (F/M 3/9; 48±12 yrs; 76±13 kg), matched for gender, age and anthropometric features, was enrolled for baseline comparisons. Heart rate variability (HRV) indexes of parasympathetic tone in time (RMSSD, pNN50) and frequency (High Frequency [HF] in absolute and normalized units [nu]) domains, and a HRV index of sympathovagal balance (LF/HF ratio) were calculated in basal condition in H and C subjects, both in supine and standing position for 5 min each, by a HR monitor. The H group was then trained by walking at 60-70% of maximal HR 3 times/week for 12 weeks, and the HRV measures were repeated thereafter. A 6-min walking test (6MWT) was executed before and after the training.

RESULTS: In basal condition, despite similar values in supine position between H and C subjects, HIV patients showed a lower parasympathetic tone during standing, which was significant in the linear indexes (RMSSD: H 16.7±5.1 vs C 25.3±10.5 ms [p<0.05]; pNN50: H 1.4±1.3 vs C 5.4±5.3% [p<0.05]; HF: H 180±207 vs C 196±139 ms2; HFnu: H 21.6±23.5 vs C 27.0±16.2), and a higher sympathetic activation (LF/HF: H 9.2±7.0 vs C 4.1±2.7 [p=0.04]) compared to C subjects. Fitwalking® training significantly improved the distance covered by 6MWT (from 667±50 to 802±160 m, p=0.01) and the physical work done (from 451±96 to 538±132 J, p=0.01). However, standing values of HRV indexes did not significantly change after training in H patients (RMSSD 15.2±6.6 ms, pNN50 1.1±1.7%, HF 100±93 ms2, HFnu 11.5±6.7, LF/HF 9.7±7.5; p=ns vs pre-training for all comparisons).

CONCLUSIONS: 12-weeks aerobic training improved cardiovascular fitness in HIV patients, but did not affect the heart parasympathetic control, which remained reduced compared to healthy subjects.

1249 Board #30 May 30 9:30 AM - 11:00 AM

Oxidative Stress Biomarkers in HIV+ Sedentary Patients And Its Relation to HAART Administration Time

Alesandro Garcia1, Géssica A. Fraga1, Fabiano Dmytro L. Pinto1, Gabriela G. Martins1, Carolina Mendes S. Silva1, Roberto Carlos V. Junior1, Adilson R. Filho1, Marisa C. Voltarelli1, Michel B. Araújo2, Flávia Carolina L. Melo1, Fabricio A. Voltarelli1. 1Federal University of Mato Mato Grosso (UFMT), Cuiabá-MT, Brazil. 2Sao Paulo State University (UNESP), Rio Claro-SP, Brazil.

(No relationships reported)

PURPOSE: The goal of the present study was to analyze the antioxidant enzymes activities as well as a lipid peroxidation marker in the blood of HIV seropositive (HIV+) sedentary patients.

METHODS:This study assessed the effect of different Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) administration times on oxidative stress (OS) biomarkers of HIV+ sedentary patients. Twenty-two HIV+ subjects (Men n=11; 39.42±9.44 years old; Women n=11; 45.00±6.59 years old) were divided into 3 groups, according to the HAART administration time: from 0 to 5 years (0/5y; n=6); from 6 to 10 years (6/10y; n=7); and from 11 to 15 years (11/15y; n=9). The activity of catalase (CAT [U/mg Hbmin]), superoxide dismutase (SOD [U/mg Hbmin]) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx [U/mL]) enzymes as well as a lipid peroxidation marker (thiobarbituric acid reactant substances; TBARs [μmol/L]) were determined in the blood serum of patients by commercial kits (Cayman Chemical, Michigan, USA). The data were analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis test and Dunn post hoc test (p value of <0.05).

RESULTS: The mean values of SOD (2.67±0.41) and GPx (7.89±0.22) activities were lower in the 0/5y group when compared to 6/10y (SOD: 4.25±0.32; GPx: 9.57±0.66) and 11/15y (SOD: 5.91±0.34; GPx: 13.08±0.33) groups; if compared the 6/10y and 11/15y groups, the means values (SOD and GPx) were statistically different (11/15y > 6/10y). In relation to CAT activities and to TBARs concentrations, it were only observed significant differences when compared 0/5y (CAT: 2.39±0.36; TBARs: 4.14±0.35) and 11/15y (CAT: 4.37±0.24; TBARs: 6.08±0.44) groups. On the other hand, no differences were detected when these groups were compared to 5/6y group (CAT: 3.50±0.48; TBARs: 5.00±0.46).

CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggest that increased OS occurs additionally to persistent redox imbalance associated to HIV infection during apparently successfully HAART. In addition, the pro-oxidative responses seem to be related to HAART administration time. Finally, we believe that a physical exercise program would reverse, at least in part, this situation, once that regular physical exercise may protect the organism against the OS caused by the sedentarism condition.Supported by FAPEMAT (Brazilian Foundation; Process number: 512843/2009).

1250 Board #31 May 30 9:30 AM - 11:00 AM

Physical Training and Detraining and the Development of Nonalcoholic Hepatic Steatosis in Rats

Leandro P. Moura, Amanda Christine S. Sponton, Michel B. Araújo, Rodrigo A. Dalia, Marcelo C. Junior, Maria Alice R. Mello, FACSM. UNESP, São Paulo State University, Rio Claro, Brazil.

(No relationships reported)

Nonalcoholic Hepatic Steatosis (NAHS) is a disease caused by fat accumulation in the liver that can lead to organ failure and, consequently, to death. This disease has been increasing alarmingly worldwide and still little is known about the influence of physical exercise training and subsequent detraining on preventing NAHS.

PURPOSE: Analyzes body weight, insulin sensitivity, fat tissue accumulation and triglyceride (TG) concentration in the mesenteric adipose tissue and fat accumulation in the liver of rats submitted to physical training and subsequent detraining.

METHODS: Thirty weanling Wistar rats were utilized and divided into three groups: Control sedentary rats (C), Trained rats (T) submitted to physical exercise throughout the experiment, and Detrained rats (D) submitted to physical exercise for half of the experimental period and kept sedentary until the end of the study. The training protocol began when the rats were 28 days old and consisted of swimming 1hr per day, 5 days per week, at 80% of their individual anaerobic threshold (LAn), as previously determined by a lactate minimum test. The physical training lasted 16 weeks for the T group and 8 weeks for the D group.

RESULTS: An insulin sensitivity test was performed and 48h after this, the animals were sacrificed to analyze total weight and total amount of TG of the mesenteric adipose tissue and liver TG concentration. It was shown that physical exercise performed throughout the experiment increased the sensitivity of insulin (%removal of serum glucose/min) (C: 3.67 ± 0.61; T: 6.36 ± 3.19; D: 4.69 ± 1.20) and decreased the body weight gain (g) (C: 527.13 ± 71.39; T: 453.14 ± 57.37; D: 522.21 ± 78.15), serum insulin concentration (ng/ml) (C: 1.72 ± 0.46; T: 1.39 ± 0.34; D: 1.65 ± 0.49), mesenteric adipose total weight (g) (C: 4.56 ± 1.60; T: 3.40 ± 1.20; D: 5.27 ± 1.94) and total TG amount (mg/total tissue weight-1) (C: 54.26 ± 5.03; T: 41.03 ± 2.27; D: 59.66 ± 3.99) as well as the TG concentration in the liver (mg/100mg) (C: 12.31 ± 3.07; T: 7.82 ± 2.14; CS: 11.94 ± 4.27).

CONCLUSIONS: In summary, physical exercise at 80% of LAn, attenuates the disorders that trigger fat accumulation in the liver and, consequently, counteracts NAHS development. Physical exercise cessation neutralizes all the beneficial effects of the physical training.

Supported by: FAPESP (2010/12718-5).

1251 Board #32 May 30 9:30 AM - 11:00 AM

Efficacy Of A Multifaceted Intervention Program To Increase Physical Activity In Patients With Parkinson’S Disease; The Parkfit Trial

Marlies van Nimwegen1, Arlène D Speelman1, Sebastiaan Overeem1, Bart P. van de Warrenburg1, Katrijn Smulders1, Manon Dontje2, George F. Borm1, Frank J.G. Backx3, Bastiaan R. Bloem1, Marten Munneke1. 1UMC St Radboud, Nijmegen, Netherlands. 2Hanze University, Groningen, Netherlands. 3University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands.

(No relationships reported)

PURPOSE: Many patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) lead a sedentary lifestyle. Simply informing patients about the health benefits of physical activity is insufficient to change their sedentary lifestyle. We developed and evaluated a multifaceted behavioural program (ParkFit) aiming to increase the level of physical activity undertaken by patients with PD.

METHODS: 586 PD patients were randomly assigned to the ParkFit Program or an active control group (ParkSafe Program). The level of physical activity was measured at baseline and at 6 months using a standardized interview-based 7-day recall (LAPAQ, primary endpoint), an ambulatory activity monitor (secondary endpoint) and an activity diary (secondary endpoint). Results were analysed according to the intention to treat concept.

RESULTS: 562 patients (96%) completed both baseline and 6 months assessments. In the ParkFit group, patients increased their time spent to physical activities with 7% as assessed with the LAPAQ; patients in the control group became 1% less active. The difference between both groups was not statistically significant. When we specified the nature of the activities, patients in the ParkFit group increased their ‘outdoor and sports activities’ (+32%), while their time spent to household activities decreased (-14%). In the control group these differences were less than 4%.

CONCLUSIONS: This short term outcome of the ParkFit trial suggests that patients with PD can increase their outdoor activities with a specific multifaceted program. This increase seems to be accompanied by a decrease in time spent to household activities. At the congress we will present the results of the ParkFit trial after 24 months intervention and the potential health consequences of a change in lifestyle. (Funded by ZonMw (The Netherlands Organization for Health Research and Development (75020012)); The Michael J Fox Foundation for Parkinson’s research; VGZ; Glaxo Smith Kline; and National Parkinson Foundation; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00748488.)

1252 Board #33 May 30 9:30 AM - 11:00 AM

Changes in Sedentary Time and Physical Activity of Livestrong® Cancer Survivor Program Participants

Sarah Hilgers-Greterman1, Nicklaus Redenius1, Jeremy Frost1, John Schuna, Jr.1, Riggs Klika, FACSM2, Gary Liguori1. 1North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND. 2Cancer Survivor Center, Aspen, CO.

(No relationships reported)

PURPOSE: The purpose of this investigation was to identify changes in sedentary time (SED) and physical activity (PA) of cancer survivors enrolled in a post-treatment, 12 week, Livestrong® group exercise program.

METHODS: Eleven cancer survivors (1 Male and 10 Females; 51.8±9.27 yrs, BMI=26.6±4.1), representing a variety of cancer and treatment backgrounds, volunteered and wore armband activity monitors (BodyMedia® SenseWear) for seven consecutive days. Data collection occurred during the first and sixth week (midpoint) of the Livestrong® Program, and each minute of activity monitor wear time was classified as sedentary (SED), moderate (MOD), or vigorous (VIG). Minutes from MOD and VIG were then combined into a moderate-vigorous (MV) category. Linear mixed model analyses were used to compare weekly time spent in SED, MOD, VIG, and MV between weeks 1 and 6 with an adjustment for activity monitor wear time (time-varying covariate).

RESULTS: Across both assessment periods, participants averaged > 15 hr·day-1 of non-sleep activity monitor wear time with a weekly total of (mean ± SD) 6673.6 ± 734.8 min·week-1 (week 1 = 6853.8 ± 572.9, week 2 = 6493.4 ± 856.8). No significant differences were observed in weekly minutes (mean ± SE) from week 1 to week 6 for SED (6484.5 ± 155.6 vs. 6114.6 ± 246.3, respectively), MOD (366.5 ± 67.7 vs. 373.8 ± 51.4, respectively), MV (369.3 ± 68.6 vs. 378.7 ± 51.5, respectively) or VIG (2.7 ± 1.3 vs. 4.9 ± 1.9, respectively).

CONCLUSIONS: Results indicated no significant difference in weekly time spent in SED or any PA category between week 1 and week 6. Time spent in both MOD and MV was well above the 150 minutes per week CDC recommendation of PA for adults without chronic conditions. However, VIG activity averaged less than 5 minutes per week. Due to the short time span and small sample, it is difficult to evaluate the overall efficacy of the Livestrong program. However, these preliminary results are promising in that MOD PA is well above the national recommended threshold and SED time appears to be decreasing, though not significantly.

1253 Board #34 May 30 9:30 AM - 11:00 AM

The Effects Of Exercise Training From Different Cancer Treatments In Cancer Survivors

City C. Hsieh1, Hsiao-Chuan Wen2, Chiuh-Chung Liu2, Chun-hong Lin2, Ling-Li Wang1. 1Hsinchu University of Education, and Yuanpei University, Hsinchu, Taiwan. 2Yuanpei University, Hsinchu, Taiwan.

(No relationships reported)

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of exercise training on muscular fitness and quality of life in cancer survivors undergoing differing clinical treatments: surgery alone, chemotherapy following surgery, radiotherapy following surgery, or chemotherapy and radiotherapy following surgery.

METHODS: This study recruited four groups of female cancer survivors based on the type of clinical treatments they had received: surgery alone (S, n=10), surgery and chemotherapy (SC, n=10), surgery and radiotherapy (SR, n=10), surgery and chemotherapy and radiotherapy (SCR, n=10). The exercise sessions lasted for 60 minutes including a 10-minute warm-up, 40 minutes of aerobic exercise, resistance training, and 10 minutes cool-down, 3 days per week for 6 months. Exercise intensity ranged from 40% to 60% of heart rate reserve depending upon the participant’s health status. The assessments and reassessments of muscular fitness (handgrip, peak torque of shoulder, elbow, and knee flexion and extension using Biodex S4 Pro) and quality of life were performed before and after the 6-month exercise training.

RESULTS: Cancer survivors in 4 groups following the 6-month exercise intervention showed significant (p < .05) improvements in shoulder flexibility (+22.6∼38.0%) and extension (+26.6∼35.0%), elbow flexibility (+16.7∼43.0%) and extension (+20.7∼35.1%), and knee flexibility (+12.2∼27.5%) and extension (+8.6∼33.0%). In addition, handgrip was improved significantly (p < .05) in SC (+6.3%), SR (+9.8%), and SCR (+7.7%) groups, but not in the S group. Psychologically, all 4 groups showed significant (p < .05) improvements in total (+9.6∼18.8%), and in health (+13.8∼21.3%), social (+7.9∼20.5%), psychological (+9.3∼11.3%), and family (+6.9∼16.4%) quality of life. Moreover, no significant differences were observed between groups on any of the domains of muscular fitness and quality of life.

CONCLUSIONS: The current study suggested that moderate intensity exercise intervention is a safe and efficacious means to augment muscular fitness and improve the quality of life of cancer survivors. Moreover, the muscular fitness and quality of life of cancer survivors improved as a result of the exercise intervention in this study, regardless of the type of treatments.

1254 Board #35 May 30 9:30 AM - 11:00 AM

Randomized controlled trial Of Colorectal Cancer Exercise Program for Colorectal Cancer Patient After Surgery

Ki-yong An1, Mi kyung Lee1, Dong il Kim1, Dong hyun Kim1, Ji hee Min1, Nam-kyu Kim2, Justin Y. Jeon1. 1Yonsei University, Seoul, Korea, Republic of. 2Yonsei University Severance Hospital, Seoul, Korea, Republic of.

(No relationships reported)

Recently, incidence of colorectal cancer is remarkably increasing in Korea.

Exercise and physical activity have positive effects in colorectal cancer patients and they are revealed in many previous studies. Specially, the patients in recovery after surgery need exercise, so many surgeons recommend to walk for patients after surgery. However, except walking, there is not detail exercise manual. Also, among many previous studies, there is no exercise intervention study has colorectal cancer patients immediately after surgery for subjects.

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study are to examine the effect of colorectal cancer exercise program on recovery and physiological and psychological variables in colorectal cancer inpatient after surgery.

METHODS: Subjects in exercise group participated supervised exercise program 1∼2 times per day on colorectal patients undergoing laparoscopic surgery during hospitalization. Supervised exercise program is mainly composed of stretching, core exercise on the bed and walking. And subjects in conventional group used conventional protocol. Anthropometric measurements and fitness test assessed at pre-surgery, discharge from hospital.

RESULTS: The result showed that subjects in exercise group decreased hospital stay during hospitalization. Subjects between both group have no significant difference in anthropometric measurements and fitness level variation.

CONCLUSIONS: The finding demonstrated exercise program for colorectal cancer inpatients have a positive effect in recovery variables in colorectal cancer patients after surgery.

1255 Board #36 May 30 9:30 AM - 11:00 AM

Effect Of Exercise On Bone Mass Density In Women With Postmenopausal Osteoporosis: A Case-control Study

Marianna Broccatelli1, Antonio Sgadari2, Simona De Bellonia2, Roberto Bernabei2. 1University of Study “Foro Italico”, Rome, Italy. 2Catholic University of Sacred Heart, Rome, Italy.

(No relationships reported)

Osteoporosis is a common disease with a spectrum ranging from asymptomatic bone loss to disabling hip fracture. Most guidelines suggest regular weight-bearing exercise, and combined (aerobic and resistance) training to prevent and treat osteoporosis. However, a recent review concluded that physical exercise (PE) slightly improves bone density and does not reduce the risk of having a fracture in postmenopausal women.1 It has been hypothesized that this paucity of effect may be due to relatively short duration of interventions, poorly standardized exercise protocols and high rate of loss to follow up.

PURPOSE: To assess whether a combined exercise program (2 times/week callisthenic exercises plus 3 times/week aerobic and resistance training) influenced BMD in 155 women with postmenopausal osteoporosis.

METHODS: Forty-seven women with either lumbar or femoral osteoporosis, exercising at the University Hospital Fitness Facility for at least one year were identified as cases (EXE). One hundred and eight sedentary controls, out from a pool of 5,434 attending the Osteoporosis Outpatient Clinic, were selected according to the following matching criteria: female gender, age ± 1.5 years, duration of the observation period ± 3 months, initial BMD value ± 5% (SED). Main outcome was percent change in BMD. Comorbidities, medications, risk factors for osteoporosis, level of physical activity, dietary intake of macronutrients as well as of Ca, K, P were recorded.

RESULTS:Baseline characteristics were similar between EXE and SED groups: mean (±s.d.) age was 64.4±6.2 vs. 68.8±6.4 years (n.s.), BMD at femoral neck 0.581±0.067 vs. 0.598±0.063 g•cm-2 (n.s.), and BMD at lumbar spine 0.727±0.067 vs. 0.732±0.074 g•cm-2 (n.s.). After an average follow-up of 36.5±13.1 months, BMD was increased in the EXE group by 2.23% at the femoral neck and by 3.65% at the spine, while it was decreased in the SED group ( 2.59% and 0.65%, respectively) (p<0.01 at both sites).

CONCLUSIONS: Our results showed that sedentary postmenopausal women had a significant decline in BMD over a 3-year period, while women undergoing a combined PE program do increased their BMD both at the femoral neck and the lumbar level.

1. Howe TE et al. Exercise for preventing and treating osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2011 Jul 6;(7): CD000333

1256 Board #37 May 30 9:30 AM - 11:00 AM

Physical Exercise In Female Fibromialgia Patients: Effects On Pain, Functional Capacity And Symptomatology.

Ana Carbonell-Baeza1, Virginia A. Aparicio2, Inmaculada C. Alvarez-Gallardo2, Alejandro Romero2, Clelia M Martins-Pereira3, Ana M. Cuevas2, Pedro Femia2, Francisco B Ortega4, Pablo Tercedor2, Jonatan R. Ruiz4, Manuel Delgado-Fernández2. 1University of Cadiz. Cadiz, Spain. University of Granada, Granada, Spain. 2University of Granada, Granada, Spain. 3Universidade Federal Da Paraíba, Joao Pessoa, Brazil. 4University of Granada., Granada, Spain. Karolinska Institutet, Unit for Preventive Nutrition., Huddinge, Sweden.

(No relationships reported)

Exercise interventions have been extensively used for the management of fibromyalgia, but it is unclear which mode of exercise is more suitable for this population.

PURPOSE: To compare the effects of three different physical interventions (i.e. multidisciplinary, Biodanza and Taichi) on women with fibromyalgia.

METHODS: a total of 146 women (51.6±7.0 years) volunteered to participated in the study and were allocated in 4 groups: control (n=34), multidisciplinary(n=41), Biodanza (n=37) and Taichi (n=34). Multidisciplinary and Taichi interventions were carried out 3 times/week and Biodanza 1 time/week over three months. The following variables were assessed before and after the interventions: tender points, functional capacity (i.e. the handgrip strength, 6 minutes walk, 8 feet up & go, chair sit and reach and chair stand tests) and the fibromyalgia impact questionnaire (FIQ). One-way analysis of covariance (group as fixed factor, change score (posttest-pretest) as dependent factor and pretest score as covariate) was performed.

RESULTS: The Taichi group presented greater improvements on the 8 feet up & go test than the multidisciplinary (Change score: -2.1±0.2 vs. -1.1±0.2, p=0.005), the Biodanza (-2.1±0.2 vs. -1.1±0.2, p=0.006) and the control groups (-2.1±0.2 vs. -0.5±0.2, p<0.001). The multidisciplinary and Taichi groups showed greater improvements than the control group on chair sit and reach test (7.4 ±2.1 vs. -3.0 ± 2.2, p=0.005 and 9.9±2.3 vs. -3.0 ± 2.2, p=0.001 respectively). The FIQ total score improved in the multidisciplinary (-8.8±2.3 vs. 4.7±2.3, p<0.001), the Biodanza (-12.7 ±2.5 vs. 4.7±2.3, p=0.001) and the Taichi (-7.4±2.5 vs. 4.7±2.3, p=0.003) groups compared with the control group. The Biodanza group presented a greater decrease on number of tender points than the Taichi group (-1.4 ±0.4 vs. 0.1± 0.4, p=0.044).

CONCLUSIONS: The multidisciplinary, Biodanza and Taichi interventions improve the symptomatology in female patients. Taichi intervention improves the dynamic balance more than multidisciplinary and Biodanza interventions. Taichi and multidisciplinary interventions improve the lower body flexibility.

Supported by Ministry of Science and Innovation (BES-2009-013442 RYC-2010-05957), Instituto Andaluz del Deporte, CICODE (University of Granada) and MAPFRE Foundation.

1257 Board #38 May 30 9:30 AM - 11:00 AM

Heavy, Explosive Strength Training For Postmenopausal Women With Osteoporosis: A Pilot Study

Mats P. Mosti, Nils Kaehler, Astrid K. Stunes, Jan Hoff, Unni Syversen. Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway.

(No relationships reported)

Current exercise guidelines recommend weight-bearing activities and strength training for patients with osteoporosis. It is still unclear what type of strength training that is most beneficial for improving physical capacity and bone mass in these patients. PURPOSE: The present study investigated the effects of a heavy, explosive strength training programme on physical capacity, bone mineral density (BMD) and content (BMC) in postmenopausal women diagnosed with osteoporosis or osteopenia.

METHODS:Twentyone women with osteoporosis or osteopenia (t-score < -1.5 in hip or spine) were randomized to a training group (TG, n=10) or control group (CG, n=11). The TG underwent 12 weeks of supervised strength training in a squat machine, at an intensity of approximately five repetitions maximum, with emphasis on explosive initiation of the concentric part of movement. The CG was encouraged to do non-supervised training in line with current exercise guidelines. Measurements included one repetition maximum (1RM), rate of force development (RFD), serum markers of bone formation (procollagen type 1 N-terminal propeptide (P1NP)) and bone resorption (fragments of type I collagen C (CTX)), BMD, BMC and bone area measured by Dual X-ray absorptiometry. Nonparametric statistics were used. RESULTS: One participant was excluded in the TG and four participants withdrew (one in the TG and three in the CG). 1RM and RFD were significantly improved in the TG with 154±75% and 52±46%, respectively (p<0.05). BMC at the lumbar spine and femoral neck increased with 2.9±2.8% and 4.9±5.6%, respectively (p<0.05), while bone area increased with 2.4±2.0% and 5.2±5.1%, respectively (p<0.05). The 1RM and lumbar spine BMC improvements differed significantly from the CG (p<0.05). There was also a tendency to improved ratio of P1NP/CTX (21%, p=0.09) in the TG. No significant changes were observed in the CG.

CONCLUSIONS: Heavy, explosive strength training appears to be safe and give beneficial effects on muscle strength, RFD and BMC in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. These findings should be further investigated in a larger trial of longer duration.

1258 Board #39 May 30 9:30 AM - 11:00 AM

Effective Physical Activity Energy Expenditure Feature For Maintaining Bone Mass In Postmenopausal Women

Zheng Lu, Zhi-xiong Zhou, Xiao-hong Chen, Xun Li, Yong-Sheng Wang. Capital University of Physical Education and Sports, Beijing, China.

(No relationships reported)

Growing evidence indicates that physical exercise can prevent or improve bone loss. However, the standard of the deficient exercise is lacking.

PURPOSE: To observe the change of energy expenditure (EE), body composition (BC), BMD and muscle strength before and after 1y exercise in postmenopausal women, to explore the relationship between the indexes and bone mass, and to determine the lest EE maintaining bone mass.

METHODS: 62 compliant women, aged 50-60ys, with BMD T-score <-1, were divided into exercise group (EG, n=32) and control (CG, n=30). EG exercised 3-4 times weekly for 1y. PA and EE were determined by accelerometer. BMD and BC were measured by DXA. Hip’s muscle strength was described by isokinetic peak-torque. Exercise intensity was assessed by portable metabolic test system. Paired and independent sample T tests were used within and between groups.

RESULTS: 1. EG were higher than CG in walking, physical activity(PA) and total diary energy expenditure (TDEE) (all p<0.01). And difference was mainly caused by walking EE, which should be considered effective PAEE.

2. PA time of 3-6MET in EG was more than CG (P<0.01). During the exercise, mean heart rate was 117.59±9.41bpm, maximum intensity 5.70±1.97MET, exercise time 50min, and EE 312.07±94.2Kcal. Moderate intensity exercise is adequate stimulus for maintaining EG bone mass.

3. After 1y, EG decreased in weight, BMI and F% (all p<0.01), and increased in LBM% (p<0.01). For both groups, weight, BMI, F%, muscle mass and TDEE was correlated with whole body BMD (r=0.486, 0.475, 0.434, 0.386, 0.366, all P<0.01), and LBM% was negatively associated with BMD (r=-0.481, P<0.01). The BC optimization was important feature.

4. After 1y, peak-torque values for hip flexion (90°/s, 180°/s) and extension (180°/s) in EG observably elevated (all P<0.01). BMD at main sites in EG were higher than CG (p<0.01-0.05). For EG, 1y exercise effectively increased muscle strength, which was the primary cause of maintaining bone mass.

CONCLUSIONS: 1. Exercise can effectively maintain bone mass by improving muscle mass and strength.

2. Exercise of 3-4 times weekly, 50 min/time, and 3-6MET’s moderate intensity is suitable for postmenopausal women to maintain bone mass.

3. Lower than 680 kcal PAEE can be considered as standard of deficient exercise for postmenopausal women maintaining bone mass.

1259 Board #40 May 30 9:30 AM - 11:00 AM

Effects Of Exercise On Physical, Psychological, And Social Aspects Of Pain In Spinal Cord Injuries

Carrie J. Yale, Petra B. Schuler, Ludmila Cosio Lima. University of West Florida, Pensacola, FL.

(No relationships reported)

Individuals who suffer a spinal cord injury (SCI) experience pain as a secondary result of the injury. Pain can be difficult to treat as the experience is unique to each individual. If not treated effectively, pain can elevate levels of depression, anxiety, stress, and social isolation.

PURPOSE: To determine if exercise helps alleviate aspects of pain associated with SCI.

METHODS: Six subjects participated in 8 weeks of twice weekly exercise. Participants were required to complete 12 minutes of wheelchair propulsion and 50 minutes of resistance training. Resting heart rate (HR), blood pressure (BP), cardiorespiratory fitness, muscular strength, pain, depression, anxiety, stress, and perceived social support were assessed. Descriptive statistics were computed to determine changes in resting HR and BP. Subjects performed 6 minutes of arm ergometry and cardiorespiratory fitness was measured by changes in the rate of perceived exertion (RPE) and HR for the same workload. RPE and HR were taken each minute; a dependent t-test was used to determine changes in these variables. During the 12 minute bout, HR, number of completed laps, and the RPE given for each lap around the track were reported; repeated measures of analysis of variance was used to compare any change in these variables. Muscular strength was determined by the subject’s one repetition maximum (1-RM). Self report questionnaires were used to measure pain, depression, anxiety, stress, and perceived social support. A dependent t-test was used to determine changes in the measures of the 1-RM and questionnaire scores. For all statistical analyses the confidence interval was set at p<0.05.

RESULTS: The group experienced improvement in measures of cardiorespiratory fitness as seen in a decreased resting HR (p = .043,), lower RPE at the fifth and sixth minute of arm ergometry (p = .042), lower RPE between each minute of arm ergometry (p = .029), and a lower RPE observed during the 12 minutes of wheelchair propulsion (p = .010). An increase in muscular strength for the chest press (p = .047) and deltoid press (p = .03) was observed. No significant differences were observed in the measures of pain, depression, anxiety, stress, and perceived social support.

CONCLUSIONS: Participation in weekly exercise improves physical functioning among individuals with SCI.

1260 Board #41 May 30 9:30 AM - 11:00 AM

The Effect of Low Back Strengthening on Balance Performance in Patients with Lumbar Sacralization

Yen-Ling Li1, Guo-Sheng Li1, Yu-Tsai Tu2, Wei-Han Chang3, Cheng-Hsiu Lai1, Shih-Wei Chou3. 1Taipei Physical Education College, Taipei, Taiwan. 2Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan. 3Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, taipei, Taiwan. (Sponsor: Chia-Hua Kuo, FACSM)

(No relationships reported)

Lumbosacral transitional vertebre (LSTV), commonly found between the fifth lumbar vertebra and the first sacral vertebra, of which the transverse processes fuse to different extent. The changes in spinal dynamics of LSTV may result in early disc degeneration, turnk instability and consequent low back pain (LBP). Patients with chronic LBP and lumbar degenerative disease are also characterized by an anterior sagittal imbalance. However, it is unclear whether low back strengthening exercise improve balance performance in LBP patients with LSTV.

PURPOSE: To investigate the low back strengthening effects in LBP patients with LSTV on balance performance.

METHODS: Thirty LBP patients with LSTV were recruited and divided into two group randomizely assigned as Group A, the extensor-flexor group (age, 26.4 ± 11.2 years; body height, 171.9 ± 11.0 cm; body weight, 66.1 ± 13.5 kg) and group B, the flexor-extensor group (age, 26.1 ± 10.2 years; body height, 170.6 ± 8.4 cm; body weight, 66.0 ± 16.7 kg). Two session of the training program were prescribed including the extension session and the flexion session each for 3 weeks, and the order of the two training program was reversed between the two group. The results of the sensory organization test (SOT), Limits of St ability (LOS), and rhythmic weight shifting (RWS), measured by using the Smart Balance Master, lumbar ROM, measured by the microFET3, lumbar isometric strength, measured by the Cybex were compared between the two groups. LBP was evaluate by the visual analogus scale (VAS).

RESULTS: Irrespective to training group or modes , ROM , strength and VAS of low back were all improved significantly. Balance performance was in part improved significantly. Extensor training program seemed to be more effective than flexor traing program in pain relief.

CONCLUSIONS: Low back strengthening for LBP patients with LSTV may improve balance performance in part. It also improves isometric strength, ROM and pain scale of low back. The extensor training session may outweight flexor traing session in pain relief for patients with LSTV.

1261 Board #42 May 30 9:30 AM - 11:00 AM

Low Back Strengthening effects on Quadriceps Strength in Lumbago Patient with Lumbar Sacralization

Yi-chen Lin1, Chi-Ping Lai1, Yu-Tsai Tu2, Yin-Chou Lin2, Cheng-Hsiu Lai1, Shih-Wei Chou2. 1Taipei Physical Education College, Taipei, Taiwan. 2Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan. (Sponsor: Chia-Hua Kuo, FACSM)

(No relationships reported)

Lumbosacral transitional vertebre (LSTV), commonly found between the fifth lumbar vertebra and the first sacral vertebra, of which the transverse processes fuse to different extent. The changes in spinal dynamics of LSTV may result in early disc degeneration, trunk instability, and consequent low back pain (LBP). The patients with chronic LBP tend to show increased inhibition of quadriceps activity. However, it is unclear whether low back strengthening exercise improve the quadriceps strength in LBP patients with LSTV.

PURPOSE: To investigate the low back strengthening effects of the LBP patients with LSTV on quadriceps isokinetic strength.

METHODS: Thirty LBP patients with LSTV were recruited and divided into two groups randomizely assigned as Group A, the extensor-flexor group (age, 26.4 ± 11.2 years; body height, 171.9 ± 11.0 cm; body weight, 66.1 ± 13.5 kg) and group B, the flexor-extensor group (age, 26.1 ± 10.2 years; body height, 170.6 ± 8.4 cm; body weight, 66.0 ± 16.7 kg). Two sessions of the training program were prescribed including the extension session and the flexion session each for 3 weeks, and the order of the two training program was reversed between the two group. The isokinetic strength of the knee extensor, measured by the Cybex, were compared between the two groups. Pain of low back and knee were evaluate by the visual analogus scale (VAS).

RESULTS: Quadriceps strengths were significantly improved in all 3 angular velocities of both right and left legs, particularly after extensor training. Low back extensor training was more efficient than flexor in pain control of the knee pain.

CONCLUSIONS: Low back strengthening training for LBP patients with lumbar sacralization may improve quadriceps isokinetic strength and low back/knee pain scale, particularly after extensor strengthening.

1262 Board #43 May 30 9:30 AM - 11:00 AM

Low Normalized Leg Strength in Obesity Predicts Habitual Physical Activity and Endurance in Knee Osteoarthritis

Kevin R. Vincent, Cindy Montero, Amanda Seay, Heather K. Vincent. University of Florida, Gainesville, FL.

(No relationships reported)

Adults with knee osteoarthritis (OA) face multiple challenges with beginning exercise or participating in regular daily physical activity, especially if they are obese. It is unclear how normalized muscle strength relates to endurance time or habitual physical activity.

PURPOSE: To determine the associations between muscle strength, endurance time and habitual physical activity in obese and non-obese persons with knee OA.

METHODS: Participants with knee OA (68±7 yrs) who sought participation in an exercise program were stratified into obese (n=20; body mass index [BMI] 34±4 kg/m2, 49±9% body fat) and non-obese (n=20; BMI 25±3 kg/m2, 34±10% body fat). Maximal strength testing of the knee extensors and flexors, and maximal walking endurance tests were performed. Body fat was determined using the BODPOD. The Western Ontario McMaster Osteoarthritis (WOMAC) Index survey was administered to assess knee function with OA pain. Activity monitors were worn for 7 days to record daily activity. Regression analysis determined the contributions of normalized leg strength scores on treadmill endurance time, and average daily steps.

RESULTS: Walking endurance time was 31% lower in the obese group (p<0.0001). Average WOMAC knee pain was similar between groups (5.2-5.5 points). Average daily steps taken were 3246±1131 and 4248±1365 steps, in the obese and non-obese groups, respectively (p<0.005). The time spent performing moderate daily activity was 30 minutes less in the obese group (p=0.05). WOMAC scores were not different between groups (33.2 vs 28.8 points). Maximal normalized leg press, leg curl and leg extension strength values were less in the obese group (p<0.05). After accounting for age and sex, normalized leg strength values were contributors to the variance of the models predicting walking endurance time (model R2=0.514-0.561, R2 change range 0.218-0.265) and in habitual physical activity (R2=0.198-0.230, change range 0.104-0.136; all p<.001).

CONCLUSIONS: Walking endurance and habitual physical activity were consistently predicted by leg strength in knee OA. Targeted resistance exercise may improve muscle strength and foster improvements in endurance and increased habitual physical activity in obese individuals, both of which would facilitate weight loss. Supported by NIH NIAMS RO3AR059786

1263 Board #44 May 30 9:30 AM - 11:00 AM

Efficacy And Effectiveness Of Exercise On Tender Points In Adults With Fibromyalgia: A Meta-analysis

George A. Kelley, FACSM, Kristi S. Kelley. West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV.

(No relationships reported)

PURPOSE: Fibromyalgia is a major public health problem affecting an estimated 200 to 400 million people worldwide. The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy and effectiveness of randomized controlled exercise intervention trials (aerobic, strength training or both) on tender points (TP) in adults with fibromyalgia.

METHODS: Meta-analysis using random effects models and 95% confidence intervals (CI) with results partitioned according to per-protocol and intention-to-treat analyses.

RESULTS: Statistically significant reductions in TP were observed based on per-protocol analyses (8 studies representing 322 participants) but not intention-to-treat analyses (5 studies representing 338 participants) (per-protocol, g, -0.68, 95% CI, -1.16, -0.20; intention-to-treat, g, -0.24, 95% CI, -0.62, 0.15). Changes were equivalent to relative reductions of 10.9% and 6.9%, respectively, for per-protocol and intention-to-treat analyses.

CONCLUSIONS: Exercise is efficacious for reducing TP in women with FM. However, a need exists for additional well-designed and reported studies on this topic.

1264 Board #45 May 30 9:30 AM - 11:00 AM

Case review for 12 Weeks Of High-intensity Interval Training (HIT) in a Spinal Cord Injured Man

Christopher R. Harnish, Jonathan A. Daniels, Allison F. Keeley, David R. Gater. Hunter Holmes McGuire VAMC, Richmond, VA. (Sponsor: Edmond Acevedo, FACSM)

(No relationships reported)

Exercise may play an important role in managing the metabolic health consequences of SCI but little is known about the impact of arm crank ergometer (ACE) HIT or how to adapt it for individuals with SCI.

PURPOSE: To review the outcome of 12 weeks of periodized HIT in a man with chronic traumatic SCI.

METHODS: One 42 yo man (180 cm tall, 68.4 kg and 30.6% Fat) with C8/T1 AIS A SCI took part in 12 weeks of 3 days.week-1 ACE interval training. A continuous 2 min stage VO2Peak test was completed before, 6 and 13 weeks after training. During the first training session and at week 4, 8 and 12 a 30 min time trial (TT30) test was performed on a Monark 881E ACE to assess performance improvement; heart rate (HR) and mean power (W) were determined. Training was conducted on a LODE ACE and consisted of a combination of HIT that included three times 5 min at ∼70% Peak Power (WPeak) and 5 min recovery (HIT5); four times 2.5 min at ∼85% WPeak and 5 min recovery (HIT2.5); ten times 1 min at ∼110% WPeak and 2 min recovery (HIT1). HR zones were set as <75% HRPeak (Z1), 75-89% (Z2), and 90+% (Z3) and HR was measured and stored for all training. HR training impulse (TRIMP) scores were calculated as: Z1 minutes + (Z2 minutes * 2) + (Z3 minutes * 3) and used to monitor overall training efficacy. DXA was used to estimate body fat pre and post training.

RESULTS: 35 sessions that included 8 HIT5, 10 HIT2.5, and 5 HIT1 sessions were completed. WPeak and VO2Peak improved about 45% and 52%, respectively, by week 6 without further improvement at week 12. TT30 wattage improved 32% at week 4, 47% at week 8, and 56% at week 12. HR TRIMP scores decreased in the first 6 weeks as mean session wattage increased before showing a parallel increase for the remaining 6 weeks.

CONCLUSIONS: Persons with SCI exhibit widely varying exercise responses, regardless of level of injury. This case report demonstrates that even high-level paraplegics can achieve exceptional training outcomes and that ACE HIT may provide an effective training method for SCI. As with able-bodied persons, maximal performance plateau early, while submaximal performance may show longer term improvement. The latter supports the use of submaximal training assessment important in the long-term training monitoring for SCI. HR TRIMP data provides a useful means for monitoring and periodizing training in paraplegia with a normal HR response.

1265 Board #46 May 30 9:30 AM - 11:00 AM

Comparative Study Of The Effects Of Tai Chi And Strength Training On Osteoarthritis In Older Adults

Abhinandan Batra, Yong Tai Wang, FACSM, Elisabeth Burgess, Ann Pearman. Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA.

(No relationships reported)

PURPOSE: Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative joint disorder and one of the leading causes of disability in elderly. Tai Chi is seen to be effective in relieving symptoms of OA knee joint. The main aim of this study was to design a Tai Chi program and/or a strength training program for the older adults with knee OA and to compare the effects of these programs on the range of motion, gait, pain and balance.

METHODS: Twenty participants age 55 and over were divided into two groups (Tai Chi and Strength training) based on predetermined criteria (Age, Grade of OA, balance). Both groups received respective form of exercises twice a week for 2 months. Both groups were assessed before and after intervention on WOMAC, Berg balance scale, ROM and Manual muscle testing Independent and paired t test were employed to determine the differences within each group and between two groups with significance level at p<.05.

RESULTS: Mean ages of the participants in both strength training and Tai Chi group were 82.8± 10.6 years and 82±11.35 years respectively. Both the groups showed statistical significant improvement in WOMAC scores and balance. WOMAC score decreased for strength training group (52 to 40.5) and Tai Chi group (52.28 to 38.57). Balance score on the Berg balance scale improved for strength training group (36.75 to 46 at p<.05) and Tai Chi group (39.14 to 47.42 at p<.001). Significant increase in strength of lower limb muscle was seen in strength training group with no change in Tai Chi group. Though significant changes were seen within the group analysis, no such difference was found on comparing strength group to Tai Chi group.

CONCLUSIONS: Both groups demonstrated improvement in symptoms related to OA showing that both forms of exercise are effective and safe in improving symptoms related to OA but no evidence was found depicting Tai Chi to be better form of exercise than strength training.

1266 Board #47 May 30 9:30 AM - 11:00 AM

Physical Activity, Sedentary Time, And Bone Health In Younger And Older Females

Saori Ishikawa, Youngdeok Kim, Minsoo Kang, FACSM, Don Morgan, FACSM. Middle Tennessee State University, Murfreesboro, TN.

(No relationships reported)

Recent studies have focused on the contribution of physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior (SB) on metabolism and cardiovascular health in adults. Little is known, however, regarding the extent to which PA and SB impact bone mineral content (BMC) and bone mineral density (BMD) in females across the lifespan.

PURPOSE: To examine the impact of PA and SB on bone health in females from adolescence to old age.

METHODS: Data from 2,245 females aged 12 years and older collected as part of the 2007-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) were included in this analysis. Based on self-report, participants were categorized into three PA categories: sufficient moderate-to-vigorous recreational physical activity (S-MVRPA), insufficient MVRPA (I-MVRPA), and no MVRPA (N-MVPRA). S-MVRPA was defined as ≥150 minutes per week of moderate recreational PA (RPA) or an equivalent amount of vigorous RPA for adults (≥19 years of age) or ≥60 minutes per day of MVRPA for adolescents (12 to 18 years of age). Values of BMC (g) and BMD (g/cm2) of total femur and total spine were measured by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. Categories of PA and self-reported minutes of SB (i.e., sitting or reclining time, excluding sleeping) were used to predict BMC and BMD of the femoral and spinal regions in four age groups [i.e., adolescents (12-18 years), young adults (19-39 years), middle-aged adults (40-64 years), and older adults (>64 years)] after controlling for nutritional intake and body mass index (BMI). SAS 9.2 SURVEYREG procedures with ESTIMATE statement were used to account for the multistage and complex nature of the NHANES sampling scheme.

RESULTS: Female adolescents in the S-MVRPA category displayed significantly greater femoral BMC, femoral BMD, spinal BMC, and spinal BMD compared to those in N-MVRPA category (b=3.01, 0.07, 4.72, and 0.04, respectively, p<.05). In older adults, SB was also a significant predictor of femoral BMC and BMD (b=-0.004 and -0.0001, respectively, p<.05), such that an increase in SB resulted in lower femoral BMC and BMD.

CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that engaging in S-MVRPA during adolescence and reducing sedentary time in the elderly may contribute to improved bone health in females.

1267 Board #48 May 30 9:30 AM - 11:00 AM

Pilates is More Effective than Common Exercise Program for Treatment of Forward Head Posture

Sun-Myong Lee, Chang-Hyung Lee, Jung Jun Park. Pusan National University, Busan, Korea, Republic of.

(No relationships reported)

Background: Forward head posture (FHP) is defined as the anterior positioning of the cervical spine, which is one of the most common postural problems in modern society. Recently, Pilates has been reported to be effective exercise for correcting postural problems.

PURPOSE: To compare the effects of Pilates and common exercise program on improvements in craniovertebral angle (CVA), cervical range of motion (cROM), pain, and muscle fatigue in FHP

METHODS: Twenty eight sedentary women with FHP, aged between 20 and 39, participated in this study. They were randomly divided into two groups; Pilates exercise group (PG, n=14) and common exercise group (CG, n=14). Pilates exercise program consisted of modern Pilates focused on FHP-related major muscle group. Common exercise program consisted of stretching and resistance exercise on the same muscle group as Pilates exercise program. Both group performed exercise 50 min/day, 3 days/week, intensity of 11-15 RPE for 10 weeks. CVA, indicating FHP degree, was measured by X-ray. cROM, representing cervical function, was measured by CROM device. Pain levels were assessed by visual analog scale (VAS) and neck disability index (NDI). Muscle fatigue was measured by surface electromyogram (sEMG) at median frequency. Statistical significance was p< .05.

RESULTS: PG significantly increased CVA (65.65±4.53° vs. 70.09±4.78°, p=.002), but CG did not. PG also significantly increased 5 of 6 cROM items: flexion (35.11±6.39° vs. 46.64±8.83°, p=.004), extension (50.14±11.76° vs. 57.05±9.3°, p=.037), R. sideflexion (29.58±3.12° vs. 34.00±3.78°, p=.006), R. rotation (51.5±10.63° vs. 57.81±5.81°, p=.045), L. rotation (52.06±10.1° vs 57.17±6.65°, p=.033). However, CG did not change in CVA and cROM items. Among sEMG factors, only SCM was significantly increased in PG (27.27±11.26 Hz vs. 43.51±17.29 Hz, p=.009), but not in CG. VAS and NDI were significantly decreased in both groups.

CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that Pilates is more effective to improve CVA, cROM, and, in part, muscle fatigue than common exercise (a combination of stretching and resistance exercise). It suggests that Pilates can be recommended as an appropriate exercise for FHP treatment, and may be extended for other patients with neuromusculoskeletal problems.

1268 Board #49 May 30 9:30 AM - 11:00 AM

Low Trunk Strengthening Effects on Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome

Chiping Lai1, Guosheng Li1, Chingya Hung1, Joupin Li1, Chenghsiu Lai1, Shihwei Chou2. 1Taipei Physical Education College, Taipei, Taiwan. 2Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taoyuan, Taiwan. (Sponsor: Chia-Hua Kuo, FACSM)

(No relationships reported)

Patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS) is a common knee problem. Quadriceps strengthening has been suggested to treat patients with PFPS. The quadriceps muscle was inhibited after lumbar paraspinal fatiguing exercise in the absence of quadriceps fatigue.

PURPOSE: To investigate low back strengthening effects on the patients with PFPS in terms of (1) low trunk isometric strength, (2) quadriceps isokinetic strength, and (3) knee pain scale.

METHODS: Eighteen knees of sixteen patients with PFPS were randomly divided into two groups, group A (extensor-flexor, 9 knees of 8 patients) and group B (flexor-extensor, 9 knees of 8 patients). In the 1st 3-week session of training group A started low trunk extensors strengthening and group B did flexor and in the 2nd 3-week session, the training programs were shifted between groups. The visual analog scale (VAS) was used to scale knee pain. Cybex NORM was used to measure isometric strength of low back flexor, extensor and isokinetic strength of quadriceps at 60°/sec, 120°/sec and 180°/sec. Two-way ANOVA with repeated measures in the 1st session tested the significance of main and interaction effects between training group factor and pre-post training factor. The training effects in the 2nd session were analyzed by prescription.

RESULTS: After the 1st session of training, interaction effects were significant (p < .05), indicating extensor training significantly increase low trunk extensor strength and vice versa. No interaction effects occur in isokinetic strength of the quadriceps between two groups at all three angular velocities. The VAS of knee pain appeared to be improved more in group A than B (51.83% vs. 36.07%). After the 2nd session, group B increased low trunk extensor strength and group A increased flexor strength. Isokinetic strength of the quadriceps in group B was improved more than group A at all three angular velocities. Extent of knee pain relief in group B seemed to be more than group A.

CONCLUSIONS:Low trunk strengthening training increases specific strength of either extensor or flexor muscles. However, extensor strengthening seemed to be more effective in patellofemoral pain relief and quadriceps strength enhancement.

A-30 Free Communication/Poster - Children and Exercise I

MAY 30, 2012 7:30 AM - 12:30 PM

ROOM: Exhibit Hall

1269 Board #50 MAY 30 11:00 AM - 12:30 PM

Odds Ratios and Sex Differences in Staying in at-Risk Fitness Categories among Middle School Children

Traci D. Zillifro, Wenhao Liu, Randall A. Nichols. Slippery Rock University, Slippery Rock, PA.

(No relationships reported)

Fitness tracking statistics such as Pearson or Spearman rank correlations, kappa values, and percentage agreements in percentiles provide little guidance for intervention for adolescents because they just describe the stability of relative rank/position and fail to address the overall change in test scores relative to Fitnessgram Healthy Fitness Zone (HFZ). Fitness tracking studies providing more meaningful information are needed.

PURPOSE: To examine odds ratios and sex differences in staying in the at-risk groups among middle school children across a 31-month period.

METHODS: Fitnessgram battery was administered to 87 boys (mean age = 11.55 ± .54) and 107 girls (mean age = 11.34 ± .48) at baseline and a follow-up with a 31-month interval to assess percent body fat (%BF), BMI, Progressive Aerobic Cardiovascular Endurance Run (PACER), curl-up, push-up, and sit and reach. Based on sex- and age-specific criteria for Fitnessgram hfz, the participants were categorized into an at-risk group (not in HFZ) and a HFZ group (in HFZ) at the baseline and the follow-up for each fitness measure. Odds ratios and sex differences in staying in the at-risk groups across the 31-month period was examined with crosstabs.

RESULTS: Odds ratios of staying in the at-risk groups at the follow-up in fitness measures ranged from 2.6 (95% CI: 1.3-5.1) to 20.4 (95% CI: 7.7-84.7) for those initially in the at-risk groups relative to those who were in the HFZ groups at baseline. Across the 31 months the numbers or percentages of boys in the at-risk groups decreased in %BF (23 vs. 19, -17%), BMI (28 vs. 24, -14.3%), PACER (39 vs. 31, -20.5%), and curl-up (12 vs. 9, -25%); and remained no change in push-up (31 vs. 31, 0%) and sit and reach (15 vs. 15, 0%). In a sharp contrast with boys, the numbers of girls in the at-risk groups increased in %BF (18 vs. 23, +27%), BMI (29 vs. 35, +20.7%), PACER (24 vs. 39, +62.5%), and push-up (38 vs. 51, +34.2%); and decreased in curl-up (24 vs. 11, -54.2%) and sit and reach (47 vs. 29, -38.3%).

CONCLUSIONS: Children of roughly 11 years old who are at risk in fitness levels are much more likely to be in the at-risk groups later relative to those who are in the HFZ groups at baseline. In addition, during the middle school period more girls tend to become at risk in fitness levels, whereas numbers of boys in the at-risk groups tend to decrease.

1270 Board #51 MAY 30 11:00 AM - 12:30 PM

Construction of Delayed Menarche Evaluation in Korean Female Athletes

Katsunori Fujii, FACSM. Aichi Institute of Technology, Toyota, Japan.

(No relationships reported)

PURPOSE: In the present study we conducted a regression analysis of age at menarche against age at maximum peak velocity (MPV) of height in non-athlete Korean girls (control group), and composed 1st to 3rd order regression polynomials to obtain the best regression polynomial. Author then applied the age at menarche and age at MPV of height of athletes to the best polynomial regression evaluation, and investigated the validity of a delayed menarche evaluation system that we constructed.

Method: The subjects were 150 second grade female students at a physical education high school in the suburbs of Pusan, South Korea. A questionnaire survey of these girls was conducted, from which their date of birth, age at menarche, and athletic activities in elementary, junior high school, and high school were obtained. In addition, health check records were examined retrospectively, and longitudinal growth data for height were obtained from the 1st grade of elementary school (7 years old) until the second year of high school (17 years old). One hundred twenty-four girls for whom all data were available were selected. Next, the same survey as above was also done for second grade students at a general high school in the same area, as a control group. Three hundred forty-five non-athletes for whom all data were available were selected. In the analysis, first the wavelet interpolation method was applied to the longitudinal height growth data for the athlete and control groups, and age at MPV was determined from the velocity curve.

RESULTS: The third order polynomial was found to be most suitable for the regression polynomial. When it was applied to individual female Korean athletes with respect to the regression evaluation, positive scores were obtained for nearly all athletes and an overall delay in menarche was seen. Delayed menarche was not seen, however, in archery athletes. A strong delay in menarche was thus found in Korean athletes.

CONCLUSION: it was found that 80% had moderate or greater menstrual pain and a close relation with menstrual abnormalities, suggesting that delayed menarche may be a barometer for menstrual abnormalities. The demonstration of delayed menarche in Korean female athletes from the above suggests the validity of the delayed menarche evaluation.

1271 Board #52 MAY 30 11:00 AM - 12:30 PM

Cardiovascular Fitness and Bone Health of Adolescent Girls According to Age of Menarche

Rebecca A. Battista, Lanay M. Mudd. Appalachian State University, Boone, NC. (Sponsor: Alan Utter, FACSM)

(No relationships reported)

The teenage years are one of the most critical stages of bone mineral acquisition. Maturation may also be related to changes in cardiovascular fitness. However, little is known about the relations among menarcheal status, cardiovascular fitness and bone health during this timeframe.

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to determine relations among menarcheal status and cardiovascular fitness, bone mineral content (BMC) and bone mineral density (BMD) among teenage girls in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999-2004.

METHODS: Participants included girls with complete dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) measures aged 12 to18 years who had experienced menarche (N = 1458). Menarcheal status was defined as: early maturers (EM) with menarche < 12 years; average maturers (AM) with menarche 12-14 years (referent); and late maturers (LM) with menarche > 14 years. Self-reported demographics and physical activity (PA), measured height and weight (body mass index calculated), predicted VO2max from a cycle ergometer test, and BMC, BMD, and percent fat from a DEXA were obtained. SAS v9.2 used weighted analyses to account for the complex sampling frame of NHANES. Linear regression analyses were used to assess relations among menarcheal status, VO2max, BMC, and BMD.

RESULTS: EM were significantly (p<0.05) younger (mean ± standard error: 14.7±0.1, 15.4±0.1, 16.6±0.1 years), taller (160.7±0.4, 161.9±0.3, and 163.4±0.5 cm), and larger (24.1±0.4, 23.1±0.3, 22.1±0.5 kg/m2; 34.3±0.4, 33.2±0.5, 31.8±0.6 %fat) compared to the AM and LM, respectively. Menarcheal status was not related to VO2max in unadjusted or adjusted analyses. After adjustment for age, race and total minutes of PA, EM was significantly related to a higher mean BMC (beta estimate ± standard error: 51.8 ± 24.3 g, p<0.05) and tended to be related to slightly higher BMD (0.015 ± 0.007 g/cm2, p=0.054) compared to AM. LM was not related to any changes in BMC or BMD compared to AM.

CONCLUSIONS: EM have a larger body size than AM and LM, and slightly higher BMC and BMD. However, despite their larger body size, fitness levels are similar. Additional research is needed to determine if menarcheal status is related to cardiovascular fitness and bone health later in life.

1272 Board #53 MAY 30 11:00 AM - 12:30 PM

Longitudinal Relationships Between Health-related Physical Fitness Test Item Performances In Elementary-aged Children

Loran D. Erdmann, Cathy S. McMillan. Western Illinois University, Macomb, IL. (Sponsor: Michael P. Godard, FACSM)

(No relationships reported)

Longitudinal study of health-related physical fitness (HRPF) in children is limited.

PURPOSE: To longitudinally examine relationships between HRPF tests in young children.

METHODS: HRPF test data were collected annually from one school district, over an 18-yr period, and included: 1-mile run/walk (MR, in elapsed time); double-leg sit-and-reach (SR); pronated-grip pull-up (PU); and 1-min sit-up (SU). Data were retained from 167 boys and 165 girls who were (a) baseline tested as 5- or 6-yr-old kindergartners, (b) subsequently tested in each of grades 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5; and (c) had complete data at all grades. Pearson’s r correlations were used to examine relations of MR to SR and SU performances, as well as relations of SR to SU performances. Spearman’s rho correlations were used to examine relations of PU to MR, SR, and SU performances, as PU data were nonparametric. All analyses were sex-and-grade specific. P values < .05*, .01**, and .001*** are reported.

RESULTS: Correlations between HRPF test items at grades K, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 respectively are as follows: MR/SR: Boys: -.03, -.08, -.13, -.19*, -.08, -.13; Girls: -.09, .05, -.24**, -.19*, -.33***, -.12; MR/SU: Boys: -.37***, -.29***, -.29***, -.27***, -.36***, -.43***; Girls: -.42***, -.29***, -.41***, -.38***,-.45***,-.52***; SR/SU: Boys: .08, .18*, .13, .19*, .30***, .19*; Girls: -.01, .20**, .20**, .15, .26**, .29***; Boys: PU/MR: -.28***, -.34***, -.44***,-.29***,-.40***, -.53***; Girls: -.25**, -.28***, -.26**, -.27**, -.42***, -.39***; PU/SR: Boys: .20*, .21**,.20*, .11, .17*, .14; Girls: .26**, .02, .16*, .21**, .21**, .06; PU/SU: Boys: .30***, .38***, .31***, .43***, .32***, .41***; Girls: .20**, .27***, .49***, .35***, .34***, .32***.

CONCLUSION: For boys and girls across the elementary grades, there are weak to moderate significant inverse relations of MR times to both SU and PU performances and weak to moderate positive relations of PU to SU performances. Although SR performance is significantly related to other HRPF test performances at some grades for both genders, the strength of these relations is only very weak to weak. For these HRPF test item pairs, generally the relational direction remains consistent and the relational strength changes little as young children progress through elementary school.

1273 Board #54 MAY 30 11:00 AM - 12:30 PM

Physical Self-Perception and Physical Fitness in Adolescents With and Without Autism Spectrum Disorders

Chien-Yu Pan1, Chia-Hua Chu1, Chia-Liang Tsai2, Kai-Wen Hsieh1, Ya-Lin Li1, Shih-Tse Huang1. 1National Kaohsiung Normal University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan. 2National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan.

(No relationships reported)

Physical self-perception (PSP) exerts a crucial role during adolescence. Research has demonstrated that positive associations of PSP with physical fitness (PF) (Carraro, Scarpa, & Ventura, 2010). However, social and behavioral deficits and sometimes motor skill difficulties demonstrated by individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) could limit opportunities for them to successfully participate in physical activity, and therefore, may put them at risk for being physically inactive and unfit.

PURPOSE: (a) To compare PSP and PF in adolescents with and without ASD, and (b) to assess the relationship of PSP with PF within each group.

METHODS: Thirty-one males with ASD and 36 males without ASD aged 12-18 (14.68±1.55 yrs) participated. The PSP was assessed with a questionnaire originally developed by Whitehead (1995) and translated into Chinese with a high degree of reliability and validity (Hagger, Biddle, Chow, Stambulova, & Kavussanu, 2003). The BROCKPORT Physical Fitness Test was used for PF measures. Independent t tests were used to compare group differences in PSP and PF. Pearson product-moment correlation coefficients were calculated to evaluate the relationships of PSP with PF within each group. Significance was set at p<0.05.

RESULTS: Findings indicate that (a) adolescents with ASD perceived significantly poor scores on physical condition (-2.47, p<0.05), sport competence (-2.05, p<0.05), and general self-worth (-1.53, p<0.05), (b) adolescents with ASD demonstrated significantly poor scores on 20-m PACER (-23.81, p<0.01), isometric push-up (-8.62, p<0.01), and back-saver sit-and-reach (-8.00, p<0.01), (c) for adolescents with ASD, physical condition was associated with 20-m PACER (r=0.58, p<0.01); sport competence was associated with sit-up (r=0.37, p<0.05), and (d) for adolescents without ASD, physical condition (r=0.51, p<0.01) and sport competence (r=0.41, p<0.05) were associated with 20-m PACER; attractive body was associated with sit-up (r=0.35, p<0.05); general self-worth was associated with sit-and-reach (r=0.39, p<0.05).

CONCLUSION: Adolescents with ASD perceived less favorable PSP than adolescents without ASD. PSP and PF indicators were related, despite incomplete overlap between the two variables in each group.Supported by Taiwan NSC grants 99-2410-H-017-036-MY2.

1274 Board #55 MAY 30 11:00 AM - 12:30 PM

Faster Heart Rate Recovery and Higher Short-term Muscle Power in Physically Active Preschool Children

Leigh Gabel, Nicole A. Proudfood, Joyce Obeid, Brian W. Timmons. McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada.

(No relationships reported)

Aerobic fitness has a protective effect on metabolic and cardiovascular health and is positively related to physical activity in youth and adults. There is a paucity of literature examining fitness in preschool children (3- to 5-year olds); thus, little is known about the relationships between physical activity and fitness in this young age group.

PURPOSE: To investigate the relationships between physical activity patterns and fitness (aerobic and short-term muscle power) in a sample of preschool children.

METHODS: Ninety-six preschoolers (4.4 ± 0.9 years; 50 female) participated in the study. Children performed a maximal treadmill assessment (Bruce Protocol) with heart rate (HR) monitored throughout the test and into 1-min of recovery (HR60secpost). Aerobic fitness was assessed by heart rate recovery (HRR = HRmax - HR60secpost). Short-term muscle power was determined by peak power output using a modified 10-sec Wingate cycling protocol. Physical activity patterns were assessed by the duration and frequency of bouts of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) using accelerometry for seven consecutive days with 3-second epochs. Only children who achieved a HRmax of ≥180 bpm on the treadmill test and who wore the accelerometer for ≥3 days for ≥5 hours/day were included in analyses. Pearson correlation coefficients were used to assess the relationships between physical activity and fitness. Both physical activity and short-term muscle power were significantly related to age; thus, partial correlations controlling for age were used.

RESULTS: Average HRmax on the treadmill test was 195 ± 7 bpm with a HRR of 63 ± 14 bpm. HRR was positively related to the frequency of bouts of MVPA (r=0.29, p<0.01). Average peak power on the modified Wingate test was 4.6 ± 1.5 Watts/kg and was positively related to the duration of bouts of MVPA (r=0.23, p=0.03).

CONCLUSIONS: Preschool children who engage in more frequent bouts and longer duration of bouts of MVPA have faster HRR and higher short-term muscle power, respectively, compared to preschoolers who engage in less frequent and shorter duration of bouts of MVPA.

1275 Board #56 MAY 30 11:00 AM - 12:30 PM

Characteristics of Physical Fitness According to the Level of Obesity Index among Young Children

Kosho Kasuga1, Takahiro Nakano2, Kazuo Oguri3, Keisuke Fukutomi4. 1Gifu University, gifu, Japan. 2Nagoya Gakuin University, seto, Japan. 3Shizuoka Sangyo University, iwata, Japan. 4Gifu Sports Science Training Center, gifu, Japan. (Sponsor: Kiyoji Tanaka, FACSM)

(No relationships reported)

Many reports have shown that the prevalence of obesity in Japanese children, including infants, has been increasing. The number of children diagnosed with infant metabolic syndrome is also on a rise. Moreover, in recent years, there has been an increase in the number of lean children in Japan.

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to examine the characteristic of physical fitness according to level of obesity index among young children (age, 3-6 years) by using a large dataset.

METHODS: This study included 5640 young children (2840 boys and 2800 girls). We administered physical fitness tests comprising 7 exercises to gauge the physical fitness status of these children. A T-score was calculated on the basis of the mean and standard deviation according to sex and age; this score was used as an individual score of physical fitness. The children were divided into 7 groups based on their obesity index. Further, the extent of differences among children with different obesity index was examined for each type of exercise. To conduct a statistical analysis of the data, one-way ANOVA and multiple comparisons (Tukey’s HSD test) were employed.

RESULTS: Statistical analysis showed a significant difference among the groups for all the exercises. The children in the “+20% or more” group had the lowest scores in 25-m run, standing long jump, and upright hand standing time. The children in the “-15% or less” group had the lowest scores in softball throw, sitting trunk flexion, side-step, grip strength, and overall physical fitness.

CONCLUSIONS: The physical fitness of obese (+20% or more) and lean (-15% or less) children was found to be poor. The poor physical fitness in lean children may be due to low muscle mass and underdevelopment because of the lack of any physical activity. Moreover, their low energy expenditure may result in a low appetite, which can lead to poor nutrition. In contrast, the severely obese children (+20% or more) may be underdeveloped due to the lack of any physical activity and consumption of an excessive and unbalanced diet. However, the mildly obese (up to +15%) are not physically underdeveloped at infancy, and do not need extreme obesity prevention measures. It is important for them to adopt a “play a lot, eat a lot” lifestyle.

1276 Board #57 MAY 30 11:00 AM - 12:30 PM

The Relationship Between The Development Of Physical Fitness And Lifestyle Behavior In Young Children

Takahiro Nakano1, Kosho Kasuga2, Kazuo Oguri3. 1Nagoya Gakuin University, Aichi, Japan. 2Gifu University, Gifu, Japan. 3Shizuoka Sangyo University, Shizuoka, Japan. (Sponsor: Kiyoji Tanaka, FACSM)

(No relationships reported)

Recently, the decline in children’s physical fitness has become a big problem in Japan for not only older children but also young children. Childhood is very important period for acquisition of basic lifestyle behavior. Many studies have shown a relationship between physical fitness and lifestyle behavior. However, few studies have examined the relationship between the development of physical fitness and lifestyle behavior. Such studies have been particularly rare in young children.

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between the development of physical fitness and lifestyle behavior in young children using longitudinal data.

METHODS: The subjects of this study were 311 young children. We measured seven parameters related to physical fitness: grip strength, upright hand standing time, sitting trunk flexion, 25-meter run, standing long jump, side step, and softball throw. As well, we administered a questionnaire about daily lifestyle behavior. We calculated the development of physical fitness using two-years longitudinal data for the same young children, and calculated the correlation coefficient between the amount of development and daily lifestyle behavior. Further, we examined differences in lifestyle behavior between groups whose physical fitness developed well or did not, using a chi-square test and independent t-test.

RESULTS: The lifestyle behaviors related to several physical fitness items were “Bedtime,” “TV viewing time,” “video-game playing time,” “active play with body movement” and “active play with family”. Significant differences were confirmed between the high-development group and the low-development groups in 7 items, including “TV viewing time,” “video-game playing time,” “number of friends usually playing together,” and “keeping a regular lifestyle”.

CONCLUSION: Relationships between young children’s physical fitness and several lifestyle behaviors were confirmed. It is suggested that physical fitness is easy to develop in children who have a regular lifestyle and a lot of friends to play with. In addition, it is suggested that the development of young children’s physical fitness is promoted by improving lifestyle behaviors such as TV viewing time and video-game playing time.

1277 Board #58 MAY 30 11:00 AM - 12:30 PM

Use Of Exergaming For Obtaining Moderate And Vigorous Physical Activity In Children

Magdalene Horton, Larry Kennard, Scott E. Crouter, FACSM. University of Massachusetts Boston, Boston, MA.

(No relationships reported)

There are a growing number of PA programs that now include interactive video games (exergames) as part of an activity routine; however, it is unclear, if these games are a viable alternative for children obtain moderate and vigorous PA (MVPA).

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to examine the energy cost of children playing exergames. A secondary purpose was to see how the energy cost of exergames compares to other commonly performed activities.

METHODS: Fifty-three boys and 50 girls (mean±SD; age 11.5±1.7 yrs; BMI%ile, 68.6±28.4 %) performed 30-min of lying rest. Each participant was then randomly assigned to perform one of three activity routines consisting of six activities. Participants were familiarized with all activities prior to testing. Exergames included were: Nintendo Wii, Floor-based LightSpace, Wall-based LightSpace, Dance Dance Revolution, SportWall, and Cybex Trazer. Oxygen consumption was measured using a Cosmed K4b2. Measured METs (measured activity VO2/measured resting VO2) were calculated for each activity. Data were also examined for differences between genders, age groups (8-9, 10-11, and 12-15 yrs) and BMI [normal weight (<85th% for age and sex), overweight (85th-95th% for age and sex), and obese (≥95th% for age and sex)].

RESULTS: On average, the mean METs for playing the Nintendo Wii were 2.5 METs. All other exergames had a mean MET value of at least moderate intensity (range; 3.4-5.3 METs). In general, there were no differences by gender, age, or BMI categories, except for; Nintendo Wii (overweight, 3.6 METs vs. normal weight and obese, 2.6 METs), Cybex Trazer (9 yrs, 2.5 METs vs. 10-11 yrs 3.9 METs vs. ≥12 yrs 5.0 METs) and SportWall (8-9 yrs, 2.7 METs vs. 10-11 yrs 4.5 METs vs. ≥12 yrs 6.9 METs). Playing exergames resulted in similar MET values as other commonly performed PA in children (e.g., slow and brisk track walking, track running, playing catch, and soccer)

CONCLUSION: The results of this study show that, in general, the energy cost to play exergames is at a moderate intensity or greater. Exergames could be an alternative way for children to obtain MVPA in addition to the use of more traditional activities. However, there may issues related to age and BMI that need to be further investigated as not all activities work equally well for all individuals.

Study supported by NIH grant 5R21HL093407-02

1278 Board #59 MAY 30 11:00 AM - 12:30 PM

Compliance with Physical Activity Recommendations and Blood Pressure In Preschool Children

Jorge Mota, Sandra Santos, Rute Santos, Luisa Soares-Miranda, Carla Moreira, sandra Abreu, Susana Vale. Research Centre in Physical Activity health and Leisure, Porto, Portugal.

(No relationships reported)

PURPOSE: Research suggests that moderate levels of PA are predictors of lower values of systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP). However, few studies addressed this issue in pre- school children. The purpose of this study was to analyse the associations between compliance of PA recommendations and SBP preschool children.

METHODS: The sample comprised 593 preschool children (48% female) with mean age of 5.3 years. Physical activity was assessed during 7 consecutive days by accelerometer (Actigraph GTM1). We analyzed the recommendation of at least one hour daily of moderate-vigorous PA (MVPA). Blood pressure was measured using the Colin monitor. The measurements were performed with each subject seated and rested for at least five minutes before the test. Percentage of fat (% MG) was calculated using the equation of Westrate and Durenberg. (1990).

RESULTS: The prevalence of BP above the 90th percentile (P90) was 7.8% and 1.3% respectively for SBP and DBP. We found that about 16.5% of the girls and 8.2% of the boys did not accomplish the recommended daily MVPA. Girls who did not meet the daily recommendations of MVPA were twice as much more likely to have SBP values above the P90 compared to those who meet the daily recommendations (OR: 2.6; CI 95%:1.0-6.6; p<0.05), even after adjustment to fat mass.

CONCLUSION: We found an association between the accomplishment of daily PA recommendations and SBP in pre-school children in girls.

1279 Board #60 MAY 30 11:00 AM - 12:30 PM

After-School Exercise Increases Endothelial Progenitor Cells in Overweight and Obese Children

Jong-Hwan Park1, Masashi Miyashita1, Yoshio Nakamura1, Hyun-Tae Park2, Yoo-Chan Kwon3, Eun-Hee Kim3, Jin-Kee Park3, Ki-Beam Park3, Sang-Kab Park3. 1Waseda University, Saitama, Japan. 2National Center for Geriatrics and Gerontology, Aichi, Japan. 3Dong-A University, Busan, Korea, Republic of.

(No relationships reported)

Obese children who are home alone after school have limited time to be active outdoors and unlimited access to junk food, video games and electronic devices which can lead to a more sedentary lifestyle. The role of bone marrow-derived circulating endothelial progenitor cells is to maintain endothelial function and organ perfusion. Endothelial dysfunction is associated with the childhood obesity and is closely linked to the amount and function of endothelial progenitor cells. However, it remains unclear whether endothelial progenitor cells increase with after-school exercise in overweigh and obese children.

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of an after-school exercise programme on endothelial progenitor cells in overweight and obese children.

METHODS: Total of 29 overweight/obese children were randomly divided into the control (i.e., no after-school exercise, n = 14) or after-school exercise (n = 15) groups. The 12-week after-school exercise intervention consisted of 3 days of combined aerobic and resistance exercise per week. Each 80-minute exercise programme included 10 minutes of warm-up and 10 minutes of cool-down after school. CD34+ (a cell surface marker on hematopoietic stem cells), CD133+ (a cell surface marker on hematopoietic progenitor cells) and CD34+/CD133+ (considered as endothelial progenitor cells) were measured at baseline and after 12 weeks using flow cytometry.

RESULTS: Increased percentages of CD34+, CD133+ and CD34+/CD133+ were observed in the after-school exercise group (p = 0.018; p = 0.001; p = 0.002, respectively) compared with the control group. Carotid intima-media thickness decreased after 12 weeks in the after-school exercise group (p = 0.020) compared with the control group. Circulating concentrations of vascular endothelial growth factor and nitric oxide were increased in the after-school exercise group (p = 0.013; p = 0.005, respectively) compared the control group.

CONCLUSIONS: This study provides preliminary evidence that an after-school exercise programme may represent an effective intervention strategy for improving vascular repair and endothelial function, leading to improved cardiovascular health in overweigh and obese children.

1280 Board #61 MAY 30 11:00 AM - 12:30 PM

Physical Activity, Focused Education and Endothelial Function in an Obese Teen: A Case Study

Anna Gabbard, Nabil Boutagy, Elise Maniguet, Alison Peters, Shannon Isom, John W. Wygand, Robert M. Otto, FACSM. Adelphi University, Garden City, NY.

(No relationships reported)

Endothelial function plays a significant role in vascular health. Normal endothelial function includes release of vasoactive substances and growth factors to maintain vascular homeostasis. Endothelial dysfunction (Reactive Hyperemia Index [RHI] < 1.67) can be defined as a loss of balance between vasoconstrictors vs vasodilators and other inflammatory factors. Endothelial dysfunction is precursor to atherosclerosis and is implicated in obesity, diabetes and hypertension. EndoPAT noninvasively assesses endothelial function by reactive hyperemia- pulse amplitude tonometry (RH-PAT). Endothelial function is calculated by measuring blood vessel diameter relative to resting, occluded and hyperemic conditions.

PURPOSE: To determine whether a combined education and physical activity program has an effect on endothelial function in an obese female(age 18 yr, wt 108 kg, ht 170 cm, BMI 37.4 m/kg2).

METHODS: EndoPAT was performed in a thermo-neutral environment with the subject supine and both index fingers in the EndoPAT probe. A blood pressure cuff (BPc) was placed on the subject’s non-dominant arm. Baseline data were collected for 5 minutes. The BPc was inflated to ≥200 mmHg for complete occlusion for 5 minutes, rapidly released and post-occlusion data were collected. Body composition was measured by skinfolds & waist to hip (W/H) with Gulick tape. The intervention was a 12 week program of nutrition and physical activity education combined with twice weekly exercise sessions designed to reduce obesity and modify the participant’s obesogenic environment. Each 60 minute exercise session, consisted of 20-35 minutes of aerobic interval cross training on 4-7 exercise machines at 65-85% HRR for 5 min. each. A circuit of resistance training was performed on 12 Nautilus resistance machines to an intensity of momentary muscular fatigue.

RESULTS: The subject reduced body mass 10.8%, BMI 10.9%, body fat 7.3%, W/H 2.5%, and improved muscular strength 79% (10 RM leg press). RHI improved from dysfunction of 1.46 at baseline to normal function of 2.61 following intervention.

CONCLUSION: A cardiovascular and resistance training intervention improved endothelial function, body composition and muscular strength in an obese teen and attenuated cardiovascular risk.

1281 Board #62 MAY 30 11:00 AM - 12:30 PM

Comparison Between Individual And Averaged Methodologies For Anaerobic Threshold Assessment Of Age-group Swimmers

Marisa Sousa, João Paulo Vilas-Boas, Ricardo Fernandes. University of Porto, Faculty of Sports, Porto, Portugal. (Sponsor: Carlo Baldari, FACSM)

(No relationships reported)

The assessment of the velocity corresponding to anaerobic threshold (vAnT) is frequently part of elite swimmers training program in order to diagnosis their aerobic performance. However, the velocity corresponding to blood lactate concentration ([La-]) of 4 mmol/l (v4), an averaged value proposed for standard more than 30 years ago, is often used in detriment of individualized protocols; in addition, rarely swimmers of young ages are involved in training control.

PURPOSE: To compare the vAnT of 10-11 years old swimmers assessed by individualized protocols (step and critical velocity tests) and by the traditional v4 value.

METHODS: Fifteen age-group swimmers (10.7±0.70 years) performed a 5×200 m front crawl step test (increments of 0.05 m/s per step, and 1 min rest intervals), being capillary blood samples for [La-] analysis collected from the earlobe at rest, after each step and at the end of the test, which allowed the assessment of the vAnTStep through [La-]/velocity curve modeling method, and v4 by linear interpolation. Critical velocity (CV) was obtained through the slope of the linear relationship of time versus distance based on the times of the 100 and 400m competitive events. Mean and SD were computed, as well as repeated measurements ANOVA (with Bonferroni post hoc test) and Pearson correlation coefficient (p≤0.05).

RESULTS: Mean±SD values of vAnTStep, CV and v4 were 1.03±0.05, 1.03±0.07 and 1.08±0.06 m/s, respectively, being the two former velocities significantly lower than v4; these differences corresponds to a 5 s gap in a 100m front crawl effort. The [La-] corresponding to AnT obtained in the step test was 2.3±0.59 mmol/l.

CONCLUSIONS: v4 does not represent the individual vAnT in children involved in competitive swimming, and both a 200 m step incremental protocol, with the later determination of the precise point of the rise in [La-], and CV, seems to be advised for individual anaerobic threshold assessment in young swimmers.

Supported by FCT PTDC/DES/101224/2008 (FCOMP-01-0124-FEDER-009577)

1282 Board #63 MAY 30 11:00 AM - 12:30 PM

Validity of an Alternate Knee Raise Test for Assessing Aerobic Fitness of Adolescents

Stanley Sai-chuen Hui, FACSM, Wing-luen Au, Lin Wang, Wing-yee Chan, Ka-wai Chan. The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong, Hong Kong.

(No relationships reported)

PURPOSE: Simple but valid home-based aerobic fitness test that can be self-administered with minimal equipment is lacking. The purpose of this study was to examine the validity of an alternate knee raise test (AKR) for assessing aerobic fitness of adolescents.

METHODS: With informed consent form completed, 30 male adolescents age 12 to 18 yrs-old (14.63 ± 1.56 yrs-old) volunteered to participate in an AKR test and a grade maximal treadmill exercise (GXT) test. In the AKR test, participants were asked to perform alternate knee raise movement in place following a cadence of 96 beats/min for 3 mins continuously. In each knee raise motion the participants were required to lift up their leg until their thigh touched their palm which was placed in front of their waist at the same level of iliac crest and above their thigh. The movement was similar to a platform step test but no platform was required. At the end of the 3 min AKR test, the post-exercise heart rate (PHR) at 20 seconds after the test was recorded by a Polar heart rate monitor. For GXT test, criterion measure of VO2max was examined by a portable COSMED K4b2 metabolic analyzing system. To evaluate the predictive validity of AKR test, independent variables of age, body weight, skinfolds, body mass index, resting heart rate, post-exercise heart rate were entered into stepwise regression procedures for predicting dependable variable of measured VO2max.

RESULTS: Regression analysis revealed that the AKR test produced good predictive validity and acceptable standard error of estimates. Only two independent variables were needed which were age and PHR. The suggested equation was VO2max (ml/kg/min) = 52.168 - 0.25 (PHR) + 1.568*(Age), R=0.71, SEE=5.17 ml/kg/min.

CONCLUSIONS: The AKR Test was found to be a valid submaximal field test for assessing aerobic fitness of adolescents. It is a practical test due to its’ simple procedure and can be self-administered at home with minimal equipment.

1283 Board #64 MAY 30 11:00 AM - 12:30 PM

Body Perception: Parents’ Poorly Perceive Children’s Fitness Characteristics

Elan J. Lieber, Carmen B. Swain. The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH.

(No relationships reported)

At least 155 million school-age children worldwide are overweight or obese. Body Mass Index (BMI) as a measurement of parental recognition of child’s overweight status ranges from 6-73%. When examining overweight children, less than 50% of parents identify their child as such.

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to examine parental ability to appropriately identify their child’s BMI status and also measures of physical fitness (body composition, muscular strength, flexibility and aerobic fitness).

METHODS: Subjects consisted of 133 males (10.8±2.1 years), 110 females (11.4±2.4 years) and their maternal parent. Males and females scores were compared to maternal perception of score: BMI, body composition, and fitness characteristics (muscular strength, aerobic fitness and flexibility) were categorized according to normative rankings. The maternal perception questionnaire was administered while subject’s fitness characteristics were evaluated. Data associations were examined using descriptive statistics and bivariate correlation.

RESULTS: BMI, body fat and fitness characteristics ranged categorically from poor to excellent. Maternal parents ability to correctly identify fitness characteristics by categorical selection were: BMI (72.8%), body composition (49.4%), flexibility (26.3%), muscular strength (32.5%) and aerobic fitness (39.5%). The relationship between subjects scores and parental perception of scores was considered weak to moderate, as determined by Pearson correlation (BMI: r=.618, body composition: r=.693, muscular strength: r=.268, aerobic fitness: r=.406 and flexibility r=.435).

CONCLUSION: In children ranging from under-weight to obese, parent’s ability to predict characteristics relative to weight and body composition is substantially better than their ability to predict fitness characteristics. Parents have a strong influence on children’s behavior and physical activity levels. Primary prevention is key in fighting the obesity epidemic, thus adult’s awareness of their child’s fitness status is imperative. As such, professional or school-based screening could be suggested as a necessary tool to identify children’s fitness characteristics for parental informative purposes.

1284 Board #65 MAY 30 11:00 AM - 12:30 PM

Prevalence Of Obesity In Japanese Children Aged 3.5 Through 6.5 Years Old

Kazuo Oguri1, Kosho Kasuga2, Takahiro Nakano3. 1Shizuoka Sangyo University, Iwata, Shizuoka, Japan. 2Gifu University, Gifu, Japan. 3Nagoya Gakuin University, Aichi, Japan. (Sponsor: Kiyoji Tanaka, FACSM)

(No relationships reported)

The prevalence of childhood obesity has risen progressively worldwide. It is said that obesity onsets in early childhood; however, factors not yet clarified include: age of obesity onset, and age when gender difference in obesity prevalence becomes apparent.

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of obesity and its development trends, such as differences with age and gender, in Japanese young children.

METHODS: This cross-sectional study analyzed height, weight and age data of 6,235 children (3,147 boys and 3,088 girls) aged 3.5 to 6.5 years old. Subjects were categorized into age groups in increments of 0.5 years, and prevalence of obesity was compared between gender and among groups. Obesity was defined according to the National Health and Nutrition Survey of Japan as 115% of the standard weight for an individual’s height and gender. The chi-square test was used to compare differences in prevalence of obesity. Where appropriate, p values of the chi-square test were corrected according to Bonferroni inequalities.

RESULTS: Prevalence of obesity plateaued at 6.4 % to 6.7 % both in boys and girls, aged between 3.5 years and 4.5 years. However, it significantly decreased to 3.1 % and 3.0 % in boys and girls respectively, at age 5.0 years old (p<0.001). Prevalence of obesity in boys and girls aged 5.5 years increased to 8.0 % and 6.8 % respectively, which was significantly higher than that in boys and girls at 5.0 years old, and the rate gradually increased with age thereafter (p<0.001). No significant difference in prevalence of obesity was found between boys and girls in each group for ages 3.5 years to 6.0 years. However, the prevalence was significantly higher in boys than in girls at age 6.5 years (p<0.05).

CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that prevalence of obesity temporarily decreases at age 5.0 years old, however, it markedly increases from age 5.5 years old. Prevalence of obesity among boys significantly increases relative to that among girls at age 6.5 years. These findings indicate that prevention and treatment of young childhood obesity is important for pediatric healthcare.

1285 Board #66 MAY 30 11:00 AM - 12:30 PM

Relationship of Body Mass Index to Exercise Participation and Adherence in Overweight Children and Adolescents

Amanda Gier, Christopher Kist, Wayne A. Mays, Robert Siegel, Shelley Kirk. Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH.

(No relationships reported)

PURPOSE: To determine if body mass index (BMI) in overweight and obese children and adolescents is a barrier to participation in and adherence to an organized group exercise program.

METHODS: During medical visits for a clinical pediatric weight management program, height and weight was obtained on 603 overweight children and adolescents and used to calculate BMI. Patients were given information about the group exercise sessions available to them through the program. Group classes were offered five evenings per week, and participants could attend at their discretion. Classes were 1-hour long and consisted of strength training, cardiovascular activity and active games in a fun, non-competitive environment. Class attendance was tracked and duration of active participation was determined. Data was analyzed to determine if BMI was related to class attendance.

RESULTS: Active class attendance ranged from 0 to 182 weeks. There was no correlation between BMI (34.9 ± 7.5 kg/m2) and weeks attended (10.7 ± 22.4 weeks) (r= -0.054, NS) when looking at all participants. Within the group of participants that attended group exercise sessions, N=355, there was no correlation between BMI (34.4 ± 7.8 kg/m2) and total weeks of exercise class attendance(18.1 ± 26.8 weeks) (r= -0.03,NS). However, when comparing the participants that attended classes to those who did not attend any classes, the children who did attend classes had a significantly lower BMI (34.4 ± 7.8 vs 35.6 ± 7.1 kg/m2) (p<0.05), but were also significantly younger (11.2 ± 3.3 vs 12.0 ± 3.3 years) (p<0.005).

CONCLUSION: BMI was not related to the length of time that children actively participated in group exercise sessions. However, BMI and age were significantly lower in the group that attended classes. Younger children may have a lower BMI but still be in a higher BMI percentile for age than older children with a similar BMI. Therefore, BMI alone may not be helpful in determining which patients will participate in an exercise program. Future research should focus on a multivariate analysis of BMI percentile and age as indicators of participation in exercise classes. Further research into these variables could give healthcare providers insight into which patients may need additional support and encouragement when beginning structured exercise.

1286 Board #67 MAY 30 11:00 AM - 12:30 PM

Relationship between Health Status and Motor Ability among Young Children

Keisuke Fukutomi1, Kosho Kasuga2, Katsunori Fujii3, Tohru Isigaki4. 1Gifu Sports Science Training Center, Gifu, Japan. 2Gifu University, Gifu, Japan. 3Aichi Institute of Technology, Toyota, Japan. 4Aichi Prefectural University of Fine Arts and Music, Nagakute, Japan. (Sponsor: Kiyoji Tanaka, FACSM)

(No relationships reported)

It has been suspected that people with low motor ability are liable to have bad health status. However, less research has been performed on the motor ability of young children by using a large dataset.

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between health status and motor ability among young children.

METHODS: The study included 2,431 young children (1,241 boys and 1,190 girls; age range: 4-6 years) and their parent. We administered motor ability tests comprising 10 exercises to gauge the motor ability status of these children. To obtain the overall motor ability parameter, the measurement items were summarized by using principal component analysis. And we concluded that the first principal component represented the overall motor ability. Further, the principal component score of the first principal component was divided by the number of subjects of each sex and 0.5 years to obtain the individual T-scores. These individual T-scores indicated the motor ability scores. Questionnaires comprising 13 items on health status_frequent loose bowels, frequently catching cold, having a nosebleed, having eczema and suppuration, having car sickness, having no notable symptoms, allergy constitution, asthma, atopy, nasal catarrh, food allergy, drug allergy, and conjunctivitis_were administered to their parent. Student’s t-test was performed to determine the statistical differences in the motor ability scores between children who answered ‘True’ and those who answered ‘False’. The level of significance was set at p < 0.05. The data were collected in 2009.

RESULTS: With respect to the health status, the motor ability scores of the group that answered ‘True’ were significantly lower than those of the group that answered ‘False’ for items under the category ‘having no notable symptoms’ (True: 50.7, False: 49.3) and ‘frequently catching cold’ (True; 47.9, False; 50.3). Particular attention was paid to allergy symptoms. Statistical analysis showed that there was no significant difference in the motor ability scores of young children who answered ‘True’ and those who answered ‘False’.

CONCLUSIONS: The young children who caught cold frequently had low motor abilities. Moreover, 38% of the subjects had allergy constitution; however, presence of an allergy did not have any correlation with motor ability.

1287 Board #68 MAY 30 11:00 AM - 12:30 PM

Relations between Sedentary Behavior and FITNESSGRAM® Healthy Fitness Zone Achievement and Physical Activity

Jacob S. Tucker, Scott B. Martin, Allen W. Jackson, FACSM, James R. Morrow, FACSM, Christy A. Greenleaf, Trent A. Petrie. University of North Texas, Denton, TX.

(No relationships reported)

Sedentary behaviors such as television viewing and video game playing increase the relative risk of morbidity and mortality independent of physical activity levels. Due to the direct relations between these sedentary behaviors and health risk, the American Academy of Pediatrics recommends no more than two hours of daily screen time for youth.

PURPOSE: To investigate the relations between sedentary behaviors and health-related physical fitness (PF) achievement and physical activity (PA) behaviors in middle school students.

METHODS: Students (N=1515) in grades 6-8 completed the FITNESSGRAM® PF items, and FITNESSGRAM PA questions in addition to Youth Risk Behavior Survey sedentary behavior questions as part of school activities.

RESULTS: Using logistic regression and controlling for gender, age, ethnicity, and economic status, we calculated odd ratios (OR) for all components of health-related fitness, aerobic capacity (OR=1.70, 95%CI = 1.30-2.34), muscular strength and endurance (OR = 1.87, 95%CI = 1.30-2.68), flexibility (OR = 1.54, 95%CI = 1.20-2.00), and body composition (OR = 1.71, 95%CI = 1.27-2.30). The odds of achieving the FITNESSGRAM Healthy Fitness Zone were higher when students reported ≤2 hours of sedentary behaviors per day. Similarly, the odds of achieving physical activity guidelines for aerobic (OR = 1.42, 95%CI = 1.09-1.84), muscular strengthening (OR = 1.77, 95%CI = 1.22-2.57), and flexibility (OR = 1.47, 95%CI = 1.15-1.88) activity were higher when students reported ≤2 hours per day of sedentary behaviors.

CONCLUSION: Results illustrate the importance of keeping sedentary behaviors to ≤2 hours per day in middle school students, thus increasing the odds that students will achieve sufficient health-related fitness for health benefits. Less screen time is related to achieving national physical activity guidelines.

Grant support from the National Association for Sport and Physical Education.

1288 Board #69 MAY 30 11:00 AM - 12:30 PM

Associations Among Body Fat %, BMI, And Fitness Test Performance In School-Aged Children

Ryan D. Burns1, James C. Hannon1, Brett Allen1, Pedro F. Saint-Maurice2, Gregory J. Welk, FACSM2. 1University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT. 2Iowa State University, Ames, IA.

(No relationships reported)

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to examine associations among body fat % (BF%), BMI, and various fitness tests in school-aged children.

METHODS: The participants included male and female 4th through 10th grade students (n=376) recruited from three private schools from a metropolitan area in the southwestern United States. Participants completed assessments of body composition, aerobic fitness and muscular fitness on 4 separate testing days with at least 48 hours between sessions. On day 1 participants completed the BMI, BF% and PACER aerobic fitness test. On day 2 participants completed DYNAMIC CURL UPS and ROMAN CHAIR STATIC extension tests. On day 3 participants completed PLANKS, LATERAL STRENGTH, and ROMAN CHAIR DYNAMIC extensions. On day 4 participants completed any test that they may have missed on previous days. Pearson-Product Moment (PPM) correlations were used to assess the degree of association between body composition and fitness variables. Alpha level of 0.05 was set to determine significance for statistical analyses.

RESULTS: The BMI and BF% values were moderately correlated with each other (r=.51, p<.001). BF% had higher correlations with the fitness variables than BMI (PACER: r=-.407 vs. -.094; CURL-UP: r=-.197 vs. .108; PLANK: r=-.311 vs. -.06; LATERAL STRENGTH: r=-.239 vs. -.078; ROMAN CHAIR DYNAMIC: r=-.142 vs. -.128; ROMAN CHAIR STATIC: r=-.149 vs. -.133). BF% correlations were significant among all fitness tests (p<.001) while BMI correlations were only significant for both ROMAN CHAIR extensions (p<.05).

CONCLUSION: The results suggest that BF% is negatively correlated with indicators of aerobic fitness and muscular fitness in youth. The moderate correlations between BF% and BMI and the weaker associations between BMI and fitness performance tests indicate that BMI may provide a less useful indicator of body composition for use in school health related fitness testing.

1289 Board #70 MAY 30 11:00 AM - 12:30 PM

A Comparative Cross-cultural Comparison Of Posture, Core Strength, Height, Age And Body Mass Index

Ulrike H. Mitchell, A Wayne Johnson, Barbara Simmons. Brigham Young University, Provo, UT.

(No relationships reported)

PURPOSE: High income countries around the world have experienced dramatic increases in obesity and sedentary behaviors in both genders, all income levels, ethnic groups, and all ages. We hypothesized that the lack of multiple TV channels or computers would have a positive impact on posture and fitness. This project was conducted in the rural villages outside of Irapuato, Mexico. The data were compared to similar studies conducted in Ghana, Australia and the United States.

METHODS: Intervention: 29 children, ages 10-12, performed 5 exercises indicative of core strength (plank, left and right bridge, left and right stork); the times of how long they were able to hold the positions were documented. With reflective markers placed on bony landmarks, the children had posture assessment photographs taken of their normal standing posture from a lateral view. A software program was used to mark and measure postural angles.

RESULTS: Height and weight (and their SD) were greater in Mexico (139.7cm SD9.6 and 35.1kg SD11.9) than in Australia (138.8cm SD5.8 and 32.4kg SD3.8). The gaze angle was greater in the Hispanic children (14.10 deg SD8.48) compared to the Australian’s (10.3 deg SD7.6); this indicates a greater propensity towards a forward head posture.

The head on neck angle was greater in the Australian children (55.7deg SD8.7) compared to the Hispanics (50.3deg SD6.1); however, we believe that this is the result of a protruding C7 marker rather than an actual postural dysfunction.

Core strength: There were differences in exercise times for the side bridges and stork exercises between the children tested in Mexico and Utah County and for the left side bridge and stork exercises between the children tested in Mexico and Ghana (all with p-values <.05); there was no difference in exercise times between children tested in Ghana and Utah County.

CONCLUSIONS: Our hypothesis was not supported by this study. While life in Irapuato, Mexico, is less influenced by computers and TV, it doesn’t seem to have any impact on better posture or fitness. Reasons for this include widespread poverty which encourages consumption of cheaper high-calorie processed foods, culturally anchored sedentary lifestyle habits, lack of physical and health education and exercise-prohibitive living conditions.

1290 Board #71 MAY 30 11:00 AM - 12:30 PM

Influence of BMI on Aerobic Fitness and Academic Performance in Middle School Students

Guoyuan Huang1, Xiangrong Shi, FACSM2, Audra Offutt3. 1University of Southern Indiana, Evansville, IN. 2University of North Texas Health Science Center,, Fort Worth, TX. 3Thompson Middle School of EVSC, Evansville, IN.

(No relationships reported)

PURPOSE: Obesity is one of the most pressing health concerns for children. Could positive results presenting an academic advantage be due to children more fit in BMI? The current study was to explore if middle school students who are BMI fit are likely to have better aerobic fitness and stronger academic performance.

METHODS: The study sample included 146 middle school students (mean age: 11.9±0.4 yrs). Subjects were administered physical fitness tests after first signing the informed consent. The study used standard physical fitness tests and was conducted in a controlled manner by the trained professionals. The academic performance information was collected, including previous and current semester GPA (P-GPA; C-GPA), and final GPA for the academic year (F-GPA). Only those students with complete sets of scores for both variables were included in the statistic analysis. SPSS for Windows 17.0 was used for statistical analysis.

RESULTS: The results showed a significant mean difference of aerobic fitness in terms of 1-mile running time (min) between normal-BMI and overweight-obese-BMI students (mean±SD, 9.99±2.67 vs. 13.51±2.61; p<0.0001), and between underweight-BMI and overweight-obese-BMI students (10.38±2.52 vs. 13.51±2.61; p<0.0001). Students with normal-BMI tended having better academic performance than that of the overweight-obese-BMI students in terms of percentile rank for F-GPA (58.97±26.47 vs. 46.27±28.01; p=0.022) and C-GPA (59.02±26.05 vs. 47.56±26.91; p=0.041). Better GPAs were also found in normal-BMI students, compared to the underweight-BMI, in P-GPA (58.25±26.13 vs. 41.43±24.16; p=0.009), C-GPA (59.02±26.05 vs. 38.13±26.67; p=0.001), and F-GPA (58.97±26.47 vs. 40.50±26.09; p=0.004).

CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that normal-BMI students are likely to have high level of cardiorespiratory fitness, compared to those students with underweight-BMI and overweight-obese-BMI. Students with healthy BMI tend to have higher GPAs, showing better academic performance.

1291 Board #72 MAY 30 11:00 AM - 12:30 PM

Relationship Of Exercise Class Participation and BMI Change In Pediatric Obesity Patients

Christopher Kist, Amanda Gier, Wayne Mays, Bob Siegel, Shelley Kirk. Cincinnati Children’s Hospital, Cincinnati, OH.

(No relationships reported)

PURPOSE: To evaluate the relationship of participation in a pediatric weight management program inclusive of exercise classes and family-oriented dietary counseling to body mass index (BMI) change pre and post participation.

METHODS: We evaluated 269 pediatric obesity patients (mean age 11.2 ± 3.0 years, 106 males) with a 400 meter walk test pre and post participation in the pediatric weight management program. There were 178 patients that participated in exercise classes (EC) and 91 patients that completed the program without participation in the exercise classes (NC). Heart rate difference (HRDiff) was calculate by subtracting the pre 400 meter walk heart rate (HR) from the post 400 meter walk HR.

RESULTS: For the total group, there was a significant correlation between the change in BMI (0.12 ± 2.13 kg) and the percentage of exercise classes attended (12.3 ± 16.2%, r=0.21, p<0.0005). Additionally, the initial BMI (34.7 ± 7.7 kg/m2) correlated with the pre and post HR Diff (30 ±13 and 29 ± 13 BPM) (r=0.15, p<0.01 and r=0.16, p<0.01) Also, the post BMI was significantly correlated with the post HRDiff (r=0.14, p<0.05). The NC group showed no correlations with pre or post HRDiff. However, the EC group showed significant correlation between the change in BMI (0.43 ± 2.46 kg) and the percentage of exercise classes attended (18.6 ± 16.7%, r=0.25, p<0.0005). Additionally, the initial BMI (34.8 ± 7.9 kg/m2) correlated with the pre and post HR Diff (29 ±13 and 28 ±13 BPM) (r=0.20, p<0.005 and r=0.20, p<0.005) Also, the post BMI was significantly correlated with the post HRDiff (r=0.17, p<0.005). DISCUSSION: There was a significant correlation between the change in BMI pre and post exercise participation and the percentage of classes attended. This relationship was strengthened when patients that did not attend classes were removed from the analysis. Additionally, BMI was significantly correlated with HR difference from the 400 meter walk test indicating BMI relationship to the difficulty of the walk test.

CONCLUSION: There was a significant but weak correlation of BMI change to attendance to exercise classes in a pediatric weight management program. Further multivariate analysis may illuminate the relationship between attendance and BMI.

1292 Board #73 MAY 30 11:00 AM - 12:30 PM

Influence Of BMI On The New FITNESSGRAM® Aerobic Capacity Criteria Standards In Sixth-grade Children.

Tinker D. Murray, FACSM1, John Walker, FACSM1, Pete Silvius2, Erik Silvius2, James Eldridge3, William G. Squires, Jr., FACSM4. 1Texas State University, San Marcos, TX. 2Seguin ISD, Seguin, TX. 3University of Texas of the Permian Basin, Odessa, TX. 4Texas Lutheran University, Seguin, TX.

(No relationships reported)

New criterion standards for percent body fat, body mass index (BMI), and aerobic capacity have been developed for the FITNESSGRAM®. Aerobic capacity is calculated based on 1-mile run, PACER, or 1-mile walk performances, as well as BMI values. Criterion standards for aerobic capacity include a healthy fitness zone (HFZ) and a categories for Needs Improvement - Some Risk (NI-SR) and Needs Improvement - High Risk (NI-HR).

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to examine the influence BMI has on the new FITNESSGRAM® criterion standards for aerobic capacity compared to the previous standards for one-mile run and PACER tests in sixth-grade children.

METHODS: Subjects were 439 sixth-grade boys and girls (61.3% Hispanic; 7.1% African-American) who completed each of the FITNESSGRAM® test components of their yearly physical education assessment. While, 60% of students met the previous FITNESSGRAM® age and gender criterion standards for BMI, only 43% met the new HFZ standards, and only 2% were in the very lean category. For the remaining students, 13% were classified as NI-SR, while 42% were classified as NI-HR.

RESULTS: The percent of these students meeting the previous criterion standards were 48% for the one-mile run, and 44% for the PACER test. The percent of these students meeting the new FITNESSGRAM® age and gender aerobic capacity standards calculated from one-mile run times were 55% for the HFZ, 19% for NI-SR, leaving 26% in the NI-HR category. The percent meeting the new aerobic capacity standards calculated from PACER performance were 50% for the HFZ, 19% for NI-SR, leaving 31% in the NI-HR category. Logistic regression revealed that compared to students who failed to meet the new HFZ standard for BMI, students who met the new HFZ standards for BMI were 42.6 times more likely to meet the aerobic capacity HFZ standard determined from one-mile times, and 57.1 times more likely to meet the aerobic capacity HFZ standard determined by PACER performance.

CONCLUSIONS: A decrease in BMI of one unit (based on weight loss only, ∼2.38 kilograms) would increase the probability of meeting HFZ criterion standards for aerobic capacity determined from the one-mile run by 45% and for aerobic capacity determined from PACER performance by 71%. This achievable (and safe) goal in similar youth populations remains to be tested in fitness interventions.

1293 Board #74 MAY 30 11:00 AM - 12:30 PM

The Effect of Waist Circumference on FITNESSGRAM® BMI and Aerobic Capacity Criterion Standards in Sixth-Grade Children.

John L. Walker, FACSM1, Tinker D. Murray, FACSM1, James Eldridge2, Pete Silvius3, Erik Silvius3, William G. Squires, Jr., FACSM4. 1Texas State University - San Marcos, San Marcos, TX. 2University of the Permian Basin, Odessa, TX. 3Seguin Independent School District, Seguin, TX. 4Texas Lutheran University, Seguin, TX.

(No relationships reported)

Waist circumference has been identified as an indicator of metabolic syndrome. New FITNESSGRAM® health fitness zone (HFZ) standards for body composition and body mass index (BMI) have been established to identify students most at risk for metabolic syndrome. New HFZ standards have also been established for aerobic capacity (AC).

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of waist circumference (WC) on the new FITNESSGRAM® BMI and AC HFZ standards in sixth-grade children.

METHODS: Subjects were 528 sixth-grade boys and girls who completed each of the FITNESSGRAM® test components as a part of their yearly physical education assessment. AC was determined from one-mile run times. In addition to height and weight, subjects were also measured for WC. The percent of these students meeting the FITNESSGRAM® age and gender HFZ standards were 49% for BMI, and 59% for AC, compared to passing rates of 60% for BMI, and 35% for the one-mile run based on the previous FITNESSGRAM® standards.

RESULTS: The correlation between BMI and AC was .74. The correlation between WC and AC was .71. The correlation between BMI and WC was .94. Multiple regression indicated that BMI and gender accounted for 62% of the variation in AC. WC and gender accounted for 61% of the variation in AC. Logistic regression revealed that students who met the HFZ standards for BMI were 76.7 times more likely to meet the HFZ standards for AC than students who failed to meet the HFZ standards for BMI. A decrease in BMI by one unit would increase the probability of meeting the HFZ standards for AC by 41%. A decrease in WC by one inch would increase the probability of meeting the HFZ standards for AC by 37%.

CONCLUSIONS: The influence of BMI on AC is similar to that of WC. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) analysis indicated that a waist circumference of 29 inches is the optimal cut-off score for determining successful completion for either BMI (AUC = .97) or AC (AUC = .93). These data suggest that interventions targeting a reduction in waist circumference or weight loss have the potential to improve performance on health-related fitness tests of aerobic capacity. Recent reports indicating an increase in overweight and obesity among children and adolescents make the development of such interventions even more meaningful for appropriate health-related fitness in youth.

1294 Board #75 MAY 30 11:00 AM - 12:30 PM

School Physical Education Programs And Children’s Cardiovascular Fitness Tracking

Randall A. Nichols, Traci D. Zillifro, Wenhao Liu. Slippery Rock University, Slippery Rock, PA.

(No relationships reported)

PURPOSE: To compare cardiovascular fitness tracking between children from two different PE programs.

METHODS: Participants were 176 children (85 girls) in a PE4life Academy middle school (S1), which was known for its high level of moderate and vigorous physical activity (MVPA) in the PE class, and 118 children (63 girls) in a same-area middle school with a traditional PE program (S2). Two schools were similar in socioeconomic status, race composition (white > 93%), and weekly PE class time (approximately 90 minutes per week). Progressive Aerobic Cardiovascular Endurance Run (PACER) was administered to the cohort at the beginning and end of their middle school period. Spearman rank correlation was used to examine stability of cardiovascular fitness. Further, based on the criteria of FITnessgram Healthy Fitness Zone (HFZ), the cohort was categorized into either an at-risk group or HFZ group, and Chi-square test was used to examine differences in distribution changes in at risk and HFZ between S1 and S2 across the three years. Children’s MVPA in the PE class were coded for 25 lessons in each school with System for Observing Fitness Instruction Time and analyzed with one-way MANOVA.

RESULTS: PACER correlations were .64 for S1 and .73 for S2 for boys, and were .77 for S1 and .49 for S2 for girls. Chi-square results for boys indicated similar distribution pattern in the two groups between S1 (49.1% in the at-risk group and 50.9% in the HFZ) and S2 (57.1% and 42.9%) at baseline. At the follow-up, however, the patterns became different between S1 (24.5% in the at-risk group and 75.5% in the HFZ) and S2 (81.0% and 19.0%), with χ2 = 19.86 and p < .001 in favor of S1. Results for girls were similar. At baseline S1 had 21.6% in the at-risk group and 78.4% in the HFZ, and S2 had 33.3% and 66.7%, respectively. At the follow-up S1 had 29.4% in the at-risk group and 70.6% in the HFZ, and S2 had 61.5% and 38.5%, respectively, with χ2 = 9.23 and p < .01 in favor of S1. Further, MANOVA results indicated that children in S1 had significantly larger percentage of PE class time in MVPA than those in S2 (p < .001), with 66.42 ± 6.50 vs. 44.12 ± 8.79.

CONCLUSIONS: The PE4life program has much more positive tracking results in children’s cardiovascular fitness than traditional PE programs. But Spearman rank correlation alone could not identify or explain the differences.

1295 Board #76 MAY 30 11:00 AM - 12:30 PM

Physical Activity Incorporated Within Head Start Curriculum Improves Early Literacy In African American Children

Stacie M. Kirk, Erik P. Kirk. Southern Illinois University Edwardsville, Edwardsville, IL.

(No relationships reported)

PURPOSE: To determine the effects of a low cost, teacher directed, minimal intervention program that delivered existing academic lessons taught through physical activity (PA) in Head Start preschools serving African American (AA) children.

METHODS: Seventy-two African American children (mean±SE, age 3.8±0.1y) from a low socioeconomic urban Head Start were randomized to Control (CON, n=3 classrooms, n=21, F, n=9 F, M, n=12) or PA (n=4 classrooms, n=51 F, n=29, M, n=22) groups for 6 mo. The PA program was designed to promote 150 min/wk of moderate to vigorous PA academic lessons (3.0-6.0 METS, ∼15 min each, 2 lessons/day). Intensity of classroom PA was measured by a SOFIT. Height and weight to determine BMI were obtained using a stadiometer and digital scale. The Get It, Got It, Go Individual Growth and Development Indicators for children ages 3-5y was administered to assess early literacy and phonological awareness in the areas of alliteration and picture naming. All measures were assessed at baseline, 3 and 6 mo.

RESULTS: The PA protocol resulted in significantly (p<0.05) greater levels of PA in the classroom during free play at 3 (PA, 8.1±2.1% vs. CON, -2.2±2.1%) and 6 (PA, 20.1±2.1% vs. C, -7.1±2.1%) mo than children in the CON, resulting in between group differences at 3 and 6 mo, p<0.01. The 6 mo change in BMI for the PA group was 2.0±1.1% and CON 0.8±0.9%, respectively (NS). Alliteration (letters sounds/two min) significantly (p<0.01) improved in the PA group from baseline (0.4±0.1) to 3 mo (1.0±0.4) and was maintained at 6 mo (1.0±0.4) compared to no change in CON at 3 (0.1±0.3) and 6 (0.2±0.4) mo compared to baseline, p>0.05, resulting in between group differences at 3 and 6 mo, p<0.01. Picture naming (picture per minute) significantly (p<0.01) improved in the PA group from baseline (17.2±3.5) to 3 (21.7±5.0) and 6 (24.8±5.4) mo compared to no improvement in the CON, resulting in between group differences at 3 and 6 mo, p<0.01. Higher scores for alliteration and picture naming indicate greater early literacy skills and phonological awareness.

CONCLUSION: A low cost, teacher directed, minimal intervention program incorporating PA within Head Start curriculum promotes daily PA, increases early literacy, and attenuate increases in BMI in AA preschool children, a group at an increased risk for poor literacy development and obesity.

1296 Board #77 MAY 30 11:00 AM - 12:30 PM

Effect of Exercise Training in the Cold on Regional Body Composition in Obese Boys

Boguslaw Wilk, FACSM, Joyce Obeid, Raymond Trott, Oded Bar-Or, Brian W. Timmons. McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada.

(No relationships reported)

Exercise training in the cold reduces whole body fat mass in obese adolescent boys (Wilk et al 2006).

PURPOSE: To determine the effect of exercise training in the cold on regional body composition, substrate utilization, respiratory heat loss (RHL), and energy expenditure (EE) in obese adolescents.

METHODS: Twenty obese (>30% body fat) adolescent boys, ages 12 to 16 years, participated in a 6-week (3 times per week) exercise training program. Boys were randomly allocated to train in the cold (COLD; 5 °C, n=10) or a thermoneutral environment (NEUT; 24.5 °C, n=10). Each training session consisted of 3 × 20 min exercise bouts interspersed with 5 min rest performed in a climate chamber. The boys alternated between treadmill walking and cycling (both at 60 % VO2max) within each session. Regional body composition was measured before and after the 6-week training program using DXA. Volume, O2, CO2, and temperature of expired air were measured during exercise at the first (T1) and last (T18) training sessions to assess EE, substrate utilization (fat oxidation (FATox) and carbohydrate oxidation (CHOox)), and RHL. Two-way ANOVAs with between (COLD vs. NEUT) and within (pre- vs. post-training) factors were used (p<0.05).

RESULTS: Significant post-training %fat changes were observed for trunk (-1.6 %, P= 0.05) and legs (-1.0%, P=0.001) in COLD and for arms in NEUT (-1.2%, P=0.04). Leg lean mass increased 4.6% (P=0.001) in COLD only. FATox was higher and CHOox lower at T18 compared with T1 (P<0.05), with no differences between groups. RHL were higher (P=0.001) in COLD at T1 (1.08 kcal/kg) and T18 (1.04 kcal/kg) compared with NEUT (0.61 and 0.57 kcal/kg at T1 and T18, respectively). Although EE was ∼10% higher in COLD compared with NEUT at both T1 and T18, this difference was not statistically significant.

CONCLUSIONS: Six weeks of exercise training in the cold induces desirable changes in regional body composition, particularly central adiposity, of obese boys.

1297 Board #78 MAY 30 11:00 AM - 12:30 PM

Examining Elementary School Students’ Motor Skills, Physical Activity, and Health-related Physical Fitness

Tao Zhang1, Ping Xiang2. 1University of North Texas, Denton, TX. 2Texas A & M University, College Station, TX.

(No relationships reported)

Promoting motor skills, physical activity (PA), and health-related physical fitness are all critical to our effort to help school-aged students live physically active lifestyles. Therefore, understanding their interrelationships is considered a research priority. While considerable research has examined PA in relation to students’ health-related physical fitness, research on the relationships among students’ motor skills, in-class PA and physical fitness has been scarce.

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships among motor skills, in-class PA, and health-related physical fitness among elementary school students in physical education (PE).

METHODS: Participants were 104 fourth and fifth grade students (45 girls and 59 boys; M age = 11.0). They completed motor skills in basketball, overhand throwing, and striking assessed by PE Metrics TM (NASPE, 2010). Students’ PA across three PE lessons was measured by Actical accelerometers (Mini-Mitter Co., Inc., Bend, OR). Health-related physical fitness was assessed by FITNESSGRAM® (Cooper Institute, 2007), including Progressive Aerobic Cardiovascular Endurance Run, curl-ups, push-ups, height and weight (calculating BMI), trunk lift, and sit-and-reach tests. The total number of fitness tests in which students achieved the Healthy Fitness Zone was calculated and used as an overall measure of physical fitness.

RESULTS: There were positive relationships among basketball, overhand throwing, and striking. Basketball was positively associated with in-class PA. Health-related physical fitness was positively correlated with basketball, striking, and in-class PA. Two regression analyses indicated basketball and overhand throwing were significant predictors of students’ in-class PA (R2 = 6.3 %; β = .22, -.24, respectively, all p < 0.05). The basketball skill emerged as a significant predictor of students’ physical fitness (R2= 4.7 %; β = .22, p < 0.05).

CONCLUSION: These results provided empirical evidence on relationships among students’ motor skills, PA, and health-related physical fitness. Given the small predictive strength of motor skills in this study, additional investigation is needed to further examine the dynamic relationships among motor skills, PA, and health-related physical fitness.

A-31 Free Communication/Poster - Clinical Exercise Physiology Cardiovascular (Clinical Exercise Physiology Association)

MAY 30, 2012 7:30 AM - 12:30 PM

ROOM: Exhibit Hall

1298 Board #79 MAY 30 9:30 AM - 11:00 AM

Blind Reading Of Anaerobic Threshold (AT) To Detect Changes In Exercise Tolerance

Kazuo Kondou1, Hirotaka Nishijima1, Namiko Horigome1, Oukusa Takanori1, Kazuya Yonezawa2, Masayuki Sakurai1. 1Hokko Memorial Hospital, Sapporo, Japan. 2National Hospital Organization Hakodate Hospital, Hakodate, Japan.

(No relationships reported)

PURPOSE: Although AT is a useful measure of exercise tolerance (ET), it has a drawback of requiring an evaluator, a source of subjectivity. This study was done to assess the AT by blind reading to detect changes in ET.

METHODS: The records of 166 patients who underwent cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPX) during cardiac rehabilitation (CR) were retrospectively reviewed. CR was hospital (the mean of 3.1/mo) and home based. The mean time elapsed between the 1st and 2nd tests was 135(SD:29) days. The mean age was 64(11), with 143 males and 23 females. The underlying heart disease was mainly ischemic: post myocardial infarction in 95 and angina in 39. CPX was done using an upright bicycle with a breath-by-breath apparatus. The exercise was submaximal, which was mostly terminated with an appearance of AT or target heart rate. CPX records were erased of their ID’s and coded by the controller. AT was read by 2 independent experienced investigators(A,B) based on the Wasserman’s criteria.

RESULTS: The table below shows the mean(SD).

The investigator A did not detect AT in 21.7% and B in 14.5%. About 2/3 of these cases had a R<1.0 at the highest workload, suggesting a workload below AT. Although the pre-and post-CR AT values read by the investigators A and B were clearly different (p<0.001), the mean pre-post difference in AT detected by each was remarkably similar (51(161) vs 46(140) ml/min in VO2, ns). We speculated that since the entire portion of the v-slope would shift to the right with training, any identifiable deflection point on it would equally shift in parallel

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CONCLUSIONS: Despite differing AT readings at pre-and post-rehabilitation by the 2 independent investigators, the mean absolute difference (improvement) did not differ between the 2.

1299 Board #80 MAY 30 9:30 AM - 11:00 AM

Effect Of An Exercise-based Cardiac Rehabilitation Program On Arterial Stiffness In Post Myocardial Infarction Patients

Norton Luis Oliveira1, Fernando Ribeiro2, Alberto Jorge Alves1, Fátima Miranda3, Marlene Fonseca3, Lilibeth Campos3, Madalena Teixeira3, José Oliveira1. 1University of Porto, Faculty of Sport, Porto, Portugal. 2CESPU, Polytechnic Health Institute of the North, Gandra PRD, Portugal. 3Centro Hospitalar de Gaia/Espinho, Vila Nova de Gaia, Portugal.

(No relationships reported)

The arterial stiffness, assessed by pulse wave velocity (PWV), has been showed to be an independent cardiovascular risk marker in several clinical conditions. Exercise seems to be an effective intervention in decreasing PWV in several chronic diseases, although few studies exist in post myocardial infarction (MI) patients

PURPOSE: To determine the effect of an exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation program on PWV in post MI patients.

METHODS: Twenty-four male and 2 female patients, mean (±SD) age 60.1 ± 10.5 years, after an acute myocardial infarction were randomized to either an 8-week exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation program (EG) or to a control group, which underwent only usual medical care (CG). Complete randomization was performed by choosing one of two sealed envelopes. The EG participated in an 8-week programme comprising 3 exercise sessions per week. Each exercise session included 10 minutes of warm-up, 35 minutes of aerobic exercise on a cycloergometer or treadmill, and 10 minutes of cool-down. The exercise intensity was calculated as 65-75% of maximal heart rate achieved in the exercise test. Outcome measures included changes in PWV, evaluated by applanation tonometry, and peak oxygen consumption (VO2). Group comparisons were made using two-way ANOVA with repeated measures.

RESULTS: Age (EG - 63 ± 9.4 vs. CG - 57 ± 11.2 years), PWV (EG - 9.2 ± 2.3 vs. CG - 8.2 ± 2.5 m/s) and VO2 (EG - 26.4 ± 6.6 vs. CG - 28.2 ± 5.4 ml/kg/min) were not significant different at baseline (p>0.05). Moreover, patients did not change their medication in the study period. The main effect of cardiac rehabilitation for PWV was significant (F 1.24 = 5.4) indicating a decrease in EG (8.2 ± 2.0 m/s, p0.05). The main effect was also significant for VO2 (F 1.24 = 6.6) with an average increase of 3.4 ml/kg/min in EG (29.8 ± 8.1 ml/kg/min, p<0.05) and no significant change in CG (28.5 ± 6.1 ml/kg/min).

CONCLUSIONS: Exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation decreases systemic arterial stiffness in post MI patients. Therefore, this could be one of the mechanisms associated with the positive outcome (i.e., mortality rates) on post MI patients who undergo rehabilitation.

ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01432639

Supported by the following grants from The Portuguese Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia (FCT): SFRH/BD/48875/2008 and PTDC/DES/113753/2009

1300 Board #81 MAY 30 9:30 AM - 11:00 AM

Double Product Based on Heart Sounds as a Marker of Catecholamines During Exercise

Takuro Matsuda1, Yasuki Higaki1, Akira Kiyonaga1, Shigeru Obara2, Hiroaki Tanaka1. 1Fukuoka University, Fukuoka, Japan. 2The University of Tokushima, Tokushima, Japan.

(No relationships reported)

PURPOSE: It is well documented that exercise-induced adrenergic stimulation enhances myocardial contractility in healthy humans. The break-point of the double product of heart rate (HR) and systolic blood pressure, which is a marker of cardiac oxygen demands, is strongly correlated with the epinephrine (Ep) threshold. The amplitude of the first sound (HS1) is a marker of cardiac contractility, which is a major determinant of cardiac oxygen demand and is easy to determine continuously during exercise. This study investigated the relationship between the double product (DP) based on heart sounds and Ep level.

METHODS: Twelve subjects, with a mean±SD age of 22±3 years and a mean±SD BMI of 23.1±3.5 kg/m2, underwent graded cycle ergometer testing. The work rate started at 15 watts and then increased at 15 watts every 2 min until the heart rate reached 85% of its maximum expected for their age. The heart sounds were collected in a personal computer via an A/D converter throughout the exercise test. Blood from the antecubital vein was sampled and Ep levels were measured every 2 min during the test. Values of the DP were calculated by the formula HR×HS1. The break-point of DP (DPBP) and Ep threshold were determined based on a visual inspection three separate times and the mean value was calculated.

RESULTS: The DP was significantly correlated with Ep levels in all subjects during incremental exercise (r=0.97 to 0.99, p<0.001). A clear DPBP and Ep threshold were obtained in all subjects (DPBP: 84.6±13.9 watts; Ep threshold: 83.5 ±19.5 watts) and they were not statistically significant form each other (p=0.877).

CONCLUSIONS: The DP from heart sounds is a valid marker of the sympathetic nerve system during exercise stress. Monitoring heart sounds appears to provide valuable information related to the level of exercise stress. This information may be useful when determining an appropriate exercise prescription.

This work was supported by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science, and Technology, Japan (No. 22300240 and Strategic Research Infrastructure No. 0801083), a grant from GFP at Fukuoka University.

1301 Board #82 MAY 30 9:30 AM - 11:00 AM

Is Cardiorespiratory Fitness, Muscular Fitness or Physical Activity Related to Diabetes Risk in Postmenopausal Women?

Judith A. Flohr, Elizabeth S. Edwards, Layne E. Eidemiller, Christine M. Nicewonger, Christopher J. Womack, FACSM. James Madison University, Harrisonburg, VA.

(No relationships reported)

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to examine the independent and joint associations of upper and lower body muscular strength (MS), cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), and physical activity (PA) with the prevalence of Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in a group of sedentary healthy postmenopausal women.

METHODS: Thirty-five postmenopausal (age 57.9 ± 4.7 yrs.) women completed a graded exercise test on a treadmill to determine maximum relative oxygen consumption (VO2max) and the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) to estimate MET minutes/week of PA. Waist circumference (WC), body fat via DXA (BF), height, weight, 5RM leg press and chest press were measured and use to estimate 1RM. These 1RM values were then divided by body weight, yielding ratios for leg press (LP) and chest press (CP). All participants had blood drawn and analyzed for HbA1c (A1c). Bivariate Pearson’s correlations were used to identify variables that were associated with A1c. Stepwise regression was then used to identify variables that significantly predicted A1c.

RESULTS: The average A1c was 5.9%. Both LP (r = -0.344, p = .043) and CP (r = -0.414, p=.013) were significantly associated with A1c, but neither VO2max nor IPAQ were significantly correlated with A1c. In the regression model, only LP significantly predicted A1c, b = -0.57, t (33) = -2.61, p = .013. LP explained a significant proportion of the variance in A1c, R2 = 0.17, F (1, 33) = 6.84, p = .013.

CONCLUSIONS: Previous studies have reported an inverse relationship among CRF, PA, MS and T2DM in men. There is limited date available describing the relationship between MS and A1c in postmenopausal women. However, recent reports suggest that muscle mass may play a significant role in glycemic control. The results of the present study indicate that muscular strength as measured by LP and CP were related to A1c. Therefore, efforts to increase muscle strength in postmenopausal women in an attempt to lower diabetes risk appear to be warranted.

1302 Board #83 MAY 30 9:30 AM - 11:00 AM

The Effects Of Aerobic Training In The Patients With Heart Failure

Shang-Lin Chiang, Chinese. Tri-Service General Hospital, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, Taiwan. (Sponsor: Wen-Hsu Sung, FACSM)

(No relationships reported)

PURPOSE: Aerobic training can improve not only aerobic capacity but also symptoms and survival rate in patients with heart failure (CHF). The purposes of our study will test the effects of exercise training on aerobic capacity, heart rate, blood pressure, cadioutput, body composition, serum lipid and NT-proBNP (aminoterminal fragment brain natriuretic peptide prohormone) in CHF patients, and examine the potential benefit of changes over time.

METHODS: The samples consisted of 13 eligible cases with heart failure. Seven of them completed 12-week exercise program ( 30 minutes a day, 3 days a week, at 60 % peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak)). Every 4 weeks training, heart rate, blood pressure, body composition, serum lipid and NT-proBNP were measured after an overnight fast. Besides, VO2peak and cadioutput were measured at pre-training and post-training.

RESULTS: After 12-week exercise training program, seven cases completed the process. The results indicate that the parameters of cardiopulmonary capacity were all significant improved. The VO2peak was improved from 20.30±5.30 to 22.49±4.36 ml/kg/min (p=.002). The maximal metabolic equivalent (MET) was improved from 5.76±1.55 to 6.37±1.31 METs (p=.0001). The maximal work load was improved from 220.43±76.39 to 276.57.43±75.91Watt (W)(p=.029) Although it was not significant, diastolic pressure and systolic pressure were improved over training time. Meanwhile, after 12-week training, static cardioutput was not significant changed, but dynamic cardioutput was significant improved (increased 2.37ml/min p=.015). However, total cholesterol and NT-proBNP did not decreased significantly. But the more time of exercise training they received, the more they improved.

Conclusion: It is concluded that aerobic exercise training could improve cardiopulmonary capacity, static heart rate, blood pressure, cardioutput, body composition, serum lipid and NT-proBNP in heart failure patients. The results also proved the effects of aerobic exercise for heart failure patients could be accumulated over time. Therefore, provide precise exercise prescriptions and educate them how to do the adequate aerobic exercise training are very important to patients with hear failure.

1303 Board #84 MAY 30 9:30 AM - 11:00 AM

Heart Rate Variability is Reduced at Peak Exercise in Individuals at Risk for Sleep Apnea

Trent A. Hargens1, Amanda Mallory2, Steve Vesbach2. 1James Madison University, Harrisonburg, VA. 2Ball State University, Muncie, IN. (Sponsor: M. Kent Todd, FACSM)

(No relationships reported)

Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a sleep disorder that significantly increases risk for hypertension, cardiovascular disease (CVD) and diabetes, among others. OSA leads to dysfunction in the autonomic regulation of the cardiovascular system, a primary mediating factor in the increased risk for chronic disease. Heart rate variability (HRV) has been widely used for assessing autonomic function, and has been shown to be predictive of CVD and all-cause mortality at rest and during exercise. HRV has been shown to be reduced in OSA at rest, but to date, no studies have examined exercise HRV in individuals diagnosed with, or at high risk for, OSA.

PURPOSE: To examine the HRV responses during exercise in individuals identified as high risk for OSA.

METHODS: Nine (6 male, 3 female) obese subjects (BMI: Mean SD = 33.3 6.4 kg/m2; age = 47.4 8.2 yr) at risk for OSA (OSA) and 16 (6 male, 9 female) obese subjects (BMI = 32.5 4.9; age = 28.7 10.3) at low risk for OSA (Control) performed maximal cycle ergometer exercise tests utilizing a 20 watts/min ramp protocol. HRV was assessed at rest, during exercise and immediately post-exercise. Measures of time and frequency domain HRV were obtained. HRV variables were log transformed and converted into normalized units for statistical analysis. Risk for OSA was established through a screening result from an at-home sleep assessment device (Embletta).

RESULTS: The OSA group was significantly older than the control group (P < 0.001). Body mass index, blood pressure, resting heart rate, and VO2peak did not differ between groups. After controlling for age and gender, peak exercise (last two minutes of exercise) log total power (0.74 0.2 vs. 1.5 0.2 ms2), log low frequency (-0.47 0.3 vs. 0.31 0.2), log high frequency (-0.92 0.3 vs. 0.27 0.2), normalized low frequency (1.03 0.5 vs. 3.03 0.4), and normalized high-frequency (0.60 0.5 vs. 3.00 0.4) were reduced in the OSA group (P < 0.05). No differences were noted in time domain variables at peak exercise. Resting, submaximal exercise or recovery HRV variables (time or frequency domain) did not differ.

CONCLUSION: Results suggest that individuals at high risk for probable OSA display abnormal autonomic modulation of heart rate during peak exercise. Exercise HRV may be a useful tool for improving risk assessment in OSA, but needs further examination.

1304 Board #85 MAY 30 9:30 AM - 11:00 AM

Early Oxygen Uptake Response to Constant Work Exercise and Mortality in Men

Kai P. Savonen1, Vesa Kiviniemi2, Heikki Rajala1, Jari A. Laukkanen1, Timo A. Lakka1, Rainer Rauramaa, FACSM1. 1Kuopio Research Institute of Exercise Medicine, Kuopio, Finland. 2Information Technology Center, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio Campus, Kuopio, Finland.

(No relationships reported)

The blunted pulmonary oxygen uptake (VO2) response to constant work exercise is associated with a poor prognosis in congestive heart failure patients but no previous study has addressed this issue in asymptomatic subjects.

PURPOSE: To study the association between a blunted VO2 increase during the first 30 s of the constant work exercise in cycle ergometer and the risk of cardiovascular death in cardiovascularly healthy middle-aged men.

METHODS: The subjects were 484 men, 54-56 years of age, from eastern Finland without cardiovascular disease or cancer at baseline. VO2 response to constant work exercise at 50 Watts in cycle ergometer was quantified by calculating the average net VO2 during the first 30 s of exercise (VO230) in proportion to the average net VO2 at steady state (VO2ss, the average net VO2 during the third minute of exercise). The association of VO2 response with the risk of cardiovascular death was examined with multivariable Cox proportional hazards’ regression model. A total of 52 cardiovascular deaths were observed during an average follow-up of 19.8 years.

RESULTS: The average net VO2 during the first 30 s of exercise in proportion to the average net VO2 at steady state was not related to the risk of cardiovascular death. In Cox-multivariable model, the risk of death increased 8% (95% CI -19-43, p=0.58) for a 1-SD (0.19) increment in VO230/VO2ss after adjustment for myocardial ischaemia during exercise test, cigarette smoking, systolic blood pressure at rest, and body mass index.

CONCLUSION: An attenuated early VO2 response during the first 30 s of constant work exercise does not predict cardiovascular death in cardiovascularly healthy middle-aged men. While submaximal testing itself offers certain advantages, the early VO2 response can not be utilized for prognostic assessment in healthy men.

1305 Board #86 MAY 30 9:30 AM - 11:00 AM

Blood Flow Restriction Increases Angiogenic Gene Expression in Skeletal Muscle following Acute Resistance Exercise

Kelly A. Larkin, Richard G. MacNeil, Launa Clough, Bhanupresad Sandesara, Todd M. Manini, Thomas W. Buford. University of Florida, Gainesville, FL.

(No relationships reported)

Blood flow restriction (BFR) potentiates the effects of low-intensity resistance exercise on skeletal muscle size and strength. However, evidence is sparse regarding the effects of BFR exercise on vascular adaptations within the skeletal muscle.

PURPOSE: To evaluate the effects of BFR on post-exercise expression of angiogenesis-related mRNAs.

METHODS: Using a randomized cross-over design, six healthy young adults (n=3 men, n= 3 women, 22±1 years) performed on separate occasions low-intensity exercise with and without BFR. Each exercise bout entailed 120 repetitions of single-limb knee extensor exercise at 40% of 1RM maximum. The BFR condition was performed with an external pressure cuff inflated to 220 mm Hg. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) was utilized to measure oxygenation of the vastus lateralis during exercise. Skeletal muscle samples were collected via percutaneous biopsy prior to, 4 hours following, and 24 hours following exercise. Skeletal muscle mRNA expression was determined using standard Q-PCR techniques and normalized to GADPH. NIRS data were analyzed using paired Student’s t-tests and Q-PCR data were analyzed using the Wilcoxon’s test.

RESULTS: BFR (45.3±2.4%) decreased tissue oxygenation during the exercise bout compared to control exercise (59.7±2.9%, p=0.028). This was reflected in a significant increase in total Hb (14.4±2 vs. 0.9±2, p=0.010) that was driven largely by an increase in deoxygenated Hb. BFR increased (p<0.05) mRNA expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), VEGF-R2, hypoxia inducible factor alpha (HIF1α), inducible nitric oxide synthase (NOS), and neuronal NOS. The most notable change in response to BFR was an increase in VEGF mRNA expression at 4 hours post-exercise (4.1±0.6 vs. 0.6±0.2 fold change, p=0.028). Muscle mRNA expression of endothelial NOS was not altered in response to BFR (p>0.05).

CONCLUSIONS: Acute BFR increases post-exercise expression of mRNA related to skeletal muscle angiogenesis.

1306 Board #87 MAY 30 9:30 AM - 11:00 AM

Effect Of Training With Blood Flow Restriction Of The Thigh Muscles In Men

Hans-Christian C. Heitkamp, Beate Schiff, Walter Rapp, Andreas Niess. Univ. of Tuebingen, Tuebingen, Germany.

(No relationships reported)

Training with vascular restriction lately receives more attention since less percentage of 1 RPM seems necessary for gaining strength.

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to find out whether training with 40 % of 1 RPM leads to more strength with blood flow restriction than without.

METHODS: 14 men aged 27 ± 2.8 years and a BMI of 26 kg/m2 took part in this study. Initially, the strength of the quadriceps and the hamstrings was measured on an isokinetic system isometrically in 60° and 30° positions respectively, isokinetic strength at 60°/s and strength endurance at 120°/s with 25 maximal intensity movements.

Training was conducted for 8 weeks, twice a week for 35 minutes according to the endurance method with 3 sets and 20 repetitions. The right side was always trained under vascular occlusion and both sides at 40 % of 1 RPM. Each leg was trained separately in an alternating mode.

RESULTS: Maximal isometric force of flexion rose from 60 ± 26 to 70 ± 35 Nm (p < 0.001), while it remained constant in the control leg with 58 ± 27 and 57 ± 23 Nm. The extension rose from 82 ± 20 to 94 ± 19 Nm (p<0.001) and dropped in the control leg from 79 ± 21 to 78 ± 24 Nm. During isokinetic flexion, an increase from 106 ± 22 to 124 ± 24 Nm (p<0.01) occurred and in the control leg from 98 ± 22 to 114 ± 24 Nm. During isometric flexion an increase from 198 ± 27 to 219 ± 34 Nm (p < 0.001) and also in the control leg from 201 ± 30 to 210 ± 24 Nm (p < 0.005). The endurance measurement resulted in no increase. The compliance was 83 %.

CONCLUSION: Training with vascular restriction is especially effective for increasing the isometric maximal strength to a lesser degree for the isokinetic maximal strength and without an effect on the endurance of the quadriceps and the hamstrin

1307 Board #88 MAY 30 9:30 AM - 11:00 AM

Heart Rate Index Prediction Of Maximal Oxygen Consumption In Pediatrics During The James Cycle Protocol

Wayne A. Mays, Yvette M. Gerdes, Michelle A. Wolfe, Sandra K. Knecht, Randall P. Claytor, Timothy K. Knilans. Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH.

(No relationships reported)

PURPOSE: To evaluate the utility of two versions of heart rate index (HRindex) based on supine and sitting resting heart rates as predictors of maximal oxygen consumption in pediatric patients with structurally normal hearts.

METHODS: We evaluated 637 pediatric patients (mean age 13.8 ± 3.2 years, 354 males) with maximal graded exercise testing utilizing the James cycle ergometer protocol. Two versions of HRindex were calculated by dividing the maximal heart rate by the heart rate (HR) in the resting supine (SupHRindex) and sitting (SitHRindex) positions. Predicted maximal METS (EstMMETS) was generated by the line equation of 6 times the maximal HRindex minus 5 using both the supine HR(SupEstMMETS) and the sitting HR (SitEstMMETS).

RESULTS: Both SupHRindex and SitHRindex were significantly correlated to maximal oxygen consumption (MVO2) (r=0.45 and r=0.43, p<0.0005), maximal indexed oxygen consumption(MIVO2) (r=0.25 and r=0.31, p<0.0005) and maximal metabolic equivalents (MaxMETS) (r=0.25 and r=0.31, p<0.0005). There was a significant correlation between MaxMETS and SupEstMMETS and SitEstMMETS (10.4 ± 2.2 vs 11.1 ± 3.0 r=0.25, p<0.0005 and 10.4 ± 2.2 vs 9.3 ± 2.6 r=0.31, p<0.0005, respectively). However, the absolute values of MaxMETS versus SupEstMMETS and MaxMETS versus SitEstMMETS were significantly different (p<0.0005).

DISCUSSION: There was a significant correlation between HR index calculated using either the supine or sitting resting heart rate and MVO2, MIVO2 and MaxMETS. However, the correlation was weak and provided little predictive value for MVO2, MIVO2 and MaxMETS. This lack of predictive robustness was demonstrated by the significant difference seen in absolute values for MaxMETS compared to both SupEstMMETS and SitEstMMETS.

CONCLUSION: The predictive power of the heart rate index utilizing either the supine or sitting resting heart rate for the calculation is limited in pediatric patients. Future research should focus on a multivariable predictive model that identifies the sources of variability in the correlational relationship of heart rate index and maximal oxygen consumption.

1308 Board #89 MAY 30 9:30 AM - 11:00 AM

Ventilatory Efficiency Is Not Associated With Acsm Heart Disease Risk Factors In Asymptomatic Obese Adults

Michael R. Holly, Bryan L. Smith, Erik P. Kirk, Kevin S. Chapman, Lucas M. Novotny, Ryan D. Beaty, Heather E. Garrett, Jeffrey E. Herrick. Southern Illinois University Edwardsville, Edwardsville, IL.

(No relationships reported)

Graded exercise tests (GXT) are administered to symptomatic heart failure patients as a diagnostic and prognostic assessment of mortality. GXT’s provide an assessment of functional capacity (VO2peak) and ventilatory efficiency (VE/VCO2 slope) and both outcomes are predictive of patient mortality. However, the VE/VCO2 slope has been shown to be a stronger predictor than VO2peak for heart disease severity. The American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) has established several cardiovascular disease risk factors for determining the risk for cardiac disease in asymptomatic adults.

PURPOSE: This study evaluated the relationship between the VE/VCO2 slope, VO2peak, and the total ACSM heart disease risk factors in asymptomatic obese adults.

METHODS: 29 obese adults free of heart disease (Mean ± SE; Age 46.5 ± 2.6 years; BMI 35.9 ± 1.1 kg/m2) were stratified into low (LR <2 risk factor) or moderate risk (MR ≥2 risk factors) using ACSM’s Logic Model from self reported health history questionnaires. Each subject performed a treadmill GXT at a constant speed of 3.5 mph with 2.5% grade increase every 2 minutes. LR exercised to volitional fatigue and MR until achieving 6 METS, or 76% predicted heart rate maximum. VE/VCO2 slope was determined as the rise in VE (L·min-1 BTPS) to the increase in VCO2 (L·min-1 STPD) throughout the entire exercise session.

RESULTS: There were no significant differences in ventilatory efficiency between risk groups (LR 30.9 ± 0.9, MR 28.6 ± 1.4 VE/VCO2 slope). There were group differences in VO2peak (LR 33.9 ± 3.4, MR 19.7 ± 0.9 ml·kg-1·min-1) and total risk factors (LR 1.0 ± 0.0, MR 3.0 ± 0.25). VE/VCO2 slope was not associated with total risk factors (p = 0.12, r = -0.288) or final risk category (p = 0.17, r = -0.258). VO2peak was associated with total risk factors (p = 0.00, r = -0.614) and final risk category (p = 0.00, r = -0.665). Exercise test and exercise duration were not associated with VE/VCO2 slope.

CONCLUSIONS: Ventilatory efficiency, which has been shown to predict severity of heart disease in symptomatic adults, was not associated with total ACSM heart disease risk factors in this group of asymptomatic obese adults. Our results suggest that VO2peak is inversely related to heart disease risk in asymptomatic obese adults.

1309 Board #90 MAY 30 9:30 AM - 11:00 AM

Classical End-criteria With Impact On Maximal Oxygen Uptake In A Population

Elisabeth Edvardsen, Bjørge Herman Hansen, Sigmund Alfred Anderssen. Norwegian School of Sport Sciences, Oslo, Norway.

(No relationships reported)

During a maximal exercise test, the subjects’ motivation and effort are important requirements to ensure valid and reliable results. Classical end criteria are a plateau in VO2, high RER, HR, [blood lactate] and ratings of perceived exertion. However, there is currently no consensus for the assessment of maximal effort and different end criteria may have an impact of the results.

PURPOSE: to describe classical end criteria during a maximal progressive exercise test in a random sample of 20 - 85 year old population, and to explore if changes in end criteria have an impact on VO2max.

METHODS: A sample of 839 individuals (412 women), with a mean age of 51.0 (SD ± 14.8) performed a progressive exercise test on a treadmill to voluntary exhaustion. Gas exchange, heart rate, [blood lactate] and BORG scale6-20 was measured. A plateau in VO2 was defined by levelling off despite increase in ventilation at maximal power. Different end criteria were used to study the impact on VO2max, such as RER ≥ 1.15 and [blood lactate] ≥ 8 mmol·L-1.

RESULTS: There were no sex related differences in HRmax, RER or BORG scale, while the [blood lactate] was significantly lower in women. When using RER ≥ 1.15 and [blood lactate] ≥ 8.0 mmol·L-1, VO2max increased on average by 4,5 % and 11 %, respectively, compared to using only voluntary exhaustion. Furthermore, a [blood lactate] ≥ 8.0 mmol·L-1 excluded 65 % of the participants in the 50 - 85 year cohort (424 vs 148 respectively).

CONCLUSIONS: A range of typically end criteria are presented in a healthy population. Choice of end criteria during exercise testing will have an impact on VO2max. This shows the importance of maximal effort to ensure valid and reliable results.

1310 Board #91 MAY 30 9:30 AM - 11:00 AM

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Maximal Strength Training Enhances Functional Performance in Chronic Stroke Patients

Tor Ivar Gjellesvik1, Tessa R. Hill2, Per Marius R. Moen2, Tom Tørhaug2, Marius S. Fimland2, Jan Helgerud2, Jan Hoff2. 1St.Olav University Hospital, Trondheim, Norway. 2Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway.

(No relationships reported)

Physical impairment after stroke has been shown to have an immense impact on the reintegration of patients into society and can affect their quality of life. Muscle strength has been shown to be a significant contributor to physical disability (more than the loss of dexterity) after stroke. It is therefore assumed that by increasing a patient’s muscle strength, functional everyday tasks will become easier.

PURPOSE: This study aimed to demonstrate that maximal strength training improves muscle strength, and to assess the effect on functional measures and walking economy amongst chronic stroke survivors.

METHODS: Baseline control trial. 10 patients acted as their own controls for 4 weeks, prior to an 8-week training intervention. Patients trained 3 days/week, 4 sets of 4 repetitions at 85-95% one repetition maximum in unilateral leg press and plantarflexion with an emphasis on maximal mobilization of force in the concentric phase.

RESULTS: Post training, leg press strength improved by 30.6kg (75%) and 17.8kg (86%), and plantarflexion strength by 35.5kg (89%) and 28.5kg (223%) for the unaffected and affected limbs respectively (all p=0.005). The 6-minute walk test improved by 13.9m (p=0.007) and the Timed Up and Go test time by 0.6 seconds (p=0.028). No changes were observed in the control period. There were no significant changes in walking economy, peak aerobic capacity, Four square step test or health related quality of life post training.

CONCLUSIONS: Chronic stroke patients could benefit from maximal strength training as it generates large increases in strength and some improvements in functional measures.

1311 Board #92 MAY 30 9:30 AM - 11:00 AM

Enhanced External Counter Pulsation Improves Endothelial Function in Patients With Left Ventricular Dysfunction

Randy W. Braith, FACSM, Darren P. Casey, C R. Conti, Wilmer W. Nichols, Calvin Y. Choi, Matheen A. Khuddus, Darren T. Beck. University of Florida, Gainesville, FL.

(No relationships reported)

PURPOSE: Enhanced external counterpulsation (EECP) improves arterial function, exercise tolerance, and angina symptoms in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) and normal LV function. To date, however, studies have not elucidated the mechanism of action and the overall effects of EECP therapy in patients with LV dysfunction. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of EECP on endothelial function in peripheral muscular conduit arteries in patients with LV dysfunction.

METHODS: Patients with ischemic etiology of LV dysfunction (EF < 40%; n = 9), and age-matched patients with symptomatic CAD and normal LV function (n = 13), were studied after 35 1-hr sessions of EECP. Flow-mediated dilation of the brachial (bFMD) and femoral (fFMD) arteries was performed using high-resolution ultrasound imaging.

RESULTS: EECP treatment improved comparably (p > 0.05 between groups) the following FMD parameters in both the CAD and LV dysfunction groups, respectively: absolute bFMD (0.213 to 0.325 and 0.226 to 0.385 mm); relative bFMD (4.12 to 6.16 and 4.18 to 7.26 %); bFMD normalized for shear during the first 10 sec after cuff release (0.185 to 0.313 and 0.191 to 0.307 mm); absolute fFMD (0.198 to 0.264 and 0.194 to 0.226 mm); relative fFMD (2.77 to 3.66 and 2.73 to 3.19 %); fFMD normalized for shear (0.198 to 0.264 and 0.194 to 0.226 mm). EECP treatment also improved comparably (p > 0.05 between groups) plasma levels of the stable nitric oxide metabolites nitrate and nitrite (NOx) in both the CAD (19.4 to 30.1 μmol/L) and LV dysfunction (22.0 to 28.2 μmol/L) groups.

CONCLUSIONS: EECP treatment improves brachial and femoral artery endothelial function, and NOx levels similarly in patients with CAD possessing normal LV function and in patients with LV dysfunction. Our data suggest that peripheral vascular adaptations may be the specific mechanisms responsible for the beneficial clinical effects of EECP in patients with LV dysfunction.

1312 Board #93 MAY 30 9:30 AM - 11:00 AM

Evidence Of Reverse Left Ventricular Remodelling Following Exercise Training In Post-Myocardial Infarction Patients.

Gordon S. McGregor1, David C. Gaze2, Rob E. Shave3. 1UHCW NHS Trust, Coventry, United Kingdom. 2St George’s Healthcare NHS Trust, London, United Kingdom. 3Cardiff Metropolitan University, Cardiff, United Kingdom. (Sponsor: Keith George, FACSM)

(No relationships reported)

Raised serum NT-proBNP concentration is indicative of hemodynamic compromise following myocardial infarction (MI) and also in chronic heart failure (CHF). A reduction in NT-proBNP is evidence of successful treatment and may also indicate reverse left ventricular (LV) remodelling. Cardiac rehabilitation exercise training has been shown to reduce NT-proBNP in CHF, however, the effect of exercise training on resting and peak exercise NT-proBNP is less well characterised in post MI patients.

PURPOSE: To determine the effect of exercise training on resting and peak exercise NT-proBNP in post MI patients following successful percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).

METHODS: Cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) was undertaken in 31 male (56±10 yrs) clinically stable post MI (33±7 days) patients prior to (CPET1) and following (CPET 2) 10 weeks of exercise training. NT-proBNP measurements were determined from serum samples obtained at rest and at peak exercise via a peripheral venous cannula. Mixed modality (treadmill, cycle, rower, cross-trainer) supervised exercise training was conducted for 30-40 minutes twice weekly at 60-80% of V02 peak.

RESULTS: V02 peak significantly improved (3.1±2.6 ml.kg-1.min-1, P<0.0001) following 10 weeks of exercise training. Resting and peak NT-proBNP were significantly reduced by 178±419 ng/L (P<0.01) and 202±384 ng/L (P<0.001) respectively. NT-proBNP increased significantly (49±97 ng/L, P<0.001) from rest to peak exercise on CPET 1 but not on CPET 2 (25±77 ng/L, P>0.05) despite a greater exercise stimulus (147±26 vs 171±28 Watts, P<0.0001).

CONCLUSION: Consistent with findings in the HF population, exercise training improves V02 peak and lowers resting plasma NT-proBNP concentration in post MI patients. Furthermore, peak exercise NT-proBNP concentration is reduced. These reductions may potentially indicate reverse LV remodelling secondary to exercise training. However confirmation of this is required.

1313 Board #94 MAY 30 9:30 AM - 11:00 AM

Improvement in Exercise Capacity after Cardiac Rehabilitation is Independent of Ejection Fraction in Patients With Coronary Heart Disease

Aashish S. Contractor, Shraddha M. Khialani, Hetal D. Poptani, Anjali S. Zende, Priyanka M. Mehta. Asian Heart Institute, Mumbai, India.

(No relationships reported)

PURPOSE: A low ejection fraction (EF- <35%) risk stratifies an individual in the high risk category for cardiac events. It is a wide spread belief that these patients should not engage in intense physical activity. The objective of this study is to determine safety and efficacy of exercise training in coronary heart disease patients (CHD) with low EF, and to evaluate whether cardiac rehabilitation (CR) outcomes differ in patients with normal or reduced EF.

METHODS: 454 patients who were diagnosed to have CHD and enrolled for a 4 week CR program at the Asian Heart Institute; Mumbai formed a part of this study. Based on the EF at enrollement patients were divided into three groups: EF (>55%- 240 patients), EF (35%-54% -154 patients) and EF <35%-60 patients. Exercise capacity was determined using the 6 minute walk test at baseline. Patients exercised under telemetry supervision for 13 sessions over 4 weeks. Exercise was prescribed at 60%- 80% of predicted maximum heart rate and a rating of perceived exertion of 11-13 on Borg’s Scale. After 4 weeks the 6 minute walk test was repeated.

RESULTS: During the training period there were no adverse events reported. The results are tabulated as follows:

On comparing the change in the distance covered, no significant difference (p=0.694) was found between the three groups, indicating that improvement in the exercise capacity is independent of the EF.

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CONCLUSIONS: Low EF patients with CHD can safely participate in a medically supervised exercise program and experience significant gains in exercise capacity equivalent to those with normal EF.

1314 Board #95 MAY 30 9:30 AM - 11:00 AM

Enhanced External Counter Pulsation Improves Exercise Capacity in Patients With Left Ventricular Dysfunction

Joseph C. Avery, Darren T. Beck, Darren P. Casey, C R. Conti, Wilmer W. Nichols, Calvin Y. Choi, Matheen A. Khuddus, Randy W. Braith, FACSM. University of Florida, Gainesville, FL.

(No relationships reported)

PURPOSE: Enhanced external counterpulsation (EECP) improves peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak) and exercise time to angina symptoms in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) and normal LV function. However, the efficacy of EECP in patients with LV dysfunction remains controversial. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of EECP on VO2peak and exercise time to angina symptoms in patients with LV dysfunction.

METHODS: Patients with ischemic etiology of LV dysfunction (EF < 40%; n = 9), and age-matched patients with symptomatic CAD and normal LV function (n = 13), performed symptom-limited treadmill tests using a modified Naughton protocol and metabolic cart to determine VO2peak before and after 35 1-hr sessions of EECP.

RESULTS: EECP treatment improved comparably (p > 0.05 between groups) the following exercise parameters in both the CAD and LV dysfunction groups, respectively: VO2peak (17.0 to 19.8 and 13.9 to 16.3 ml/kg/min); total exercise time (615 to 813 and 493 to 659 sec): exercise time to angina (421 to 686 and 345 to 528 sec); peak heart rate (112 to 116 and 113 to 118 beats per min); peak subjective angina rating (2.8 to 1.7 and 1.8 to 1.5). EECP treatment also improved comparably (p > 0.05 between groups) the Canadian Cardiovascular Society (CCS) angina classifications in both the CAD (3.17 to 1.17) and LV dysfunction (3.14 to 1.29) groups.

CONCLUSIONS: EECP treatment improves VO2peak, total exercise time, exercise time to angina, and CCS angina classification to the same magnitude in patients with CAD possessing normal LV function and in patients with LV dysfunction. Our data indicate that EECP serves as ‘passive exercise’ and may be a useful intervention in individual patients with LV dysfunction who are poor candidates for aerobic exercise training.

1315 Board #96 MAY 30 9:30 AM - 11:00 AM

Field versus Laboratory Tests: Exercise Capacity Estimates in Elderly Patients with Coronary Artery Disease

Sandra Mandic1, Rob Walker1, Emily Stevens1, Bridget Mcilraith1, Sarah Featherston1, Edwin R. Nye1, Dianne Body2, Leanne Barclay2, Michael J A Williams1. 1University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand. 2Dunedin Public Hospital, Dunedin, New Zealand. (Sponsor: Jonathan Myers, FACSM)

(No relationships reported)

Compared to conventional laboratory exercise tests, timed walking tests are cheaper and a more simple alternative for an assessment of exercise capacity in cardiac rehabilitation participants. It remains unknown whether these tests provide an adequate estimate of peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak) in elderly individuals with coronary artery disease (CAD).

PURPOSE: To compare measured VO2peak during symptom-limited exercise testing versus estimated VO2peak derived from 6-minute walk test and incremental shuttle walk test in elderly CAD patients.

METHODS: Fifty-one elderly individuals with CAD (age: 73±6 years (range: 60 to 89), 16 (31%) women) completed the following assessments: 1) symptom-limited graded exercise test with expired gas analysis on a cycle ergometer using a ramp protocol; 2) incremental 10-meter shuttle walk test and 3) two 6-minute walk tests. VO2peak was estimated based on maximal walking speed (shuttle walk test) and distance, age, height, weight and rate pressure product (6-minute walk test) using published equations. Data were analysed using Pearson Product Moment correlation and paired t-test.

RESULTS: Measured VO2peak obtained during symptom-limited exercise test was significantly related to distance covered during 6-minute walk test (r=0.71, p<0.001) and duration of the incremental shuttle walk test (r=0.75, p<0.001). Estimated VO2peak based on 6-minute walk test data (16.0±4.4 ml/kg/min) and maximum walking speed achieved during shuttle walk test (14.7±1.9 ml/kg/min) were significantly lower compared to VO2peak measured during a symptom-limited exercise test (19.9±0.7 ml/kg/min; p<0.001 for both comparisons).

CONCLUSIONS: Distance covered during 6-minute walk test and duration of incremental shuttle walk test can be used for an assessment of functional capacity and monitoring of cardiac rehabilitation progress in elderly CAD patients. Estimation of VO2peak based on these tests underestimates exercise capacity in elderly CAD patients.

Supported by University of Otago Research Grant

1316 Board #97 MAY 30 9:30 AM - 11:00 AM

Coronary CT In Asymptomatic Subjects With Ventricular Repolarization Abnormalities During Maximal Exercise Test

Andrea Ermolao, Fausto Roman, Andrea Gasperetti, Maurizio Varnier, Eleonora Zanella, Marco Zaccaria. Università di Padova, Padova, Italy.

(No relationships reported)

Specific data are still lacking about the significance of repolarization abnormalities observed during exercise test in physically active asymptomatic subjects. Coronary CT is a highly sensitive diagnostic procedure able to confirm or exclude a significant coronary artery disease (CAD).

PURPOSE: To evaluate if the occurrence in asymptomatic subjects of ECG repolarization abnormalities potentially suggesting a CAD, is confirmed by coronary CT. Further, clarify if the likelihood of detecting CAD or coronary anomalies was related to the degree of the ECG abnormalities and to the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors.

METHODS: Among 940 athletes performing a maximal exercise test for sport eligibility (age 30-60yrs), 44 asymptomatic subjects (4,7%, 39 men and 5 females, 45,2±7,1yrs) demonstrated repolarization abnormalities requiring the completion of a coronary CT. The exercise tests were classified into two categories: suspicious and positive for CAD.

RESULTS: The average maximal heart rate at exhaustion was 170,4±11,9. Risk factors evaluation demonstrated 10 subjects with hypertension, 23 subjects with hypercholesterolemia, 5 smokers. Among the 44 subjects 23 had a suspicious while 21 had a positive exercise test. The coronary CT demonstrated 6 subjects (13,6%) with a clinically significant CAD, 8 non-significant CAD, while 7 showed various coronary abnormalities. Considering the coronary CT as “gold standard”, the positive predictive value (PPV) of the exercise test for any coronary anomaly was 61,9% for positive exercise tests (47,7% including suspicious tests), while the PPV of positive tests for CAD was 47,6% (31,8% including suspicious tests). The association of late recovery abnormalities and cardiovascular risk factors improved the likelihood of CAD.

CONCLUSION: Our data suggest the clinical importance of slight repolarization abnormalities occurring at the peak of the exercise in asymptomatic middle-aged athletes, particularly when associated with the presence of cardiovascular risk factors. They also support the importance of a prolonged ECG monitoring during the late recovery phase. The PPV of a maximal exercise test in asymptomatic athletes appears lower than what observed in symptomatic subjects, however, about half of these subjects demonstrated some coronary anomalies.

1317 Board #98 MAY 30 9:30 AM - 11:00 AM

Effects of Exercise Training on Objectively Measured Physical Activity Levels in Heart Failure Patients

Daniel Clevenger, Peter H. Brubaker, FACSM, Joel Eggebeen, Dalane W. Kitzman. Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem, NC.

(No relationships reported)

Physical activity (PA) levels have not been quantified in the heart failure population, particularly heart failure patients with a preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF).

PURPOSE: To objectively measure PA in HFpEF patients and evaluate changes in levels after structured exercise training and weight loss interventions.

METHODS: Participants of this investigation were assessed at baseline and follow-up to an RCT of exercise and/or weight loss in HFpEF patients. Participants were randomized to one of four intervention groups for 20 weeks: Exercise Only (EO), Diet Only (DO), Exercise plus Diet (E+D), or Attention Control (AC).. Participants were asked to wear an accelerometer for 7 continuous days at baseline and then again during the final week of the intervention. The data was included if the participant wore the accelerometer for > 10 hours, of which included activity > 80% of the wear time, and had > 3 days of activity recorded. Each participant’s average steps/day, daily physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) in kcal/min, minutes of light physical activity (LPA), and minutes of moderate/vigorous physical activity (MVPA) were analyzed.

RESULTS: Thirty-five subjects (77% female) with average age of 68.5±5.9 were included in the analysis. There were a significantly more steps per day in the E+D group compared to the AC group (6761 ± 2174 vs. 4052 ± 1083, respectively). There was a significant difference between the E+D, EO, DO, and AC, at follow-up for minutes of MVPA (31.0 ± 11.1, 11.6 ± 10.7, 14.2 ± 8.4, 9.9 ± 5.1, min/day respectively). There was also a significant difference for PAEE between the E+D and DO groups (280 ± 95 vs. 151 ± 52 kcal/day, respectively).

CONCLUSIONS: HFpEF patients randomized to the E+D group had significantly more minutes of MVPA compared to all of the other intervention groups and significantly greater number of steps/day than AC and more PAEE than DO. It appears that the weight loss, secondary to E+D, results in greater amounts of PA than EO and DO interventions for older HFpEF patients.

1318 Board #99 MAY 30 9:30 AM - 11:00 AM

Safety Of Cardiopulmonary Stress Testing In Patients With A Broad Range Of Cardiovascular Disorders

Erin West, Lora Raines, Daniel Forman, MD. Brigham & Women’s Hospital, Boston, MA.

(No relationships reported)

PURPOSE: While cardiopulmonary stress testing (CPX) has been well evaluated in heart failure patients, the utility and safety of these tests are not as well defined in other high-risk cardiovascular populations. The purpose of this study was to identify the rate of adverse outcomes during symptom limited CPX tests in a population of cardiovascular patients with a broad range of diagnoses.

METHODS: A retrospective data review was performed for CPX tests performed between July 2007 and July 2009. Patients with known cardiovascular disorders at the time of testing were included in the analysis. Peak functional capacity (VO2), peak respiratory exchange ratio (RER), and reason for test termination were collected. Adverse outcomes included significant hemodynamic abnormalities, arrhythmias, or ischemic changes.

RESULTS: The study population consisted of 815 patients (68% male) with the following cardiovascular diagnoses: dilated cardiomyopathy (41.8%), prior cardiac transplantation (25.2%), ischemic cardiomyopathy (12.3%), congenital/structural heart disease (3.9%), prior pulmonary embolism (3.4%), heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (2.9%), hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (1.8%), restrictive cardiomyopathy (1.7%), valvular disease (1.8%), and other cardiovascular disorders (5%). Mean peak VO2 was 15.9 ml/kg/min at a mean peak RER of 1.16. Eighty-three percent of patients achieved a peak RER >= 1.05. Thirty-seven tests were terminated prematurely by the supervising exercise physiologist for the following reasons: hypotensive response (1.7%), hypertensive response (1.2%), and significant arrhythmia (1.6%). No myocardial infarctions, cardiac arrests, or deaths occurred.

CONCLUSIONS: Even amongst a population of patients with significant cardiovascular disorders, symptom limited CPX tests can be performed in a safe and effective manner with proper screening and test supervision.

1319 Board #100 MAY 30 9:30 AM - 11:00 AM

Differences In Using The Same Supramaximal Verification Test Protocol For Treadmill And Cycle Ergometry

Christoph Otto1, Friederike Scharhag-Rosenberger2, Anja Carlsohn1, Jürgen Scharhag, FACSM3, Frank Mayer1. 1Potsdam University, Potsdam, Germany. 2University of Applied Science for Prevention and Health Management, Saarbrücken, Germany. 3University Hospital, Heidelberg, Germany.

(No relationships reported)

Verification testing to validate maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max) is used increasingly in performance testing. Different verification test protocols are applied at different points of time after incremental tests.

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to examine whether there are substantial differences in using the same verification test protocol for treadmill and cycle ergometry. Furthermore, verification tests subsequent to incremental tests and on separate days should be compared.

METHODS: 10 recreational runners (f=4, m=6, 29 ± 6 y, 1.74 ± 0.06 m, 66 ± 7 kg, VO2max: 62 ± 6 ml/min/kg) and 10 male recreational cyclists (31 ± 5 y, 1.82 ± 0.05 m, 75 ± 9 kg, VO2max: 62 ± 5 ml/min/kg) underwent an incremental exercise test to exhaustion (E) either on the treadmill or the bicycle ergometer. After 10 min of rest a first verification test at 110% of vmax or Pmax (V1) was performed to exhaustion. 24h later a second verification test (V2) similar to V1 followed. Breath by breath gas exchange data were measured continuously. Capillary blood samples were collected at the end of each stage and at the point of exhaustion. Differences in E, V1 and V2 were tested by using ANOVA for repeated measures.

RESULTS: Runners’ VO2max (E: 62 ± 6 ml/min/kg, V1: 61 ± 7 ml/min/kg V2: 60 ± 6 ml/min/kg) was not significantly different between E and V1, while V2 was significantly lower than E (p<0.01). There was no statistically significant difference in the runners’ time to exhaustion (TTE; V1: 01:55 ± 00:15 min, V2: 02:05 ± 00:30 min). Cyclists’ VO2max (E: 62 ± 5 ml/min/kg, V1: 61 ± 6 ml/min/kg, V2: 63 ± 4 ml/min/kg) was significantly lower in V1 than in E (p<0.05) but there was no difference between E and V2. Cyclists’ TTE was significantly longer in V2 than in V1 (V1: 02:24 ± 00:20 min, V2: 03:23 ± 00:25 min, p<0.01). TTE was significantly longer in cyclists than in runners in V1 and V2 (p<0.01).

CONCLUSION: For recreational athletes, the time of verification testing seems less important since the observed differences in VO2max were irrelevantly small. Therefore, verification tests can be performed directly after incremental tests to ensure validity of maximum values. Due to the longer TTE in cyclists it seems needful to examine different test protocols for different exercise modes.

A-32 Free Communication/Poster - Diet and Exercise Interventions: Impact on Energy Balance

MAY 30, 2012 7:30 AM - 12:30 PM

ROOM: Exhibit Hall

1320 Board #101 MAY 30 11:00 AM - 12:30 PM

The Effect Of 2 Weeks Of Night Eating Restriction: A Randomized And Counter-balanced Study

Ed Christensen, Bruce W. Bailey, Larry A. Tucker, FACSM, James D. LeCheminant, FACSM. Brigham Young University, Provo, UT.

(No relationships reported)

PURPOSE: This study examined the effects of two weeks of night eating restriction on energy intake and body weight in young adult men.

METHODS: Eleven college-aged men were randomized to two weeks of normal eating (NE) and two weeks of night eating restriction (NER) in a counter-balanced fashion. There was a one week wash-out period between conditions. During NE, participants were asked to consume their normal diet, ad libitum. During NER, participants were asked to avoid all eating or kcal consumption from 7pm-6am but there were no restrictions on type or amount of food/beverage consumed. To assess diet, participants were asked to complete three randomly assigned dietary recalls during each week of the study. The National Cancer Institute’s Automated Self-administered 24-hour Dietary Recall (ASA24) was used to collect and analyze energy and macronutrient intake. Body weight was measured using a digital scale before and after each condition (NE and NER). All participants were screened and excluded for Night Eating Syndrome.

RESULTS: During NE, participants consumed 2,497 ± 514 kcal/d and during NER 2,115 ± 269 kcal/d (F=7.89; P=0.019). Dietary fat intake during NE was 105 ± 27 g/d and during NER was 86 ± 15 g/d (F=7.05; P=0.024). Carbohydrate intake during NE was 299± 67 g/d and during NER was 258 ± 64 g/d (F=7.05; P=0.024). There were no differences between the two conditions in protein, alcohol, or fiber intake (P>0.05). Body weight change during NE was 0.81 ± 0.87 and during NER was -0.53 ± 0.1.20 (F=13.09; P=0.005). Additional data collection is ongoing.

CONCLUSIONS: Restricting energy intake after 7pm may result in lower energy intake and potentially better short-term weight management than not limiting night eating. The difference in energy intake resulted from lower fat and carbohydrate intake during NER.

1321 Board #102 MAY 30 11:00 AM - 12:30 PM

Short Term Energy-Restricted Diets Improve Weight and Fat Loss Compared to Resistance Training

Elizabeth J. Sussman, Carol S. Johnston, Pamela D. Swan, FACSM. Arizona State University, Phoenix, AZ. (Sponsor: Pamela D. Swan, FACSM)

(No relationships reported)

Both energy expenditure and energy restriction are recommended for weight loss in obese populations.

PURPOSE This study examined the effects of energy restrictive diets (either high protein/low carbohydrate or high carbohydrate/low fat) or a resistance exercise training regimen on body weight, fat percentage and fasting resting metabolic rate (RMR) over a six week intervention.

METHODS Healthy adults (n = 25), stratified by age (mean = 37+11.5y), gender (4 M), and BMI (mean = 29.6±5.6 kg/m2), were randomly assigned to one of three groups: high protein (30% energy), low fat diet (PRO); high carbohydrate (60% energy), low fat diet (CHO); or resistance exercise training (EX). All foods consumed by the diet groups were prepared in a metabolic kitchen and designed to achieve a 1-2 pound weight loss per week. The EX group followed their usual diet but attended three supervised weight training sessions per week. EX was comprised of eight exercises over 45 minutes designed to achieve similar calorie deficit as that computed for the diet groups. Body composition was assessed by bioelectrical impedance and RMR was measured during 40 minutes of supine rest in a fasted state following 24 hours of no exercise. Changes in body weight, RMR and %fat between groups were analyzed using ANOVA.

RESULTS There were no differences between groups at baseline. Change in body weight and %fat was significantly improved (p < 0.001) for the PRO and CHO groups as compared to EX (Wt: -5.9%, -6.2%, -0.5%; Fat; -3.5%, -5.3%, + 1.2% respectively). There were no significant changes in RMR for any group.

CONCLUSION An energy-restricted caloric deficit produces greater weight loss and greater body fat loss in six weeks when compared to a resistance training exercise program inducing the same caloric deficit. It is possible that the EX group increased caloric intake during the intervention. Follow up is necessary to establish the long-term efficacy of these programs.

Supported by ASU Foundation.

1322 Board #103 MAY 30 11:00 AM - 12:30 PM

Optimizing Fat Oxidation in Untrained Women: The Competing Indices of Fitness versus Fat Loss

Harold C. Mayer, Deborah A. Beihl. Southern Adventist University, Collegedale, TN.

(No relationships reported)

Arresting the obesity epidemic is a high priority public health issue. This study explores factors affecting fat oxidation and resting metabolism in untrained overweight/obese women.

PURPOSE: The objective of this research was to explore the effects of a high fiber diet (The Full Plate Diet [FPD]) and exercise on resting metabolism, weight loss, and percent body fat loss.

METHODS: Overweight/obese (BMI between 25 -39), sedentary women (n=20) were recruited with a fiber intake <30g/day. Participants were randomized into three groups and followed for 8 weeks: FPD alone (FPD); FPD + continuous heart rate exercise (FPD+conEx); FPD + variable heart rate exercise (FPD+varEx). Pre- and post-study assessments included dietary analysis, resting metabolic rate, VO2 max treadmill test, and hydrostatic weight.

RESULTS: The high fiber FPD (consisting of 40 grams of whole food fiber daily) alone improved energy balance (from +339 to -226 kcals) without counting calories, but was inadequate to achieve fat (or weight) loss in the 8 weeks. The FPD+conEx group (training intensity 56.8% ± 14.1 verified via Polar heart rate monitors) saw a significant drop in (health measure) percent body fat (35.3% to 31.3%, p=.03), but no significant change in weight or (fitness measure) VO2max. The FPD+varEx group (training intensity = 67.7% ± 5.8 verified via Polar heart rate monitors) saw a significant drop in weight (3.7 lbs, p=.03) and significant improvement in fitness measure Relative VO2 max (20.8 to 24.1, p=0.016) and Absolute VO2 max (1.94 to 2.20, p=0.03), but no significant drop in percent body fat (39.9% to 38.2%, p=0.06). No group showed a statistically significant metabolic efficiency change in resting metabolic rate (RMR).

CONCLUSION: The Full Plate Diet helped participants to regulate energy balance without counting calories by reducing caloric intake, so they were more aligned with the resting energy expenditure (REE). Both increased fiber intake and low intensity exercise appear to be necessary to reduce percent body fat in untrained, overweight/obese participants. In fact, it appears that there is an inverse relationship between increased fitness and increased fat oxidation. Further research in a larger population over a longer period of time is needed to clarify this competing health - fitness relationship.

1323 Board #104 MAY 30 11:00 AM - 12:30 PM

Physiological and Psychosocial Benefits Associated with Weight Loss Programs: Changes in Body Weight, Social Physique Anxiety, and Exercise Enjoyment

Lynn A. Darby, FACSM1, Bonnie G. Berger1, Rob A. Carels1, Roberta L. Pohlman2. 1Bowling Green State University, Bowling Green, OH. 2Wright State University, Dayton, OH.

(No relationships reported)

Weight loss has been correlated with changes in social psychic anxiety (SPA) and exercise enjoyment (PACES) after a behavioral weight loss program (BWLP) (Darby, Berger & Carels, 2011).

PURPOSE: To further explore relationships among psychophysiological variables and to assess changes from before to after two different weight loss programs.

METHODS: Thirty-six participants who were overweight or obese completed anthropometric assessments [visceral adipose tissue (VAT) determined from sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD) (Parr & Haight, 2006)], physiological tests (submax walking GXTs), and dietary and activity (accelerometer) reports. They also completed the psychological inventories of the PACES (Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale; Kendzierski & DeCarlo, 1991) and SPA (Social Physique Anxiety; Hart, Leary, & Rejeski, 1989). All measures were completed before and after weight loss programs (BWLP LEARN, Brownell, 2004 or Transforming Your Life (TYL), Carels et al., 2011).

RESULTS: Completers included 10 men and 26 women (Age = 49 ±12 yr). Body weight (BW), VAT, BMI, GXT time were significantly different (p < 0.05) after 14-weeks. Mean scores pre- and post-program were as follows: BW (98.1 ±17.5, 93.3 ±18.2 kg), VAT (10.6 ±2.5, 8.6 ±2.5 lb), BMI (34.7 ±5.6, 32.3 ±5.6 kg/m2), and GXT time (563 ±216, 673 ±216 sec). Two-way ANOVAs (Time by Type of Program) indicated desirable changes in exercise enjoyment and social physique anxiety. Scores pre- and post-program were as follows: PACES (88.8 ±16.9, 97.7 ±14.1), and SPA (41.8 ±8.4, 37.6 ±8.7). There were no differences in PACES or SPA due to type of program, or sex. Not only did the PACES increase from beginning to end of the programs, pre- and post-values were significantly correlated with self-monitored average daily physical activity in minutes (r=.421, p=.02; r=.440, p=.01). Therefore, with participation in physical activity during the programs, there was a significant increase in exercise enjoyment and a decrease in anxiety. SPA scores at the beginning of the program were positively correlated with average energy intake during the program, however, lower SPA scores at the end of the program were not.

CONCLUSION: Weight loss programs, regardless of type, are associated with both desirable physiological and psychological changes.

1324 Board #105 MAY 30 11:00 AM - 12:30 PM

Weight Loss Induced by Exercise Preserves Resting Metabolic Rate: Midwest Exercise Trial II (MET II)

Jeffery J. Honas1, Richard A. Washburn, FACSM1, Stephen D. Herrmann1, Kate Lambourne1, Jaehoon Lee2, Joseph E. Donnelly, FACSM1. 1University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS. 2University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS.

(No relationships reported)

Weight loss resulting from decreased energy intake has been associated with decreases in resting metabolic rate (RMR). The RMR response to weight loss by exercise without energy restriction is unclear. The inconsistent results on the effect of exercise induced weight loss on RMR may be due, in part, to variability in length, intensity, duration, and the level of supervision/verification of the exercise intervention.

PURPOSE: To evaluate the impact of weight loss induced by 2 levels of exercise energy expenditure (EEEx) on RMR.

METHODS: 91 sedentary, overweight/obese (BMI 25-39.9) young adults (18-30 yrs.; 55% female), were randomized to either 2,000 (N=36) or 3,000 (N=37) kcal/wk. of supervised treadmill exercise at 70-80% max heart rate (HR), or to a sedentary control group (N=18) for 10 mos. Participants were instructed not to alter energy intake. Exercise was progressed slowly in both exercise groups with participants reaching their target level at the end of mo. 4. The intensity and duration of all exercise sessions were verified by HR monitor. EEEx was assessed monthly by indirect calorimetry. RMR was assessed by indirect calorimetry at baseline and 10 mos. between the hrs. of 6-9 am, after a 12 hr. fast, and no exercise for 48 hrs.

RESULTS: Exercise at both 2000 or 3000 kcals/wk. resulted in clinically significant weight loss (2000 = - 4.2%, 3000 = - 5.3%) compared to the control group (+ 0.3%). Despite clinically significant weight loss, there were no significant decreases in RMR within or between exercise groups (2000 = -1.0%, 3000 = -1.6%; p =0.81) or between exercise and control (Exercise = - 1.3%, Control = +1.1%; p=0.48). The RMR response to exercise did not differ by gender (p=0.76).

CONCLUSIONS: Weight loss induced by exercise without energy restriction prevents the decreases in RMR typically associated with weight loss by energy restriction alone. These results suggest that exercise may be the preferable mode of weight loss for the prevention of weight regain.

Supported by NIH R01 DK49181

1325 Board #106 MAY 30 11:00 AM - 12:30 PM

Self-reported Diet And Exercise Are Similar in Clinic And Phone Based Interventions

Kate Lambourne, Stephen D. Herrmann, Jeffrey J. Honas, Richard A. Washburn, FACSM, Joseph E. Donnelly, FACSM. University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS.

(No relationships reported)

Self-monitoring is a crucial component of diet and exercise interventions and has been associated with greater amounts of weight loss. It is not known whether self-monitoring data reported for diet and exercise are different when participants are not seen directly by a health educator, such as in a phone-based intervention.

PURPOSE: To compare self-reported use of pre-packaged meals (PMs-shakes/entrees), fruit and vegetable (F/V) consumption, and physical activity (minutes, pedometer steps/day) between individuals receiving a group-based intervention delivered face-to-face (FTF) or by conference call, and to determine if these measures are predictive of weight loss.

METHODS: 395 overweight and obese adults (BMI 25-39.9, age 18-65) were randomly assigned to a 6-month weight loss intervention delivered by conference call or FTF clinic. The intervention targeted 300 min/week of moderate-to-vigorous exercise and 10,000 steps/day. Energy intake was reduced to ∼1,200-1,500 kcal/day using PMs and F/V. Participants in both groups attended weekly clinics consisting of lessons on exercise, nutrition, and lifestyle modification. T-tests compared differences in the self-reported diet and exercise data between the phone and FTF groups. A regression analysis examined whether self-reported diet and physical activity data predicted weight loss after controlling for baseline weight and sex among the participants who completed the intervention.

RESULTS: No significant differences were observed in the self-reported diet and physical activity data between the phone and FTF group (p>0.05 for all comparisons). The number of pre-packaged shakes used (M=2.6, SD=0.34) and number of steps/day (M=8485, SD=2508) were significant predictors of weight loss (beta = 0.14, p = 0.02; beta = 0.17, p < 0.01, respectively; R2 = 0.28). The reported number of pre-packaged entrees, F/V, and minutes of physical activity were not significant predictors of weight loss.

CONCLUSION: Changes in self-reported diet and physical activity were similar between weight loss interventions delivered FTF or by conference call. The use of pre-packaged shakes and a pedometer to monitor physical activity resulted in greater weight loss, independent of the clinic delivery method.

Supported by NIH DK076063 and Health Management Resources, Boston, MA.

1326 Board #107 MAY 30 11:00 AM - 12:30 PM

Exercise Adherence By Energy Expenditure Level: Midwest Exercise Trial II (MET II)

Stephen D. Herrmann, Jeffery J. Honas, Richard A. Washburn, FACSM, Kate Lambourne, Joseph E. Donnelly, FACSM. University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS.

(No relationships reported)

The current ACSM position stand on exercise and weight management recommends > 250 min/wk. of moderate intensity physical activity (∼1250-2450 kcal/wk. for a 100 kg individual at 3.0-5.9 METs) to achieve clinically significant weight loss. However, higher levels of exercise energy expenditure (EEEx) may have an adverse impact on adherence to an exercise protocol, and thus diminish the practicality of exercise recommendations for weight loss.

PURPOSE: To assess the effect of two levels of EEEx on adherence to 10 months of supervised exercise in sedentary, overweight/obese young adults.

METHODS: 115 sedentary, overweight/obese (BMI 25-39.9) young adults (18-30 yrs.; 55% female), were randomized to either 2,000 (N=53; 31 females) or 3,000 (N=62; 32 females) kcal/wk. of treadmill exercise at 70-80% max heart rate (HR), 5 days/wk. (supervised ≥4 days/wk.) over 10 months. Exercise was progressed slowly with participants reaching their target level at the end of month 4. EEEx was assessed monthly by indirect calorimetry to guide exercise prescription. The intensity and duration of all exercise sessions were verified by HR monitor. Compliance was assessed at 3 month intervals and defined as completing > 90% of scheduled exercise sessions at the target intensity and duration. Individuals falling below 90% compliance were dismissed from the study. Participants received $2,000 at study completion.

RESULTS: Overall, 64.3% of the sample completed the study per protocol. The majority of attrition (> 95%; n = 39) occurred during months 1-6. Those completing the study did not differ by EEEx (2,000 kcal/wk. = 69.8%, 3,000 kcal/wk. = 59.7%; χ2(1) = 1.28, p=0.26), sex (males = 71.2%, females = 58.7%; χ2(1) = 1.92, p=0.17); or baseline weight status (overweight = 64.9%, obese = 63.8%; χ2(1) = 0.02, p=0.90). Logistic regression indicated no significant impact of EEEx on adherence (p = 0.31) after controlling for sex, baseline weight and baseline fitness.

CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that sedentary, overweight/obese young adults are capable of adhering to levels of EEEx associated with clinically significant weight loss. Additional studies to identify potential modifiable factors associated with improving adherence, particularly during the early months of an exercise intervention, are warranted.

Supported by NIH R01 DK49181

1327 Board #108 MAY 30 11:00 AM - 12:30 PM

Insulin Resistance and Body Fat Gains in Non-Diabetic Women: A Prospective Study

Jared M. Tucker1, Larry A. Tucker2. 1North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND. 2Brigham Young University, Provo, UT.

(No relationships reported)

PURPOSE: To determine the effect of insulin resistance (IR) on risk of gaining body fat (BF) over time in women, and to examine the potential confounding effects of age, education, initial BF, objectively measured physical activity, and energy intake.

METHODS: A prospective cohort study was conducted with 226 women completing the assessments at baseline and follow-up, 18 months later. IR was assessed using fasting blood insulin and glucose levels to calculate HOMA. Participants were divided into High IR (4th quartile) Moderate IR (2nd and 3rd quartiles) and Low IR (1st quartile) categories. BF was estimated using plethysmography (Bod Pod) at baseline and follow-up. Participants wore accelerometers and completed weighed food logs for 7 consecutive days to objectively index physical activity and energy intake, respectively.

RESULTS: On average, women in the High IR group decreased in BF (-0.48±3.60) from baseline to follow-up, whereas those in the Moderate (0.40±3.66) and Low IR (1.17±3.15) groups gained in BF in a dose-response manner over the 18 months (F=5.4, p=0.0211). Controlling for differences in age, education, physical activity, and energy intake had little impact on changes in BF across the insulin resistance groups, but adjusting for baseline BF nullified differences in body fat changes across the IR groups.

CONCLUSIONS: Women with High IR have less than half the risk of gaining substantial BF (>5%) over 18 months compared to women with low or moderate levels of IR. The decreased risk appears independent of potential confounders except for initial body fat levels, which seem to play a key role in the relationship.

1328 Board #109 MAY 30 11:00 AM - 12:30 PM

Changes In Physical Fitness And Body Composition During Inpatient Treatment Of Longstanding Eating Disorders

Eva M. Støa, Solfrid Bratland-Sanda. Telemark University College, Norway, Telemark, Norway.

(No relationships reported)

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to examine changes in aerobic fitness, muscular strength and body composition during inpatient treatment of underweight and normal weight patients with longstanding eating disorders (ED).

METHODS: Twenty-nine underweight (BMI<18.5, n=7) and normal weight (BMI ≥18.5, n=22) inpatients meeting the DSM-IV criteria for anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa or eating disorders not otherwise specified (mean (SD) age: 31.0 (9.0) yrs, ED duration: 14.9 (8.8) yrs, duration of treatment: 16.6 (5.5) weeks) completed this prospective naturalistic study. The treatment consisted of nutritional counseling, two weekly sessions of 60 min moderate intensive physical activity, and psychotherapy. Patients with BMI <18.5 aimed to increase body weight with 0.5 kg/week until BMI ≥18.5. Aerobic fitness, muscular strength (1RM) in lower and upper body and body composition were measured at admission and discharge.

RESULTS: There was a 28.5% increase in lower body muscular strength among the underweight patients, and 18.9% increase in upper body muscular strength among the normal weight patients from admission to discharge. No changes were detected in aerobic capacity. Total body mass increased with 7% among the underweight patients (from 46.2 to 49.5 kg, p<0.001), although three out of seven underweight patients were still underweight at discharge. No significant changes in total body mass were observed among the normal weight patients. Altering in body composition was observed, with an increase of 36% and 6% in fat mass among underweight and normal weight patients, respectively. Lean body mass increased among underweight, but not normal weight patients. Nine of the 29 patients had a body fat percentage exceeding healthy limits at admission; none of these showed decrease in body fat percentage at dicharge.

CONCLUSIONS: Several underweight patients were still underweight at discharge, whereas none of the patients with excess amounts of body fat managed to reduce body fat percentage. Increase in aerobic capacity would have been beneficial to especially patients with excess body fat. These results calls for a more individualized treatment approach to achieve a more optimal body composition among both underweight and normal weight patients with longstanding ED.

1329 Board #110 MAY 30 11:00 AM - 12:30 PM

Systemic Inflammation and Disease Risk Factors in Mexican-American Children after an Intensive Lifestyle Intervention

Whitney L. Breslin1, Craig A. Johnston2, Jennette P. Moreno2, Kelley Strohacker1, Katie C. Carpenter1, John P. Foreyt2, Brian K. McFarlin, FACSM1. 1University of Houston, Houston, TX. 2Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX. (Sponsor: Brian K McFarlin, FACSM)

(No relationships reported)

PURPOSE: Obesity is an independent risk factor for chronic disease. The prevalence of obesity is especially high among Mexican-American children. Peripheral blood monocytes are altered with obesity and may contribute to systemic inflammation that mediates the relationship between obesity and chronic disease. In addition, obesity alters the circulating levels of cytokines/chemokines that influence monocyte behavior. To evaluate the effects of a 6-month school-based healthy lifestyle program on systemic inflammation and disease risk markers in healthy weight (zBMI ≤ 85th percentile), overweight (zBMI=85th-95th percentile), and obese (zBMI ≥ 95th percentile) Mexican-American children.

METHODS: Participants were randomized to either a 6-month intensive intervention or self-help group. Pre- and post-intervention blood samples were analyzed for total monocyte concentration, pro-inflammatory monocyte concentration, and classic monocyte concentration via flow cytometry. Serum MCP-1, Fractalkine, IL-8, and TNF-α were measured using a Milliplex MagPix assay. Serum cholesterol, HDL, triglycerides, and glucose were measured using an enzymatic reagent kit.

RESULTS: At baseline, Total monocyte concentration (P=0.012), classic monocyte concentration (P=0.045), MCP-1 (P=0.015), and TNF- α (P=0.002) were significantly greater in obese children compared to healthy weight children. Also, overweight and obese children had elevated triglycerides (P=0.001) and reduced HDL (P=0.033) compared to healthy weight children. Post-intervention samples will be analyzed to determine the effect of the intervention on these markers of systemic inflammation and disease risk.

CONCLUSIONS: Elevations in circulating monocytes, MCP-1, and TNF-αhave been implicated in the development of obesity-related chronic disease in adults. School-based healthy lifestyle interventions that promote zBMI reduction may reduce systemic inflammation and prevent the future development of obesity-related chronic diseases.

1330 Board #111 MAY 30 11:00 AM - 12:30 PM

Daily Exercise and Caloric Restriction Impact Fibroblast Growth Factor-21 in Hyperphagic OLETF Rats

Justin A. Fletcher, Grace M. Meers, Jamal A. Ibdah, John P. Thyfault, R. Scott Rector. University of Missouri, Columbia, MO.

(No relationships reported)

PURPOSE: Chronic treatment with fibroblast growth factor-21 (FGF-21) favorably improves obesity and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) outcomes; however, FGF-21 expression is paradoxically elevated in obese conditions. Here, we sought to determine the effects of obesity prevention by daily exercise (EX) vs. caloric restriction (CR) on hepatic FGF-21 in the hyperphagic, Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rat.

METHODS: At 4 wks of age, male OLETF rats (n=7-8/group) were randomized to groups of ad libitum fed, sedentary (OLETF-SED), voluntary wheel running exercise (OLETF-EX), or CR (OLETF-CR; 70% of SED) until 40 wks of age. Nonhyperphagic, Long-Evans Tokushima Otsuka (LETO-SED) rats served as controls.

RESULTS: Both daily EX and CR prevented obesity and NAFLD development observed in the OLETF-SED animals. This was associated with significantly (p<0.01) lower serum FGF-21 (∼80% lower) and hepatic FGF-21 mRNA expression (∼65% lower) in the OLETF-EX and OLETF-CR rats compared with OLETF-SED. However, hepatic FGF-21 protein content was reduced to the greatest extent in the OLETF-EX animals (50% of OLETF-SED) and did not differ between OLETF-SED and OLETF-CR. Further examination of hepatic FGF-21 signaling mediators revealed that the protein content of the hepatic co-factor of FGF-21 (β-Klotho), hepatic FGF-21 receptor 2 (FGFR2) mRNA expression, and hepatic FGF-21 receptor substrate 2 (FRS2) protein content were elevated (+30-50%, 60-100%, and ∼40%, respectively) in the OLETF-EX and OLETF-CR compared with OLETF-SED animals.

CONCLUSIONS: Daily exercise and caloric restriction modulate hepatic FGF-21 and its primary signaling mediators in the hyperphagic OLETF rat. Enhanced metabolic action of FGF-21 may partially explain the benefits of exercise and caloric restriction on NAFLD outcomes. Supported by NIH grant T32 AR 048523-07 and VHA-CDA2 IK2BX001299-01.

1331 Board #112 MAY 30 11:00 AM - 12:30 PM

Effects of Obesity and Exercise Training on Regional Adipose Tissue VEGF Production in Rats

Tongjian You, FACSM1, Beth Disanzo2. 1University of Massachusetts Boston, Boston, MA. 2State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY.

(No relationships reported)

Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) plays an important role in angiogenesis within adipose tissue. However, the effects of obesity and chronic exercise on regional adipose tissue VEGF production are still not well known.

PURPOSE: To compare the regional differences in VEGF production in subcutaneous and intra-abdominal adipose tissue, and investigate the effects of obesity and chronic exercise on adipose tissue VEGF production in rats.

METHODS: Lean (Fa/Fa) and obese (fa/fa) male Zucker rats at 2 months of age were randomly assigned to a sedentary and an exercise training group (lean sedentary: n=7, lean exercise: n=8, obese sedentary, n=7, obese exercise: n=8). The exercise group walked on a rat treadmill at 20 m/min for 60 min, 5 times per week for 8 weeks. Inguinal and epididymal adipose tissue samples were collected and in vitro VEGF secretion levels were determined.

RESULTS: In the whole cohort, VEGF secretion levels were higher in epididymal (13.20±3.93 ng/g protein) compared to inguinal (6.41±1.18 ng/g) adipose tissue (P<0.01). There were significant main effects of obesity on inguinal (lean: 2.66±0.23 ng/g, obese: 10.17±1.93 ng/g, P<0.01) and epididymal (lean: 6.92±1.85 ng/g, obese: 19.48±7.42 ng/g, P<0.05) adipose tissue VEGF secretion, and significant main effects of exercise training on epididymal adipose tissue VEGF secretion (sedentary: 5.80 ±0.77 ng/g, exercise: 19.68±7.05 ng/g, P<0.05). There were no obesity-exercise interactions on the variables.

CONCLUSIONS: Our results support that intra-abdominal adipose tissue releases more VEGF than subcutaneous adipose tissue, and both obesity and exercise training increase adipose tissue VEGF production in rats. Future studies are needed to identify the role of VEGF in angiogenesis in response to chronic exercise in obesity.

1332 Board #113 MAY 30 11:00 AM - 12:30 PM

The Supplement Of A-keto Acids Supports Diabetes Patients To Do Physical Exercise

Yuefei Liu, Tamara Spreng, Jürgen M. Steinacker, FACSM. Sports and Rehabilitation Medicine, Ulm, Germany.

(No relationships reported)

PURPOSE: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) is one of the most important epidemic diseases that threaten the public health, and physical inactivity plays an important role in the development of DM. Therefore, to improve physical activity is of critical significance for dealing with DM. However, to do physical exercise brings about a variety of physiological changes including metabolic challenges that can reduce exercise tolerance. The aim of this study was to investigate supportive effects of nutritional supplement of a-keto acids (KAS) in patients with DM doing physical training.

METHODS: In the double-blinded, placebo-controlled study 30 patients with DM (non-insulin-dependent) were recruited (60 ± 10 yrs, 173 ± 8 cm, 91 ± 16 kg) and randomized into two groups (placebo and KAS, respectively). The subjects underwent 6 weeks of physical training on cycle-ergometers supervised by a professional assistant. The training program was composed of 3 obligatory sessions (3 x 15 min endurance training followed by 5 min high intensity strength training each) and voluntarily additional training. The agents with placebo or 0.2 g/kg/d a-keto acids (0.1g a-ketoglutarate and 0.1g branched-chain keto acids) were supplemented during the training phase and one following recovery week.

RESULTS: In the placebo group only 28 min/week voluntary training were performed while in the KAS group 78 min (P<0.05). With KAS the subjects attained higher maximum power output (224 vs 193 watts, P<0.05). A greater improvement in glucose control and Quantitativer Insulinsensitivität-Check-Index was achieved in the KAS group.

CONCLUSIONS: The supplement with a-keto acids in patients with DM during physical training could improve exercise tolerance and training effect along with beneficial effect on glucose control and insulin sensitivity. Thus, KAS supports patients with DM to do physical exercise.

1333 Board #114 MAY 30 11:00 AM - 12:30 PM

Similar Metabolite Shifts Following 75-Km Cycling Time Trials When Ingesting Bananas Or a Carbohydrate Beverage

David C. Nieman, FACSM1, Nicholas Gillitt2, Wei Sha3, Andrew Shanely1, Amy Knab1, Lynn Kam1. 1Appalachian State University, Kannapolis, NC. 2Dole Nutrition Research Institute, Kannapolis, NC. 3UNC-Charlotte, Bioinformatics Research Center, Kannapolis, NC.

(D.C. Nieman: Contracted Research - Including Principle Investigator; Dole Foods.)

PURPOSE: This study compared the acute effect of ingesting bananas (BAN) versus a 6% carbohydrate sports drink (CHO) on 75-km cycling performance and shifts in metabolites using metabolomics-based profiling.

DESIGN: Trained cyclists (N=14, age 37±1.9 y, Wattsmax 379±12.5) completed two 75-km cycling time trials (3 weeks apart, randomized, crossover) while ingesting BAN or CHO. Subjects cycled on CompuTrainers for 75-km at the fastest pace possible while ingesting 0.2 gm/kg carbohydrate from BAN or CHO every 15 min. Blood samples were taken pre-exercise, immediately following, and 1-h post-exercise, and analyzed for metabolic profiles using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS).

RESULTS: Performance time did not differ between BAN and CHO (2.41±0.06, 2.36±0.05 h, respectively, P=0.258). Of 103 metabolites detected, 56 had significant time effects following the 75-km cycling bouts, and only one (dopamine) had a pattern of change that differed between BAN and CHO. Score plots from the partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) model visualized the global metabolic differences between pre-exercise, immediately post-exercise, and 1-h post-exercise, indicating a distinct separation between time points [R2Y(cum) = 0.869, Q2(cum) = 0.766]. Of the top 15 metabolites (ranked by both variable influence on the projection, VIP, and FDR adjusted p-values), five (2-hydroxybutyric acid, 2-aminobutyric acid, L-glutamic acid, L-methionine, and L-proline) were related to liver glutathione production, four (palmitoleic acid, palmitic acid, oleic acid, and heptadecanoic acid) to lipid metabolism, three (2,3,4-trihydroxybutanoic acid, D-fructose, and pyruvic acid) to carbohydrate metabolism, two (malic acid and succinic acid) were intermediates in the tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA cycle), and one (L-isoleucine) was involved in branched chain amino acid metabolism.

CONCLUSIONS: With the exception of higher dopamine in BAN (a polyphenolic found in bananas), shifts in metabolites following BAN and CHO 75-km cycling time trials indicate a similar pattern of heightened production of glutathione and utilization of fuel substrates in several pathways including glycolysis, lipolysis, and amino acid catabolism.

Supported by a grant from Dole Foods

1334 Board #115 MAY 30 11:00 AM - 12:30 PM

High Physical Activity Counteracts the Altered Incretin Response to High Fructose Consumption

Jill A. Kanaley, FACSM1, Amy Bidwell2, Timothy Fairchild3. 1University of Missouri, Columbia, MO. 2Syracuse University, Syracuse, NY. 3Murdoch University, Perth, Australia.

(No relationships reported)

Fructose consumption has increased substantially in the past few decades and has been linked with metabolic maladaptations. Whether increased physical activity (PA) may confer protection against these maladaptations is yet to be determined. Although the glucose and insulin response to fructose ingestion has been well studied, the incretin response is not well understood.

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to determine the interaction between high fructose consumption and PA levels on the incretin response to a fructose rich meal in normal weight individuals.

METHODS: Twenty normal weight men and women (age: 21-30 yr) consumed an additional 64 g high fructose corn syrup for 14 days on 2 occasions. During these 14 days, subjects maintained either low PA (4,500 steps/day) or high PA (12,500 steps/day). Each condition was followed by a study day where subjects were given a fructose-rich meal (600 calorie mixed meal (45% carbohydrate [7.3% fructose], 40% fat, and 15% protein)) in the morning after a 12 h overnight fast, and blood was sampled at baseline and for 6 h after the meal. Samples were analyzed for glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP) and insulin concentrations. The incremental area under the curve (iAUC) was calculated to quantify the postprandial responses.

RESULTS: GIP concentrations showed a significant PA by fructose loading interaction (P=0.00) such that fructose increased the GIP iAUC levels from pre to post-loading more so in the physically inactive condition (pre 14,575±2339; post 30,431±3502 pg/ml) than in the high PA condition (pre 12,812±1303; post 14,938±1834 pg/ml). GLP-1 concentrations also demonstrated a significant interaction (P=0.05, n=13) such that high PA lowered the GLP-1 levels (pre 8203±1484; post 6248±1678 pg/ml) during fructose loading, while low PA resulted in an increase in GLP-1 levels (pre 6977±1508; post 8432±1539 pg/ml). The glucose and insulin response to the fructose challenge showed no changes with the loading or PA changes. There were no sex differences.

CONCLUSIONS: The combination of high fructose intake in conjunction with more sedentary behavior results a larger incretin response to a fructose-rich meal, while glucose levels are maintained. High PA appears to protect the incretin response to increased fructose loading.

A-33 Free Communication/Poster - Exercise Recovery Measures

MAY 30, 2012 7:30 AM - 12:30 PM

ROOM: Exhibit Hall

1335 Board #116 MAY 30 9:30 AM - 11:00 AM

The Influence of Aerobic Fitness on the Recovery of Peak Power Output

Mark Glaister, John R. Pattison, Bernadette Dancy, Gillian McInnes. St Mary’s University College, Twickenham, United Kingdom. (Sponsor: Gregory B Dwyer, FACSM)

(No relationships reported)

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of aerobic fitness on the recovery of peak power output (PPO) following a maximal 30 s sprint.

METHODS: On separate occasions, 16 well-trained men (age: 21 ± 3 years; height: 1.84 ± 0.05 m; body mass: 78.8 ± 7.8 kg; and VO2max: 4.28 ± 0.54 L·min-1) performed a 30 s maximal sprint on a cycle ergometer, followed by a predetermined stationary rest period (5, 10, 20, 40, 80, or 160 s) and a subsequent 5 s sprint to determine the kinetics of PPO during recovery. On another occasion, oxygen uptake (VO2) was monitored during recovery from a 30 s sprint to enable the recovery kinetics of VO2 and PPO to be compared. In addition, subjects completed a VO2max test to evaluate the influence of this parameter on the recovery of PPO.

RESULTS: Comparison of the recovery kinetics of PPO and VO2 revealed no significant difference between the variables (F(1,15) = 3.16, p = 0.096); there was, however, a significant effect of time (F(5,75) = 374.44, p < 0.001), and a significant variable × time interaction (F(5,75) = 3.86, p = 0.004). Post hoc tests detected differences between the two variables at 20 s only (p < 0.05). Time constants for the kinetics of PPO and VO2 (54.0 ± 19.1 s and 51.8 ± 11.0 s, respectively) were poorly correlated (r = −0.17; p = 0.541), but were not significantly different (t(15) = 0.385, p = 0.705). There were no significant correlations between VO2max and the time constants of either PPO (r = 0.20; p = 0.455) or VO2 (r = −0.13; p = 0.641).

CONCLUSION: Despite many similarities, the results of this study suggest that the recovery of PPO may be faster than that of VO2 in the early phase of recovery following a maximal sprint; moreover, the speed of that recovery does not appear to be related to VO2max.

1336 Board #117 MAY 30 9:30 AM - 11:00 AM

The Effect of Short and Long Recovery Periods on the Contribution of Oxidative Processes to Energy Expenditure During Multiple Bouts of Supramaximal Exercise

Eric C. Olson1, Kenneth V. Christensen2, Adam Jajtner2, Jen Copeland2, Matt Unthank2, Joel B. Mitchell, FACSM2. 1Texas Christian University, Dallas, TX. 2Texas Christian University, Fort Worth, TX.

(No relationships reported)

The contribution of oxidative energy to multiple sprint exercise is of interest due to implications for the training needs of people engaging in anaerobic activities.

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of short and long active recovery durations on oxidative and anaerobic energy contributions during maximal instensity cycle ergometry.

METHODS: Six male subjects completed the study. After a VO2max test on the bicycle ergometer, each subject completed 2 conditions: a short recovery condition (SRC) and a long recovery condition (LRC). The SRC consisted of 10, 10-sec. supramaximal sprints with 30-sec. recovery periods. The LRC consisted of 10, 10-sec supramaximal sprints with 3-min. recovery periods. The load applied to the ergometer was 1.2 g/kg and the RPM during the sprints varied based on the maximal output. During recovery, no load was applied and subjects maintained a cadence of 80 RPM. VO2 was measured throughout both conditions and peak power and total work were calculated from two, 5-sec RPM averages generated during the sprints. Blood samples were taken pre-exercise, after sprints 4, 7, and 10, and 3 minutes post-exercise.

RESULTS: Peak power and total work were significantly greater (p < 0.05) in the LRC (1091.3 + 88.7 W and 1363.6 + 34.6 kg-m) compared to the SRC (915.3 + 109.2 W and 1161.6 + 33.9 kg-m). In addition, peak power decayed by 21.7% over the 10 sprints in the SRC compared to no decay in the LRC. Oxygen uptake averaged 28.3 + 0.9 ml/kg/min for the entirety of the LRC; whereas, in the SRC there was a large increase in oxygen uptake during the second sprint that remained elevated and averaged 47 + 1.5 ml/kg/min for the remaining sprints. There was no difference in blood lactate between conditions.

CONCLUSION: The heightened aerobic response and the lower work and power outputs seen in the SRC are suggestive of a decrement in both anaerobic glycolysis and phosphocreatine activity as successive sprints were completed. After repeated bouts of explosive exercise with short rest periods, oxidative processes play a more important role in energy production, most likely due to fatigue occurring in the anaerobic energy producing systems. These findings point to the need for enhancing the aerobic capacity of athletes engaging in consecutive high intensity bouts of exercise when rest intervals are short.

1337 Board #118 MAY 30 9:30 AM - 11:00 AM

Post-match Recovery In Elite Soccer Referees

Matthew Weston, Alan M. Batterham, FACSM. Teesside University, Middlesbrough, United Kingdom.

(No relationships reported)

The measurement of recovery following competition is required to facilitate the effective planning and timing of subsequent training sessions. Soccer refereeing at the elite-level represents a significant physical challenge. The effect of match intensity on post-match recovery, however, has yet to be investigated.

PURPOSE: To examine the effect of match intensity on recovery in elite soccer referees.

METHODS: Data were collected from 14 elite soccer referees for 194 English Premier and Football League matches (range: 5 to 21 matches). Internal match loads were RPE (CR-10 scale) and heart rate (HR) load, computed by multiplying the accumulated duration in each of five different HR zones by a multiplier for each zone and summating the results. Each match was analysed using a semi-automated match-analysis system. External match loads were the referees’ total distance covered (m) and the total high-speed running distance (m; running speed >19.8 km·-1). The referees’ recovery was recorded 30-min after waking on the day following their match, with a score of 0 representing poor recovery and 10 representing full recovery. A within-referee design was used to determine if high internal and external match loads were associated with low post-match recovery scores. Within-subject correlations between the referees’ measures of external and internal match load and post-match recovery (n=194) were examined, with 90% confidence intervals (CI) and effect sizes (Cohen’s d) also presented.

RESULTS: Match internal loads were 6.7 ± 1.5 and 304 ± 47 au for RPE and HR load, respectively. Match external loads were 11648 ± 609 and 1025 ± 338 m for total distance and high-speed running, respectively. Post-match recovery was 6.7 ± 1.2 au. There was a small correlation between post-match recovery and match RPE (r = -0.24: 90% CI -0.36 to -0.12, d = 0.49) and trivial correlations between recovery and total distance (r = 0.10: -0.02 to 0.22, d = 0.20), high-speed running (r = -0.03: -0.15 to 0.09, d = 0.06) and HR load (r = 0.06: -0.07 to 0.18, d = 0.11).

CONCLUSION: Elite soccer referees’ post-match psychophysiological recovery was influenced by the perceived exertion of their matches but not by their match running distances or match heart rates. Future research should investigate the effect of fitness levels and age on the post-match recovery process.

1338 Board #119 MAY 30 9:30 AM - 11:00 AM

Effects of Recovery Duration from Prior Heavy Exercise on VO2 Kinetics and Performance

Glen R. Belfry, Seung-Jun Park, William J. Karelsen, Juan M. Murias, Matthew D. Spencer, John M. Kowalchuk, Donald H. Paterson, FACSM. University of Western Ontario, London, ON, Canada.

(No relationships reported)

PURPOSE: To examine the effect of recovery duration (R) to heavy-intensity priming exercise (HVY1) on i) O2 uptake (VO2) kinetics during a subsequent HVY exercise bout (HVY2), and ii) VO2 kinetics and endurance time (TTF) during a subsequent maximal exercise bout (VHVY) performed to fatigue. It was hypothesized that VO2 kinetics would be faster in HVY2 than in HVY1, and that the TTF would be longer after priming exercise.

METHODS: Nine (22±2 yrs (mean±SD)) healthy and active males (n=4) and females (n=5) volunteered to participate. A ramp (25 W/min) test to fatigue was performed on a cycle ergometer on Day 1 to determine estimated lactate threshold (&thetas;L) and peak VO2 (VO2peak). Subjects returned on 8 separate occasions to perform the exercise protocols. These included transitions from 20 W to HVY1, HVY2 and VHVY. Each transition was separated by the same recovery period lasting 5 (R5), 12 (R12) or 25 min (R25) that were randomly assigned for each visit. The power outputs (PO) for HVY1 and HVY2 corresponded to 50% of the difference between the VO2 at &thetas;L and VO2peak (Δ50%); the PO for the VHVY endurance test was 92% of peak VO2 (271±77 W). Two repetitions of the protocol were performed for each of R5, R12 and R25. Two TTF tests with no priming exercise were also performed.

RESULTS: Peak VO2 and θL were 3.02±1.09 L·min-1 (at 293±97 W) and 2.08±1.02 L·min-1 (at 164±44 W), while Δ50% was 2.68±0.94 L·min-1 (at 228±69 W). With R5, VO2 kinetics (Mean Response Time) were faster (p<0.05) in HVY2 (49±10 s) and VHVY (47±13 s) compared to HVY1 (63±10 s); additionally, with R12, VO2 kinetics were faster (p<0.05) during VHVY (57±8 s) than in HVY1 (64±14 s). TTF was greater (P<0.05) after R25 (323±94 s) than no priming exercise (245±61 s), R5 (226±62 s), and 12 min R (255±65 s).

CONCLUSION: This study suggests after HVY priming exercise VO2 kinetics during a subsequent HVY exercise is faster when the R time is shorter (R5 vs R12 and R25). Improvements in TTF during very heavy-intensity exercise are observed with longer recovery (R25 vs R5 and R12), when enhanced VO2 kinetics are not seen. These data suggest that at exercise intensities above the lactate threshold, benefits of faster VO2 kinetics are attenuated by the production of fatigue-inducing metabolites that may require a longer recovery time to resolve.

1339 Board #120 MAY 30 9:30 AM - 11:00 AM

Recovery Of Heart Rate Variability Immediately After Endurance Exercises On Trained And Non-trained Individuals

Piia Kaikkonen1, Ari Nummela2, Heikki Rusko3. 1Tampere Research Center of Sports Medicine, Tampere, Finland. 2KIHU-Research Institute for Olympic Sports, Jyväskylä, Finland. 3University of Jyväskylä, Jyväskylä, Finland.

(No relationships reported)

PURPOSE: The goal of endurance training is to disturb homeostasis of the body to induce a training effect. Heart rate variability (HRV) has been used as a non-invasive technique to assess modulations in autonomic nervous system, regulating homeostasis. This study investigated the effects of different running exercises on immediate post-exercise HRV in individuals with different training backgrounds, to find out if immediate HRV recovery could offer additional information on disturbance of homeostasis, the training load and training effect of different exercises.

METHODS: Non-trained females (NT, n = 13, age 35 ± 3 years, VO2max 36 ± 3 ml/kg/min) and recreational trained males (T, n = 13, age 35 ± 5 years, VO2max 54 ± 4 ml/kg/min) performed three running exercises on a treadmill, separated at least by two days. In both group, the effects of increased intensity (NT from 50 to 74 %, T from 60 to 85 % of vVO2max) or the duration (NT from 3.5 to 7 km, T from 3 to 14 km) of the typical control exercise of the group was investigated. HRV data was collected during pre-exercise baseline, exercise and controlled recovery of 1 minute and analyzed with STFT method. The decrease in high frequency power, as an indicator of changes in vagal activation, from the baseline (HFPbl) to the first minute of the recovery (HFPrec1, % HFPbl) was investigated.

RESULTS: HFPbl in NT and T were 6.6 ± 1.1 and 7.8 ± 0.9 ln ms2, respectively. When compared to HFPbl, HFPrec1 varied from 41 ± 17 % (NT, 3.5 km at 74 % of vVO2max) to 83 ± 20 % (NT, 3.5 km at 50 % of vVO2max) after different exercises. Increased intensity of the typical exercise resulted in further decreased (P < 0.05) HFPrec1 in both NT (from 83 ± 20 to 41 ± 17 %) and T (from 60 ± 15 to 46 ± 18 %). Increased duration of typical exercise resulted in lower HFPrec1 in T (from 60 ± 15 to 47 ± 18 %, P < 0.05) while no change was seen in NT (83 ± 20 vs. 76 ± 26 %).

CONCLUSION: The effects of increased exercise intensity or duration, i.e. increased training load, of typical endurance exercises could be detected by HRV during the first recovery minute. However, small changes in duration or intensity may not necessarily induce changes on immediate HRV recovery. HRV during the first recovery minute seems to reflect training load of different exercises, and may be useful in evaluating the physiological training effects.

1340 Board #121 MAY 30 9:30 AM - 11:00 AM

Effects of Two-Minutes Active Recovery On A “Booster” VO2max Test Using Collegiate Female Soccer Players

Andy Bosak1, Matt Hawkey2, Thomas Andre1, Nathan Winn1. 1Georgia Southwestern State University, Americus, GA. 2Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK.

(No relationships reported)

Maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) tests typically end at the point of volitional exhaustion. However, previous research with averagely fit individuals and highly fit NCAA Division II female athletes suggest that concluding a maximal treadmill test with 2min active recovery and allowing subjects to exercise a second time at the workload eliciting volitional exhaustion results in significantly greater VO2 max values (1.4% and 4.2% mean increase, respectively). The potential effects of this testing sequence (2min recovery) on VO2max treadmill tests has not been evaluated utilizing highly fit NCAA Division I elite female soccer players.

PURPOSE: To examine changes in VO2max values, in elite collegiate female soccer players, following 2min of active recovery at the conclusion of a treadmill GXT to volitional exhaustion.

METHODS: Twelve NCAA Division I female soccer players completed a max treadmill GXT until reaching volitional exhaustion (MAX1). Immediately following 2min active recovery (at 0% grade & 2.5 mph), each subject exercised to volitional exhaustion a second time (MAX2). MAX1 and MAX2 were compared using a paired T-test. Differences were considered significant at p ≤ 0.05.

RESULTS: No significant differences (p = 0.15) occurred between MAX1 (47.4 ± 4.7 ml/kg/min) and MAX2 (48.0 ± 5.3 ml/kg/min). Yet, the mean change from MAX1 to MAX2 following 2min active recovery was +1.3% with individual values ranging from -4.2% to +5.9%. Also, 66.7% of the subjects benefited (+3.3% mean increase) from the booster test with individual increases of +0.5% up to +5.9%.

CONCLUSION: Mean results suggest that 2min active recovery may not allow significantly greater VO2 max values to be achieved by highly fit NCAA Division I elite female soccer players during treadmill testing, yet 66.7% of the subjects increased their VO2max during the “booster max” treadmill protocol. Further research is needed to determine if fitness level, training experience, age, sport specificity, or other variables might affect this exercise testing protocol.

1341 Board #122 MAY 30 9:30 AM - 11:00 AM

In Vs. Out Of Water Recovery Methods, Performance And Inflammation Response: A Comparative Study

Mahdi Hossein Zadeh1, Valiollah Dabidi Roshan2, Hosein Babaei3, Vahid Shirinbayan2, Lars Arendt-Nielsen1. 1Aalborg University, Center for Sensory-Motor Interaction (SMI), Aalborg, Denmark. 2College of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, University of Mazandaran, Babolsar, Iran, Babolsar, Iran, Islamic Republic of. 3Islamic Azad University, Branch Sari, Sari, Iran, Sari, Iran, Islamic Republic of. (Sponsor: Jonathan Myers, FACSM)

(No relationships reported)

BACKGROUND: Repeated swimming sprints are commonly used to develop anaerobic performance in swimmers. The ability to recover from each high intensity sprint bout is an important factor for eliciting the best neuromuscular adaptations in order to attain the highest possible speed for each repetition, and therefore the best performance.

PURPOSE: To compare the effect of in (IN) vs. out of water (OUT) active recovery on cytokines (IL-6 and CRP), CK, lactate, and mean repeated sprint time (RSm).

METHODS: 16 volunteer male swimmers (age:19±4years; weight:75±12kg) were assigned to either IN vs. OUT recovery methods. Six 50-m sprint swimming bouts were performed with a 120-second interval of either IN or OUT recovery in between. Measurements were done at baseline and after third and sixth sprint swimming bout.

RESULTS: Serum IL-6, CRP and lactate levels (mg/dl) increased from baseline to the third and sixth bouts in both groups (IL-6: from 1.69±.78 to 2.40±1.047 and 3.86±1.81 vs. 1.84±.7 to 3.76±2.2 and 4.99±2.5, P<0.05, IN vs. OUT respectively); (CRP: from 0.39±0.21 to 1.26±0.69 and 1.95±1.14 vs. 0.37±0.25 to 1.29±0.42 and 1.75±0.56, P<0.05 IN vs. OUT respectively); and (Lactate: from 18.21±2 to 50.32±13 and 57.13±10 vs. 19.80±4 to 57.02±14 and 55.03±8, P<0.05 IN vs. OUT respectively). The CK level (U/l) and the RSm time (s) only increased in OUT (CK: from 245±109 to 294±117 and 302±121, P<0.05), (RSm: from 4.56±2.06 to 5.18±2.24 and 6.48±2.28, P<0.05).

CONCLUSION: Inflammatory and muscle damage markers are not affected by the IN vs. OUT recovery methods; however, out of water recovery might be associated with higher inflammatory responses. In-water recovery can improve performance compared with out-water recovery at the same intensity.

1342 Board #123 MAY 30 9:30 AM - 11:00 AM

Establishing An Active Recovery Protocol For Paralympic-level Swimming

Shane P. Esau, Jared R. Fletcher, Brian R. MacIntosh, FACSM. University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada.

(No relationships reported)

Following a competitive event, subsequent performance is thought to be enhanced by an active recovery. In competitive Paralympic-level swimming, the athletes compete twice a day for 4-8 consecutive days. Blood lactate concentration ([BLa-]) has been used as a measure of the effectiveness of an active recovery. With this in mind, an active recovery protocol was investigated which could allow individualized prescribed active recovery.

PURPOSE: To determine [BLa-] clearance during warm-down of elite Paralympic swimmers and test this in competition circumstances.

Method: 29 elite Paralympic swimmers (age = 20±3 years) completed either a 150 or 300 meter time trial in the shortest time possible, five days before the IPC Swimming World Championships. The distance covered was based on the athlete’s main event at the World Championships. Post event [BLa-] was determined 5 minutes after the completion of the event. Subsequently, the athletes swam 1000 meters at a heart rate between 140-150 bpm as an active recovery. [BLa-] was measured every 200 meters of the active recovery. Individual [BLa-] clearance rates were determined from the half-life in exponential decay (t1/2). The following week, individual [BLa-] clearance rates were used to determine active recovery distance after each event during the IPC World Championships (WC).

RESULTS: Mean post time-trial [BLa-] was 9.3±3.4 mM. The mean [BLa-] t1/2 was 399.2±121 m. The distance required for the athletes [BLa-] to return to 4.0 mM and 2.0 mM based on the t1/2 was 470±190 m and 799±239 m, respectively. During the IPC WC, the distance required to return [BLa-] to at least 4.0 mM was 543±157 m. This distance was not significantly different than the active recovery distance calculated from the t1/2 and was significantly shorter than the athletes traditional active recovery distance (P<0.05).

CONCLUSION: The results suggest that determining [BLa-] t1/2 could be an effective method to determine an appropriate active recovery distance in elite Paralympic swimmers. Next it will be necessary to determine the appropriate target lactate for an active recovery.

1343 Board #124 MAY 30 9:30 AM - 11:00 AM

Weight Lifting Performance And Heart Rate Variability During A Training Recovery

Mu-Tsung Chen1, Jui-Lien Chen2, Chung-Yu Chen2. 1Shih-Chien University, Taipei, Taiwan. 2Taipei Physical Education College, Taipei, Taiwan. (Sponsor: Chia-Hua Kuo, FACSM)

(No relationships reported)

Weight training can cause muscle damage, which elicits a protracted repair process and resulted in greater muscle strength following approximately 48-72 h of recovery. It is currently unknown how the autonomic nervous system is modulated in relation to the strength training recovery.

PURPOSE: This study determined heart rate variability (HRV) during a 72-h recovery following a weight training bout for elite weight lifters, and its links to muscle strength, pain feeling and plasma creatine kinase level.

METHODS: After a 10-d detraining period, seven weight lifters performed a 2-h strength training program including back squat, seated shoulder press, dead lifts, and front squat. Weight lifting performance was evaluated at baseline (before training) and 3, 24, 48, 72 h following training. Electrocardiogram was continuously recorded for 5 min at rest in seated positions immediately before each strength performance measurement.

RESULTS: Weight lifting performance was recovered to baseline in approximately 24 h following training. Plasma creatine kinase level was peaked at 3 h following training and gradually decline for 72 h. Weight lifting performances were maximally increased above baseline at 72 h of recovery. Although the subjective pain feeling was not completely vanished, vagal activity (mirrored by natural log HF) was maximal at 72 h after training.

CONCLUSIONS: After an acute weight lifting training program, vagal activity dropped significantly and gradually elevated above baseline at 72 hour post training while the weight lifting performance was recovered to highest level.

1344 Board #125 MAY 30 9:30 AM - 11:00 AM

The Influence Of Recovery Time Following A Dynamic Warmup On Lower Body Balance And Flexibility

Lee Everett, Matt Beekley, FACSM. University of Indianapolis, Indianapolis, IN.

(No relationships reported)

Previous studies have reported improvements in flexibility following dynamic warm-ups. However, it is possible that the recovery period may influence subsequent performance changes.

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of recovery time following a dynamic warm up on lower body flexibility and balance.

METHODS: Twenty-eight healthy, recreationally active males [(mean ± SD) age, 21.3 ± 1.4 years; height, 178.0 ± 6.3 cm; weight, 80.9 ± 10.7 kg] volunteered for this study. The 28 participants reported engaging in a total of 6.9 ± 2.9 h·-1 of exercise. Each subject performed a dynamic warm-up which included an exercise routine that gradually progressed in intensity. Furthermore, each participant performed a pretest, and three post tests (0 min, 10 min, and 20 min). Flexibility was measured using both a straight leg raise test (SLR) for hamstring flexibility and Thomas test for hip flexor flexibility. Balance was measured in the number of ground contacts and balance time during a 30 second balance test using a balance wobble board. A one-way repeated measures ANOVA was used to analyze all dependent variables. Bonferonni adjusted pairwise comparisons were used as post hoc analysis. An alpha level of P ≤ 0.05 was set for statistical significance.

RESULTS: There was a significant decrease in hip flexor flexibility from 0 min post to 10 min (p = .015) and 20 min (p = .010) post warm up while also being significantly lower (p = 0.16) at 20 min post warm up compared to pre warm up values. Hamstring flexibility significantly increased from pre to 0 min post warm up (p < .001) while also significantly decreasing from 0 min post to both 10 min (p = .003) and 20 min (p < .001) post warm up. Hamstring flexibility was also significantly higher at 10 min post warm up (p = .006) when compared to pre warm up values. Balance contacts significantly decreased from pre to 10 min post warm up (p = .026), while balance time also significantly increased from pre to 10 min post warm up (p = .009).

CONCLUSION: A dynamic warm up may influence hamstring flexibility, however a longer recovery time following the warm up is less effective in maintaining hamstring and hip flexor flexibility improvements. Furthermore, the influence a dynamic warm up may have on balance may be minimal.

1345 Board #126 MAY 30 9:30 AM - 11:00 AM

Recovery And Soreness In Trained Females After An Exhaustive Resistance Training Protocol

Jason A. Campbell1, Phillip A. Bishop2. 1Murray State University, Murray, KY. 2The University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL.

(No relationships reported)

PURPOSE: To examine the recovery capabilities and soreness profiles of 10 resistance-trained females (ages 19-35) following three sets to failure for eight resistance exercises.

METHODS: The intensity used to elicit responses was the participants’ 10-repetition maximum for each lift. Recovery was measured as the ability to replicate the total number of repetitions performed in the first set of the baseline workout compared to the first set total in subsequent workouts. Participants repeated the baseline session following 24, 48, 72, or 96 hours of passive recovery.

RESULTS: After 24 hours, the group mean for repetitions (10.0 ± 1.1 reps) was similar to baseline (10.7 ± 0.5 reps; p > 0.05). But at 48 hours and 72 hours, the group performed significantly better (11.5 ± 1.3 p = 0.01 and 11.4 ± 1.2, p = 0.004 reps for 48 and 72 hours, respectively) than at 24 hours. Soreness was also measured using a 100-mm visual analog scale (VAS). Soreness peaked at 24h and was significantly higher than baseline for all recovery periods (all p < 0.05). Additionally, at 48 hours, soreness was significantly correlated to the number of repetitions (r = -0.77, p = 0.01). Large inter-subject variability existed across all recovery periods for all variables.

CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that trained females can recover within 24 hours following an exhaustive resistance training protocol. Women were able to perform similarly to baseline at all time points despite experiencing a significant level of soreness.

1346 Board #127 MAY 30 9:30 AM - 11:00 AM

Examining Racial Differences in Sympathetic Overactivity Assessed During Recovery from Exercise in Obese Female Adolescents

Stacey L. Hall, R. Lee Franco, Mary K. Bowen, Ronald K. Evans, Edmond P. Wickham. Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA. (Sponsor: Edmund O Acevedo, FACSM)

(No relationships reported)

Sympathetic overactivity (SO) is associated with several disease states including type 2 diabetes, obesity, and hypertension. Black Americans have the highest risk for hypertension and black females have a greater prevalence in hypertension and obesity compared to white females.

PURPOSE: To evaluate differences in SO, as assessed by an exercise recovery index (ERI; heart rate/VO2 plateau), between black (BOA) and white obese female adolescents (WOA). An additional aim was to determine the association of ERI with insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), cardiovascular fitness (VO2peak) per fat free mass (FFM), systolic blood pressure (SBP), and percent body fat (%FAT) in both BOA and WOA.

METHODS: Fifty-six obese females volunteered to participate in this study. HOMA-IR, SBP and %FAT were assessed during resting conditions in BOA (n=45, 13.7±1.6 yrs, 38.1±6.1 kg/m2) and WOA (n=11, 13.3±2.2 yrs, 34.3±4.9 kg/m2). An ERI was calculated during a 5-minute passive recovery period immediately following a graded treadmill exercise test to exhaustion.

RESULTS: The ERI was significantly greater (29.7±6.1 vs. 23.9±3.1, P=0.004) in BOA compared to WOA females. Using multiple linear regression modeling, there was a significant independent association between ERI and VO2peak per FFM (r= -0.317, P=0.049) in BOA after controlling for HOMA-IR, SBP, and %FAT. HOMA-IR (r=0.232, P=0.155), SBP (r= -0.237, P=0.146), and %FAT (r=0.178, P=0.280) were not independently associated with ERI in BOA. Additionally, VO2peak per FFM (r= -0.075, P=0.860), HOMA-IR (r=0.112, P=0.792), SBP (r=0.060, P=0.887), and %FAT (r= -0.026, P=0.951) were not independently associated with ERI in WOA.

CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that BOA females have greater SO, as assessed by an ERI, than WOA females. Understanding racial differences can contribute to both prevention and treatment of hypertension in obese female adolescents.

A-34 Free Communication/Poster - Military Physiology

MAY 30, 2012 7:30 AM - 12:30 PM

ROOM: Exhibit Hall

1347 Board #128 MAY 30 11:00 AM - 12:30 PM

Load Carriage Increases Exposure Time during Tactical Combat Movements

Andrew P. Hunt1, Aaron J. Silk2, Paul J. Tofari2. 1Defence Science and Technology Organisation, Melbourne, Australia. 2University of Wollongong, Wollongong, Australia. (Sponsor: Christopher Gore, FACSM)

(No relationships reported)

Dismounted combatants engaging an enemy force are required to move tactically between points of cover, involving repeated high-intensity short duration bounds.

PURPOSE: To quantify the effect of external load carriage on exposure time, the period of vulnerability to enemy fire as the combatant moves between points of cover, during a tactical combat movement simulation.

METHODS: Nineteen qualified Airfield Defence Guards (age 21.7±2.4 years, height 181.4±8.0 cm, body mass 81.0±9.0 kg) provided written informed consent to participate. Experimental procedures were approved by the Australian Defence Human Research Ethics Committee. The tactical movement simulation involved sixteen 6-m bounds commencing every 20 s, each starting from a prone position and ending in a kneeling position. The simulation was performed in five load conditions (A - E) ranging between 10-30 kg (5 kg increments) and comprised a replica weapon, chest webbing, protective vest, and helmet. During all trials participants were fitted with a global positioning device which contained a 10 Hz global positioning chip and nine inertial sensors. The data were analysed by custom software algorithms that were developed to objectively identify the start and end points of each bound. Repeated measures ANOVA assessed statistical differences between the load conditions.

RESULTS: Exposure time significantly increased as a function of external load (A 3.72±0.26 s, B 3.86 ±0.29 s, C 4.09 ±0.31 s, D 4.32 ±0.43 s, E 4.53 ±0.41 s, p<0.001). Peak velocity tended to decrease with increasing load, but this was not significant (A 2.65±0.26 m·s-1, B 2.67±0.26 m·s-1, C 2.58±0.30 m·s-1, D 2.51±0.30 m·s-1, E 2.42±0.25 m·s-1, p=0.095). However, a significantly greater time was required to reach peak velocity as external load increased (A 2.16±0.33, B 2.25±0.31, C 2.47±0.37, D 2.65±0.45, E 2.82±0.36, p<0.001). When normalised to exposure time, time to peak velocity did not differ, averaging 60% of the exposure duration.

CONCLUSION: Load carriage significantly impairs the ability to move between points of cover during tactical movement simulations. With technology advancing and dismounted combatants being required to carry increasing amounts of equipment, these findings highlight how additional load may impact survivability and ultimately mission outcomes.

1348 Board #129 MAY 30 11:00 AM - 12:30 PM

Foot Trajectory and Swing Time changes with Soldier Borne Loads in Walking and Running

Kari Loverro1, Leif Hasselquist2, Michael Brown2. 1Oakrigdge Institute for Science and Engineering, Belcamp, MD. 2Natick Soldier Research, Development, and Engineering Center, Natick, MA.

(No relationships reported)

Soldiers are often tasked with carry heavy loads. Little is known on how these loads affect trip avoidance. Previous researchers have used foot trajectory and swing time as predictors of tripping in the young and elderly adults.

PURPOSE: To compare foot trajectory and swing time of Soldiers during walking and running while carrying loads.

METHODS: Eight male soldiers walked (1.34m/s) or ran (2.24m/s) for 10 minutes on the treadmill with torso armor only (No RUCK: 17kg) and with a rucksack (RUCK: 40kg). Kinematic data was collected for 20s per condition; five strides from each trial were analyzed. Three landmarks on each foot (toe, 5th metatarsal head, and heel) were used to calculate foot trajectory and swing time. Foot trajectory variables were defined using minimum toe clearance (MTC), first and second peak in toe trajectory (TOE1 and TOE2), first peak in 5th metatarsal trajectory (MET5) and first peak in the heel trajectory (HEEL). Swing time was examined as percent stride time. Two-way repeated measures ANOVA were performed for each variable.

RESULTS: At both speeds, increased load significantly decreased swing time (walk: No RUCK: 37.7±0.3% RUCK: 35.9±0.5% p=0.005; run: No RUCK: 58.2±1.0% RUCK: 48.3±0.3% p<0.001). Increased speed for all load conditions significantly increased HEEL (No RUCK: walk: 31.7±0.4cm run: 36.3±0.7cm p<0.001, RUCK: walk: 31.8±0.5cm run: 34.8±0.5cm p<0.001) and MET5 (No RUCK: walk: 15.7±0.4cm run: 19.2±0.4cm p=0.001, RUCK: walk: 15.5±0.3cm run: 17.3±0.5cm p=0.011); but significantly decreased TOE2 (No RUCK: walk: 18.2±0.4cm run: 15.0±0.4cm p<0.001, RUCK: walk: 17.7±0.5cm run: 14.9±0.5cm p=0.006). During running, increased load significantly decreased HEEL (p=0.012) and MET5 (p=0.010). However, MTC (p=0.085) was not significantly affected by load or speed.

CONCLUSIONS: When carrying a load while ambulating, toe clearance appears to be preserved while swing time and other foot trajectory variables change. This implies that toe clearance is a crucial factor to keep consistent and Soldiers attempt to do this to prevent tripping while running with heavy loads. However, the decrease of the heel and 5th metatarsal head peaks; and reduction of swing time during running with heavy loads will decrease the ability of the Soldier to adjust their gait to prevent trips and falls on varied terrains.

1349 Board #130 MAY 30 11:00 AM - 12:30 PM

Improving Estimation of Energy Expenditure with Accelerometers during Military Training using a Field-Based Calibration Procedure

Sam D. Blacker, Fleur E. Horner, David M. Wilkinson, Denise M. Linnane, Peter I. Brown, Mark P. Rayson. Optimal Performance Ltd, Bristol, United Kingdom.

(No relationships reported)

Estimation of physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) in military populations is an important measurement. The gold standard for estimating PAEE is doubly labelled water (DLW). However it is expensive and can only be used following observation periods greater than seven days. Accelerometers are low cost and their output (Physical Activity Counts; PAC) is often used in linear prediction models. However, the contribution of PAC in predicting PAEE can be low unless individual calibration is performed.

PURPOSE: To determine if simple field-based individual user calibrations could improve the relationship between accelerometer PAC and PAEE.

METHODS: Following ethical approval, 32 participants (16 female and 16 male, body mass 67.9 ± 12.4 kg, stature 1.71 ± 0.10 m, estimated VO2max 44.3 ± 8.5 mL·kg-1·min-1) volunteered for the study. During 10 days of military training, PAC were measured using a 3-dimensional accelerometer device worn around participants’ waist and PAEE was measured using DLW. Participants completed a multistage fitness test (MSFT) to estimate VO2max while wearing the accelerometers. Daily PAC were divided by PAC recorded during the first six levels of the MSFT (PACMSFT) to calibrate the outputs to individual participants’ movement patterns during the walking and running shuttles. Relationships between PAC and PACMSFT with PAEE were established using Pearson bivariate correlations. Linear regression was used to develop multivariable models to predict PAEE from body mass and PAC or PACMSFT. All data are expressed as mean ± one standard deviation and priori αwas set at p<0.05.

RESULTS: Mean 10 day PAC and PAEE were 536,341 ± 55,143 counts·day-1 and 1,600 ± 386 kcal·day-1, respectively. PAEE showed a moderate relationship with PAC (r=0.44, p=0.02) and a stronger relationship with PACMSFT (r=0.71, p<0.01). PAC did not contribute (p=0.10) to a multivariable model that included body mass to predict PAEE. However, PACMSFT contributed (p<0.01) to the multivariable model [PAEE= 505.48 - (body mass x 14.53) + (PACMSFT x 1.29), R2=0.68, SEE=227].

CONCLUSION: Calibrating accelerometer PAC to sub-maximal individual participant movements using a field-based fitness test provides a simple method for improving the prediction of PAEE during military training.

1350 Board #131 MAY 30 11:00 AM - 12:30 PM

Injuries among Army Recruits during Occupational Training for Military Police and Combat Engineers

Elizabeth Clearfield, Keith G. Hauret, Phillip Garrett, Ashly Westrick, Joseph J. Knapik, FACSM. Army Institute of Public Health, Edgewood, MD.

(No relationships reported)

New Army recruits who enlist as combat engineers (Engs) and military police (MPs) train 14 weeks and 19 weeks, respectively, at Fort Leonard Wood, MO. Training includes both physically demanding basic combat and occupational skill training. Injury incidence and rates among Eng and MP students have not been reported previously.

PURPOSE: To determine and compare demographics and injury rates for male students enrolled in 14-week Eng and 19-week MP occupational training courses that began between 1 October 2009 - 30 September 2010.

METHODS: Electronic rosters with demographics (age, height, weight) were obtained from the Army Training and Doctrine Command for all males who entered Eng and MP training during the survey period. Records for Eng and MP students were linked to injury data from the Defense Medical Surveillance System. Injuries were identified based on specific diagnostic (ICD-9) codes. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated as weight/height2. Demographics were compared by independent sample t-tests. Injury incidences (recruits with ≥1 injury/total recruits X 100%) and injury rates (injured/100 person-months [p-mos]) for Engs and MPs were compared using χ2 tests; rate ratios (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated. All students were assumed to have completed the full training and to be at risk for injury for the full time.

RESULTS: There were 4,523 Engs and 4,090 MPs. Mean ± SD age, height, weight and BMI for Eng and MPs were, respectively, 21.2 ± 3.8 and 25.3 ± 3.4 years (p<0.01), 175.5 ± 7.0 and 175.8 ± 6.8 cm (p=0.02), 77.9 ± 14.2 and 78.7 ±14.2 kg (p=0.02), and 25.3 ± 4.1 and 25.4 ± 4.1 kg/m2 (p=0.13). Injury incidence for Engs was 41.7% and for MPs, 33.6% (p<0.01). The overall injury rate was 14.0/100 p-mos for Engs and 8.5/100 p-mos for MPs (RR [Eng/MPs] = 1.65, 95% CI: 1.54 to 1.77). Lower extremity overuse injury rate among Engs was 10.6/100 p-mos and among MPs was 5.7/100 p-mos (RR [Eng/MPs] =1.86, 95% CI: 1.71 to 2.02).

CONCLUSION: MP students were younger, taller and heavier than Eng students. Students in Eng training had higher overall injury and lower extremity overuse injury rates compared with MPs in training. Risk factors for injuries among Engs and MPs should be determined and injury prevention efforts focused on identified risk factors for students in these occupational training programs.

1351 Board #132 MAY 30 11:00 AM - 12:30 PM

Sleep and Activity Measurement in Search and Rescue Aircraft Crews Using Novel Sensing Technologies.

Gregory C. May, Giles Warrington, FACSM, John Burke, Sarah Colclough, Brendan Maloney, Ciaran O’ Cathain, Shauna O’ Connor O’ Connor, Stephen Ryan. Dublin City University, Glasnevin, Ireland.

(No relationships reported)

Helicopter search and rescue crews (SARC) remain on 24 hour alert. This requires the SARC to remain in a state of readiness and maximise sleep opportunities. When on duty, depending on their proximity to the SAR base, crew members may either sleep on-base or at home. These factors may lead to possible variations in the level of physical activity (PA), sleep duration (Sdur) and sleep efficiency (Sef).

PURPOSE: To investigate the levels of PA, Sdur, and Sef of members of the SARC during a 24 hour on-call shift using several novel sensing technologies. Method: Ten members of the Dublin SARC (mean ± SD: age 40 ± 5 years; height 1.76 ± 0.06m; mass 89.2 ± 14 kg; 5 on-base, 5 off-base) were instrumented with 2 tri-axial accelerometers (XL) and a Sensewear armband (SW) with an internal accelerometer (SWXL). The XL were placed on the right ankle and right hip with the SW placed on the left triceps. Data was recorded for a 26 hour period during which the subjects kept a written record of their activity. Total estimated energy expenditure (tEEE), Sef and Sdur were calculated for each sensor during the 24 hour period. Sleep periods were verified for each subject using a written activity log.

RESULTS: Group: Based on the placement location of the sensors (ankle; waist; triceps) significant differences were observed for tEEE (1093.9kcal ± 329.8kcal; 502kcal ± 211.5 kcal; 2371.1kcal ± 838.2kcal , p<0.01). Sleep indices calculated from the SW were seen to be significantly different to the XL data, but not between the XL units themselves (triceps vs. ankle; waist): Sef (72.8% ± 18.5% vs. 96.3% ± 2.6%; 97.3% ± 1.9%, p<0.01) and Sdur ( 257.9mins ± 80.1mins vs. 371.3mins ± 49.0mins; 379.6mins ± 53.9mins, p<0.01). Home vs Base: Significant differences were seen for tEEE for the SW (1907.0kcal ± 397.3kcal vs. 2835.2kcal ± 940.4kcal, p<0.01) and SWXL (193.8kcal ± 63.2kcal vs. 893.2kcal ± 564.2kcal, p<0.01). Similarly a significant difference was observed for Sdur (231.4mins ± 82.1mins; vs. 284.4mins ± 77mins, p<0.01) on the SW.

CONCLUSION: The location of the sensor utilised to measure PA and sleep indices in SARC members appears to play a vital role in determining the accuracy of measurement. The SW recorded significant differences in PA levels and Sdur between SARC on-base and off-base. Further research is required to determine if this holds true for a larger sample size.

1352 Board #133 MAY 30 11:00 AM - 12:30 PM

The Metabolic Cost of Walking and Running while Wearing Standard Military Gear or Running Shoes

Shannon R. Isom, Mariel Wenzel, Cory Whitmer, Michele Aquino, Nabil Boutagy, John W. Wygand, Robert M. Otto, FACSM. Adelphi University, Garden City, NY.

(No relationships reported)

Military personnel wear official military issue boots when deployed, however during non-combat base related activity, military personnel are permitted to wear ”go fasters” (running shoes) during their physical training. The military perception of using “go fasters” is based on empirical evidence from training exercises, but the energy cost of using either footwear has not been quantified.

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to measure the energy cost of walking and running in military boots and running shoes under conditions of no load and of simulated combat load (∼29.5kg).

METHODS: 6 current or veteran US Marines volunteered to participate in 8 randomly assigned steady state treadmill trials walking [W] (80.4 m/min 5% grade) and running [R] (160.8 m/min 0% grade), while oxygen consumption was obtained by open circuit spirometry. Data were collected at W and R in trials of unloaded with boots (UB), loaded state with boots (LB), unloaded with running shoes (US), & loaded with running shoes (LS). The loaded trial requires each subject to wear their own military issued boots (∼1.7 kg), a flak jacket without plates (∼4.0 kg), a pack (20.5 kg) and carry a rubber rifle (3.5 kg). During the last minute of each stage, rating of perceived exertion was obtained. A lactate (LA) sample was obtained at 3 minutes post exercise.

RESULTS: The mean energy cost for WUS, WUB, WLS & WLB trials: 17.4, 18.6, 22.8 & 23.9 mLO2/kg-min, HR: 101,114, 132 & 138 bpm, and LA: 2.9, 2.5, 2.4 & 2.3 mmol, respectively. The mean energy cost for RUS, RUB, RLS & RLB trials: 31.9, 32.2, 40.3 & 41.0 mLO2/kg/min, HR: 150, 164, 172 & 181 bpm, and LA: .4, 4.2, 5.7 & 7.5 mmol, respectively. Statistical analysis by ANOVA (p<.05) revealed no significant difference between footwear trials. However, the additional load of 29.7 kg required a significantly greater metabolic and cardiovascular response at both W and R trials.

CONCLUSIONS: The use of running shoes during non-combat physical training elicits a similar metabolic demand as the use of military boots. Therefore, the use of running shoes during physical training may be advantageous if injury potential is reduced.

1353 Board #134 MAY 30 11:00 AM - 12:30 PM

A Physiological Comparison of Three Backpack Frames During Treadmill Walking

Jana E. Hollins1, Kimberly A. Pribanic2, Brian Higginson3, Daniel P. Heil, FACSM1. 1Montana State University, Bozeman, MT. 2Mystery Ranch, LTD, Bozeman, MT. 3Gonzaga University, Spokane, WA.

(No relationships reported)

It is well known how heavy load positioning can influence cardiorespiratory (CR) responses when walking, but few studies have focused on how backpack frame design may impact these same parameters.

PURPOSE: This study compared CR variables for three backpack frames during treadmill walking, all of which are commonly used the U.S. Armed Forces.

METHODS: Backpack-experienced subjects (18 men, 4 women; Mean ± SD: 32±8 yrs, 79.7±7.7 kg) completed 4 successive 15-min walking trials at a fixed treadmill speed (80.5 m/min) and grade (2%). The Control trial (walking without a backpack) was always tested first, while the order of backpack frames tested were counterbalanced. Trials 2-4 corresponded to wearing one of 3 military backpack frames (MOLLE, FILBE, NICE), each of which was loaded with a 26.6 kg bag load. Subjects wore a portable metabolic measurement system for measuring oxygen uptake (VO2) and heart rate (HR), as well as carried a Rubber Ducky rifle in front, the total of which weighed another 4.1 kg (30.7 kg total load). CR variables were summarized at two time points (mins 6 and 13) for each trial, while blood lactate (BL) was measured during min 15. Data were evaluated using multivariate 2-factor RM ANOVA and Sheffe’s post-hoc (α=0.05).

RESULTS: Mean VO2 and HR values for the Control trial (Mean±SE: 13.7±0.4 ml/kg/min; 97±2 BPM) were significantly lower (P<0.05) than those for the MOLLE (16.5±0.3; 128±3), FILBE (16.6±0.4; 128±3), or NICE frames (15.9±0.4; 125±4), while there were no differences between frames. Mean BL for the FILBE trial (1.5±0.1 mmol/L) was significantly higher (P<0.05) than the Control (1.1±0.1) but not from either the MOLLE (1.3±0.1) or NICE (1.3±0.1) frames. The percent differences in VO2 of both FILBE (+4.4%) and MOLLE (+3.8%) frames from the NICE frame were practically significant.

CONCLUSION: The influence of backpack frame designs on CR and BL responses were generally small and non-significant. However, the FILBE frame trial elicited a slightly higher BL than the Control trial, and the difference in walking economy (i.e., VO2) between the NICE frame and the other frames (+3.8-4.4%) was greater than the 2.5% practical significance threshold. This suggests that both practical and statistical significance are most likely observed when these frames are worn for longer rather than shorter walking bouts.

1354 Board #135 MAY 30 11:00 AM - 12:30 PM

The Effects Of Wearing A Weighted Vest On Aerobic Efficiency, Muscular Strength and Body Composition: A Case Study

John W. Wygand, Raymond Peralta, Michele Aquino, Cory Whitmer, Mariel Wenzel, Shannon Isom, Anthony Lucic, Nabil Boutagy, Robert M. Otto, FACSM. Adelphi University, Garden City, NY.

(No relationships reported)

Operation Heavy Heart is a philanthropic effort by US Marine veterans in support of The Wounded Warrior Project. The objectives are to raise awareness and support for injured U.S. service members. Active duty military personnel are subject to unique and prolonged physiological stress. This includes chronic musculoskeletal loading with heavy combat gear for extended periods of time. Loading periods and subsequent unloading may be associated with specific physiological adaptations and may include alterations in body composition, energy expenditure, muscular strength and cardiovascular responses to exercise.

PURPOSE: To evaluate the effects of long term musculoskeletal loading on muscular strength, aerobic efficiency and body composition.

METHODS: Two US Marine veterans (Age 26.5 yr, Ht. 170 cm, Wt 76.5 kg) volunteered to participate in this nine month trial. Aerobic efficiency was measured by open circuit spirometry and heart rate by telemetry during steady state trials at 93.8 m/min and 10% grade. Body composition was measured by DEXA. Pull ups were performed to repetition max. with palms facing at shoulder width to a 3-1-3 cadence. Squats were performed to repetition max, on a Smith machine, with a load of 97.8 kg at a 3-1-3 cadence and a range of motion of 70-180 degrees of knee flexion. Each subject wore a 9.1 kg weighted vest during all daily activities except sleeping. All parameters were measured monthly during the nine months of weighted vest application and one month after they stopped wearing the vests.

RESULTS: .

CONCLUSION: Chronic, long term musculoskeletal loading is associated with improvements in body composition, upperbody strength and cardiovascular efficiency that persist for at least four weeks after the loading period.

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1355 Board #136 MAY 30 11:00 AM - 12:30 PM

Effects of 4-Month Heat Exposure on Body Composition, Physical Performance and Serum Hormone Concentrations

Heikki Kyröläinen1, Matti Santtila2, Harri Lindholm3, Keijo Häkkinen1, Hanna Seikola1, Hannu Rintamäki3. 1University of Jyväskylä, Jyväskylä, Finland. 2Finnish Defence Forces, Helsinki, Finland. 3Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki, Finland. (Sponsor: Paavo V. Komi, FACSM)

(No relationships reported)

Military operations in a hot environment together with body armor and helmet increase dramatically soldiers’ heat strain, which may decrease the operational readiness.

PURPOSE: To investigate changes in body composition, physical performance and serum hormone concentrations of soldiers during a 4-month deployment in physically demanding a high ambient air temperature environment (range from 18.1 to 37.7 °C, in vehicles even 57.0°C).

METHODS: 20 voluntary male soldiers (age 23 ± 1 yrs, height 1.80 ± 0.06 m, body mass 78.4 ± 11.5 kg) participated in the study. Whole body composition was measured by bioimpedance device and the cross-sectional area (CSA) of the thigh by magnetic resonance imaging. Physical performance was measured before and after the mission, which resulted in the energy deficit was 677 ± 1023 kcal/day. Basal serum hormone concentrations were measured before, middle and after of the deployment.

RESULTS: Body mass decreased by 3.5 % (p<0.05) but no changes were observed in fat % and CSA (subcutaneous fat and muscle) of the thigh. The mission did not cause any changes in the 12-min running distance (2785 ± 238 vs. 2749 ± 237 m, p=0.276) but increased MVC of the leg extensors (3042 ± 614 vs. 3277 ± 706 N, p<0.05). No changes were noticed in repeated squats and push-ups, while sit-ups and vertical jump improved (p<0.01-0.001). No significant alterations in basal cortisol (COR) or testosterone (TES) concentrations were observed but sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) concentration was higher (p < 0.05) at 2 (33 ± 10.2 nmol/L) and 4 months (31.2 ±10.3 nmol/L) compared with the initial values (25.5 ± 9.1 nmol/L). Insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) concentration was lower (p < 0.05) at 4 months (29.6 ± 6.5 nmol/L) compared with initial (33.1 ± 5.9 nmol/L) and middle (33.8 ± 5.1 nmol/L) concentrations.

CONCLUSIONS: Despite the heat stress and energy deficit, it seems that soldiers managed to retain their physical performance and basal COR and TES concentrations. Thus, it can be concluded that the overall stress during the mission was not very severe despite a decrease of the biomarker IGF-1. In addition, the type of physical activity, including strength training that soldiers often performed during the deployment might have played an important role in individual sustainability of the operational readiness.

A-35 Free Communication/Poster - Motor Control

MAY 30, 2012 7:30 AM - 12:30 PM

ROOM: Exhibit Hall

1356 Board #137 MAY 30 9:30 AM - 11:00 AM

An Investigation Of Age, Task Complexity, And Gender As Potential Moderators Of Attentional Focus Effects.

Peter J. Smith1, Kevin Becker2. 1Illinois State University, Normal, IL. 2University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN. (Sponsor: Kristen Lagally, FACSM)

(No relationships reported)

A large body of research has suggested that focusing on the effects of a movement (external focus) is more effective than focusing on the movement itself (internal focus) for learning and performing motor skills (for reviews see Wulf, 2007; Wulf and Prinz, 2001). Recent research has suggested that age and task complexity may moderate this attentional focus effect.

PURPOSE: The present study examined the effectiveness of internal and external attentional foci for learning two novel locomotor skills varying in complexity.

METHODS: 48 children (ages 8-10) and 48 adults (ages 19-26) learned to ride a Double Pedalo either with or without stability handles while adopting either an internal or external focus of attention. Participants were instructed to either push their feet (internal focus) or the boards of the Pedalo (external focus) forward to make the Pedalo move. The dependent measure used was time to travel 7 meters.

RESULTS: For the simpler task, no attentional focus effects were elicited during either acquisition or retention. With the complex task, there were no significant attentional focus effects in acquisition, but in retention, an external focus of attention resulted in faster times than an internal focus, but only in males.

CONCLUSIONS: These findings further support the findings of Wulf, Toellner, and Shea (2007), suggesting that a certain degree of instability or error is necessary to elicit external focus benefits. In addition, they corroborate the findings of Wulf, Wächter, & Wortmann (2003) which suggested females and males may be differentially affected by attentional focus instructions.

1357 Board #138 MAY 30 9:30 AM - 11:00 AM

The Development Of General And Soccer-specific Perceptual Motor Skills During Adolescence

Tomi Vanttinen. Research Institute for Olympic Sports, Jyvaskyla, Finland.

(No relationships reported)

Expert-novice comparisons have indicated that perceptual motor skills are sport-specific. That is, the level of expertise is more important than the age itself in sports. However, it is not clear what is the dynamics of development of sport-specific perceptual skills compared to the development of general perceptual motor skills.

PURPOSE: To examine how general and soccer-specific perceptual motor skills develop during adolescence.

METHODS: The subjects of the present study were four age groups (10y, 12y, 14y and 16y) from a club team (n=74). Subject`s simple reaction time was measured with Wayne Membrane Saccadic Fixator and peripheral reaction time with Wayne Peripheral Awareness Trainer. A specific laboratory test was used to measure soccer-specific decision making time and choice reaction time during simultaneous ball handling. Age comparisons were made using one-way ANOVA with Tukey`s post hoc.

RESULTS: All perceptual motor skills improved with age (Table 1) from 10 to 16y but improvement was greater in soccer-specific perceptual skills (decision making time 79.0%, F73=49.315, p<0.001; choice reaction time 27.7%, F73=16.725, p<0.001) than in general perceptual motor skills (simple reaction time 17.6%, F73=6.371,p<0.01; peripheral reaction time 26.1%, F73=6.808, p<0.001).

CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that soccer training provides training stimulus for soccer-specific perceptual skills that is beyond to be expected from the normal development of general perceptual skills. Decision making time was less than simple reaction time which means that the players ability to anticipate, not just react, is a key factor for success in soccer already at a young age.

1358 Board #139 MAY 30 9:30 AM - 11:00 AM

Table 1
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Analysis Of Inter-limb Force Coordination During Isometric Bilateral Grip Control Task

Chueh-Ho Lin, Wen-Hsu Sung, Li-Wei Chou, Shun-Hwa Wei. National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan.

(No relationships reported)

Interhemisphere interaction plays an important role in motor performances, especially during inter-limb force control and coordination during exercise and activity of daily life. Simultaneous bilateral movement training can improve functional performance of the affected limb after CNS lesion. However, the effect of interhemisphere interactions on bilateral force control was still unclear.

PURPOSE: The aim of the preliminary study was to analyze interhemisphere interaction by investigating inter-limb force control and coordination during force-maintenance task.

METHODS: Seven female and seventeen male healthy adults participated in this study (mean age =23.3±3.4y/o). Subjects were asked to hold hand grip force of one hand at a given force level, then gradually decrease hand grip force of that hand while the other hand gradually increase hand grip force so that the sum of the total force from two hands maintained at the given force level. This task was performed at 10, 20 and 40% maximal force levels and was repeated in different order (right to left hand and left to right hand). The force outputs of the participant’s hands were recorded and analyzed. The timing of grip force cross point between two hands during force generating process was used to evaluate the force balance between both hands. Two-way analysis of variance was performed to determine the timing differences in handgrip force control under different conditions.

RESULTS: The results demonstrated that the force modulation timing in right to left hand was longer than in left to right hand condition at 10% (46.2±17.6% vs. 33.1±14.7%, p=.005), 20% (40.4±11.3% vs. 29.8±11.3%, p=.002) and 40% (40.7±13.7% vs. 27.9±14.6%, p=.002) isometric force-maintain tasks. The timing difference of target force-maintain task for both hands at 3 force levels was not significant different (18.9±14.6% vs. 13.1±11.6% vs. 17.6±9.5%, p=.229).

CONCLUSIONS: We concluded that left brain controlling right hand has greater control ability than right brain during bilateral force modulation. This finding could indicate interhemispheric interactions during bilateral limb control, which provide new information with implications for clinicians and therapists an evaluation parameter for inter-limbs coordination. Supported by the Taiwan NSC grant (NSC99-2221-E-010-002).

1359 Board #140 MAY 30 9:30 AM - 11:00 AM

Visuospatial Working Memory in Children with Poor Motor Coordination as Revealed by Event-Related Potential

Ming-Wei Chen1, Chia-Liang Tsai1, Chien-Yu Pan2, Tzu-Chi Chen1, Feng-Ying Chou3. 1National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan. 2National Kaohsiung Normal University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan. 3Chi Mei Medical Center, Tainan, Taiwan.

(No relationships reported)

Children with poor motor coordination have been demonstrated to show an impairment in working memory in visuospatial domains. However, no studies have yet been conducted on the mechanisms of deficits of visuospatial working memory (VSWM) in children with poor motor coordination as revealed by event-related potential (ERP).

PURPOSE: The present study aimed to investigate the mechanisms of motor processing in brain activity underlying behavioral anomalies in children with poor motor coordination, and to compare them with those found in children with normal motor coordination when performing the VSWM task. METHOD: Twenty-five children with poor motor coordination and 25 age- and sex-matched children with normal motor coordination were identified with the Movement Assessment Battery for Children-Second Edition test. Each child simultaneously performed one spatial non-delay and two time-delayed spatial memory tasks (i.e., 3s-dealy and 6s-delay) with concomitant ERP recording. Behavioral and ERP data were statistically analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA.

RESULTS: Children with poor motor coordination had a significantly longer reaction time (879.93±67.13 vs. 829.07±52.43ms in 3s-delay task; 864.84±64.53 vs. 820.81±50.22ms in 6s-delay task; both p<.05) and lower accuracy rates (0.79±0.08 vs. 0.87±0.05 in 3s-delay task; 0.72±0.08 vs. 0.82±0.07 in 6s-delay task; both p<.05) than children with normal motor coordination in the two spatial memory tasks. With respect to the ERP components, children with poor motor coordination, as compared to children with normal motor coordination, showed smaller P3 (13.55±5.93 vs. 19.61±6.44μV in 3s-delay task; 16.54±7.83 vs. 21.05±7.59μV in 6s-delay task; both p<.05) and pSW (i.e., positive slow wave) (14.41±4.56 vs. 20.17±5.47μV in 3s-delay task; 15.40±5.75 vs. 19.38±7.93μV in 6s-delay task; both p<.05) amplitudes during the retrieval-process phase for later remembered items.

CONCLUSION: Children with poor motor coordination showed impairment when performing VSWM task and the mechanisms could allocate less resources and less effort for comparison of spatial locations and response selection.

Key words: motor coordination, visuospatial working memory, event-related potential, neuropsychology

1360 Board #141 MAY 30 9:30 AM - 11:00 AM

Effects of Exercise Intervention on Attention Networks in Children with Poor Motor Coordination: ERP Evidences

Tz-Chi Chen1, Chia-Liang Tsai1, Feng-Ying Chou1, Chien-Yu Pan2, Yu-Ting Tseng1. 1National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan. 2National Kaohsiung Normal University, Tainan, Taiwan.

(No relationships reported)

Children with poor motor coordination (PMC) have been demonstrated to exhibit impaired inhibitory control capacity. However, no studies have been undertaken on the potential effects of exercise intervention on the attention networks of such individuals.

PURPOSE: The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of soccer training on the inhibitory control of children with PMC, focusing on the event-related potential (ERP) components regarding early modality specific inhibition (N2) and late general inhibition (P3).

METHODS: Forty-two children were screened with the Movement Assessment Battery for Children test and categorized into those with normal motor coordination (n=14, control group) and those with PMC (n=28). Children with PMC were then quasi-randomly subdivided into either an exercise-intervention (EI) group (n=14) or a non-exercise-intervention (NEI) group (n=14). Before and after a ten-week training program (50-minute sessions, five times a week), all children performed the visuospatial attention task with centrally non-predictive gaze-directed cues with the lower extremities, while brain ERP were concurrently recorded. Repeated measure analysis of variance was used to analyze the training effect.

RESULTS: Before training, although the N2 component did not have any significant differences among the three groups, children with PMC, when compared to the control group, showed an impaired inhibitory control capacity (NEI: 49.15±37.99, EI: 43.04±23.80, Control: 10.00±17.99ms, p<.05), smaller P3 amplitude (NEI: 11.94±2.64, EI: 12.14±3.12, Control: 15.34±3.21μV, p<.05) and slower P3 latency (NEI: 335.73±30.34, EI: 332.37±36.28, Control: 300.12±26.30ms, p<.05) across conditions of the visuospatial attention orienting task. After training, beneficial effects emerged with regard to the strength of inhibitory control (NEI: 34.12±28.61 vs. EI: 11.62±16.83 and Control: 10.46±10.43ms, p<.05) and the P3 latency (NEI: 323.24±21.45 vs. EI: 292.89±24.43, Control: 299.96±24.43ms, p<.05) in the EI group.

CONCLUSION: The execution and acquisition of compound lower-limb motor skills during extensive soccer training for children with PMC seems to induce reinforced neuronal networks that enable faster cognitive processing.

1361 Board #142 MAY 30 9:30 AM - 11:00 AM

Changes In Mental Simulation Of Goal-directed Movements In Healthy Adults Aged 20- 89

Bouwien C. Smits-Engelsman. KULeuven, Leuven, Belgium.

(No relationships reported)

Mental simulation or imagery is a common mental training technique in sports and is gradually introduced for rehabilitation purposes in patient populations. Imagery research has demonstrated that motor imagery and motor execution share similar neural representations. However little is known about changes in the relation between the duration of actual and mental movements. We have recently shown that motor imagery training from a first person perspective in young healthy adults leads to improvements in performance of the executed movements (Herremans et al, 2011). However little is know about changes in the ability to represent actions during normal aging.

PURPOSE: To examine age-related similarities and differences in duration of mental and actual goal directed upper limb movements using a Fitts paradigm.

METHODS: 3 groups of adults performed the Radial Fitts Task with 5 Indexes of Difficulty (2.91-6.91) on a digitizer [young (20-29; n=39), senior (50-65; n=23) and elderly individuals (70-89 n=29); 97% right handed and 69% female].

RESULTS: Overall, the elderly group was significantly slower on the mental and executed tasks (F(1,2) 9,36, p<0.001, means 8.1, 7.5 and 12,7 seconds, respectively). However, no interaction with task condition (mental and executed) emerged, indicating that the mental and actual tasks slowed down comparably. In the second analysis the goodness of fit for the Index of Difficulty was determined. Here a highly significant group effect was found for the goodness of fit, testing for the adherence to Fitts’ Law, (F(1,2) 15,92, p<0.001; mean R2 was 0.70, 0.65 and 0.43, respectively). Elderly adapted their movement time less to the task difficulty. Again no interaction with task (mental and executed) was found.

CONCLUSIONS: The oldest group had a clear idea of their movement durations: they knew they were slow. However when they imagined to move they were also very slow, leading to good correlations between motor imagery and motor execution duration. Therefore we conclude that the ability to mentally represent goal directed actions is still intact.

References: Heremans E, Smits-Engelsman B, Caeyenberghs K, Vercruysse S, Nieuwboer A, Feys P, Helsen WF. Keeping an eye on imagery: the role of eye movements during motor imagery training. Neuroscience. 2011 Nov 10;195:37-44.

1362 Board #143 MAY 30 9:30 AM - 11:00 AM

Ankle Movement Discrimination Is Correlated with Sports Performance Levels

Jia Han1, Gordon Waddington2, Judith Anson2, Roger Adams3. 1University of Canberra; Shanghai University of Sport, ACT, Australia. 2University of Canberra, ACT, Australia. 3University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia.

(No relationships reported)

Numerous studies have tried to find evidence to suggest athletes specialized in particular sports have better ankle proprioceptive ability than athletes in other sports or non-athletes. However, the results in the literature are inconsistent. Although different testing methods and the diversity of testing range and planes of movement may account for this variability, other possible confounding variables such as years of training and sports performance levels have not been systematically investigated.

PURPOSE: To determine the relationship between ankle movement discrimination ability and years of training and sports performance levels.

METHODS: One hundred and twenty right handed, healthy young Chinese athletes (handedness was determined by the Edinburgh Handedness Test), without significant injuries during the past 6 months, mean 20.5 years, (range 18-25) and mean 8.2 years of current professional training, (range 2-15) across 6 sports (aerobic gymnastics (12F, 8 M), hand ball (9F, 11M), swimming (10F, 10M), soccer (7F, 13M), sports dancing (13F, 7M), badminton (8F, 12M)) were tested with a purpose-built ankle Active Movement Extent Discrimination Apparatus (AMEDA). Sports performance levels were determined by the athletes’ best record within the past year (level 3: national top 6 and above; level 2: national top 16; and level 1: national top 32 or regional top 3; mean level 1.7, range 1-3). Participants were tested in standing position with bare feet and undertook 50 trials (10 for each of 5 different inversion displacements) presented at random to the right ankle. Pearson correlations, with statistical significance at p<0.05, were calculated to estimate the relationship between movement discrimination scores and years of training and sports performance levels.

RESULTS: Enhanced ankle movement discrimination was positively correlated with higher levels of sports performance (p<0.001), but not with years of training (p>0.05).

CONCLUSION: These results are consistent with Ericsson’s (2006) hypothesis about deliberate practice underpinning high level sport performance. Given that higher level athletes have better ankle movement discrimination ability, ankle proprioception could possibly be considered as one of the measures used in sports talent identification testing.

1363 Board #144 MAY 30 9:30 AM - 11:00 AM

“Return To Driving”; Examining Driving Performance After Concussion

Maria T. Schultheis1, Preeti Sunderaraman1, Bradley J. Sandella2, Taylor Blake1, Jocelyn Ang1, Nazaneen Zahedi1, Danielle Martin1, Joy Ricasa2, Eugene S. Hong2. 1Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA. 2Drexel University College of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA.

(No relationships reported)

Management of concussions is commonly focused on “return to play” decision for athletes; however concussion may impact other activities, such as the ability to drive an automobile. Findings from other neurologically compromised populations have shown that deficits in information processing speed, working memory and executive functioning are related to changes in driving performance. Concussion research has implicated deficits in these same domains, yet little to no research has been done to examine the relationship between driving and concussion.

PURPOSE The current study compares driving performance (using a virtual reality driving simulator; VRDS) between individuals recently concussed (RC) and an age and gender-matched healthy control (HC) group.

METHODS Participants were recruited from consecutive referrals from 2 universities. Concussion was diagnosed by treating sports physician using the Zurich Concussion Consensus guidelines. Participants were seen for a 2.5 hr. testing session within the first 72 hours post-concussion. Testing included VRDS administration and a series of cognitive measures. The current findings are a part of a larger ongoing study. Sixteen individuals (11m, 5f; M=20 yrs old) were included. All participants were licensed, active drivers with greater than 2 years driving experience.

OUTCOME MEASURES The VRDS generates a variety of driving performance measures. For the current analysis, 2 driving variables; 1) center lane deviation and 2) mean speed were examined across 3 environments; 1) straight lane segment, 2) curve lane segments and 3) a complex driving task of following a truck. RESULTS Paired sample T-tests were used to compare group differences. In the straight driving task, the RC group spent more time outside their designated lane compared to HC (p = 0.005). In the curved driving task, the RC group drove significantly slower than the HC group (p = 0.02). During driving while following a truck, speed was significantly reduced for the RC group (p = 0.001). Exploratory correlational analysis between cognitive and VRDS measures revealed some significant relationships.

CONCLUSIONS These preliminary findings suggest that changes in driving behaviors may exist at 72 hours post-concussions and this may be related to cognitive performance. Supported by NIH Grant # 1R03HD064847

1364 Board #145 MAY 30 9:30 AM - 11:00 AM

Changes in Target Displacement and the Effects on Quiet Eye Duration

Michelle S. Okumura1, Robert R. Horn2, Michele M. Fisher2, Melissa G.F. Alexander2, Curtis T. Sylvester2. 1University of Georgia, Athens, GA. 2Montclair State University, Montclair, NJ.

(No relationships reported)

The role of gaze in aiming tasks (e.g., throwing a ball or shooting a gun) is an important characteristic of human performance, including certain aspects of sport and military performance. In aiming tasks, the final fixation of the eye before the initiation of a movement is called the quiet eye (QE) period. The location-suppression hypothesis proposes that the QE period is used to program the movement parameters (e.g., force, velocity, angle of release) during execution of an aiming task.

PURPOSE: To examine QE duration in response to directional and displacement-based changes in target location using a sky dart aiming task.

METHODS: 11 male participants (22.91±3.39 yrs) completed two sets of 46 throws to targets located on a grid on the floor. Each throw resulted in changes in target displacement in terms of direction (X-, Y-, or Z-axis) and distance (1-, 2-, or 3-increment changes on the grid). Changes in target displacement required the participant to scale the movement parameters on successive trials. The duration of the QE period was assessed on each trial using the vision-in-action approach.

RESULTS: A two-way ANOVA with repeated measures revealed a main effect for both direction, F(1.30, 13.05) = 204.85, p≤.001, and displacement, F(1.16,11.61) = 21.20, p≤.001. An interaction effect was also observed between target direction and target distance. For Y-axis changes, 3-increment changes resulted in longer QE duration (+0.039 s) than 1-increment changes. For Z-axis changes, 3-increment changes resulted in longer QE duration than both 1- and 2-increment changes (+0.144 s; +0.041 s), and 2-increment changes resulted in longer QE duration than 1-increment changes (+0.073 s).

CONCLUSION: Larger target displacements result in longer QE duration compared to smaller target displacements. Therefore, when throws require greater reprogramming of movement parameters, the QE period will be longer.

1365 Board #146 MAY 30 9:30 AM - 11:00 AM

Gross Motor Skills of Children and Adolescents with Mental Health Problems: a Pilot Study

Alain S. Comtois1, Claudia Verret1, Tommy Chevrette2, Jean P. Boucher, FACSM1, Jordan Lefebvre1, Émilia Kalinova1, Mario Leone2. 1University of Quebec in Montreal, Montreal, QC, Canada. 2University of Quebec in Chicoutimi, Chicoutimi, QC, Canada.

(No relationships reported)

PURPOSE: There is a growing body of literature providing evidence on the gross motor (GM) deficit of children having internalised or externalised mental health problems. Despite this, motor troubles are rarely reported in the primary diagnosis, and the impact of motor difficulties are not well documented. Thus, the goal was to evaluate the GM skills of children and adolescents having a mental health problem.

METHODS: Twenty-four boys and girls were divided into children and adolescents (n=11, n=5, n=6 and n=2, respectively). All participants had a primary diagnosis of mental health problem using DSM-IV and were referred into the study by a paediatrician. GM performance was evaluated with the UQAC-UQAM GM skills test battery comprising 12 items that assesses 5 GM qualities: Upper and Lower limb speed; Agility; Static and Dynamic Balance; Simple Reaction Time; and Coordination. Results were compared to percentile ratings gathered from 1494 boys and 1551 girls across 5 regions in Quebec all ranging in age 6.0 to 12.9 years.

RESULTS: The mean age of the children and adolescents, boys and girls, was 10.6±1.0 and 9.2±2.6, and 13.3±0.5 and 14.0±1.4 years, respectively. The children boys and girls were compared to their respective age groups (11.0 to 11.9 and 9.0 to 9.9 years, respectively), while both adolescent groups were compared to their gender respective 12.0 to 12.9 year age group. The children and adolescent boys and girls for weight, height and BMI scored in the 50th to 80th percentile. The upper and lower limb speed revealed that all boys and girls scored below the 20th percentile. The agility test percentile scores for children boys and adolescent girls was all within median range (40th to 70th percentile) while for the adolescent boys and children girls the range was within the 10 to 40th percentile. Static and dynamic balance indicated that all participants scored in the 10th to 30th percentile range. All participants scored in the 20th to 50th percentile range for the simple reaction time test, while for coordination the range was in the 10th to 50th percentile.

CONCLUSIONS: In this limited number of participants GM skills were all within the median range or lower (10th percentile) suggesting that mental health problems may lead to impaired GM skills development.

1366 Board #147 MAY 30 9:30 AM - 11:00 AM

Video Feedback on Advanced Wheelchair Skills Training for Individuals with Spinal Cord Injury

Xiang Ke1, Li-Shan Chang1, Michelle Nemeth2, Abhinanadan Batra1, Weerawat Limroongreungrat3, Yong Tai Wang, FACSM1. 1Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA. 2Shepherd Center, Atlanta, GA. 3Mahido University, Salaya, Thailand.

(No relationships reported)

PURPOSE: This study was to investigate the effectiveness of the implementation of immediate video feedback on advanced manual wheelchair skills training for individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI)

METHODS: Twenty-one manual wheelchair users with SCI level between T1 and L1 were recruited. Participants signed informed consent forms were matched (9 pairs) on gender and motor function level and randomized to the control group (using conventional training) or experimental group (using immediate video feedback training). Twelve participants were in the control group (33.22±11.33 yrs) and 9 in the experimental group (34.50±12.69 yrs). Each participant was expected to learn three advanced wheelchair skills (wheelie, ramping, and curbing) through four sessions: training session, competence test, retention test, and transfer test. The paired t-test was employed to determine the differences of learning and performing time (minutes), spotter intervention (times), occurrence of tip (times) and successful rate of performance between the two groups. A mixed-model ANOVA and Bonferroni pos hoc test were used to compare mean differences between the two groups on three wheelchair skills and four sessions

RESULTS: In the pair t-test, out of the 51 comparisons, only three comparisons were significantly different between the two groups. The experimental group had a significantly less performing time in wheelie competence test (1.33±.17 minutes vs. 2.05±.76 minutes, p<.05), a significantly more spotter intervention in curbing transfer test (6.15±1.3 times vs. 4.35±1.7 times, p<.05), and a significantly lower successful rate in curbing transfer test (33.5% vs. 81.5%, p<.05). In the mixed-model ANOVA analysis, no significant differences on ramping and wheelie skills across the four sessions were found between the two groups, except a significantly higher successful rate on the curbing in the control group than experimental group (81.4% vs. 56.7%, p<.05).

CONCLUSIONS: This study didn’t demonstrate the superiority of video feedback to conventional training for advanced manual wheelchair skills training for individuals with SCI. However, the immediate video feedback might be used to assist the conventional training for advanced wheelchair skills.

Supported by NIDRR Center Grant #: H133E080003

A-36 Free Communication/Poster - Nutritional Supplementation: Alternative Nutrients and Physiological Outcomes

MAY 30, 2012 7:30 AM - 12:30 PM

ROOM: Exhibit Hall

1367 Board #148 MAY 30 11:00 AM - 12:30 PM

Effects of Three Weeks of Carnitine Supplementation and High-intensity Interval Training on Endurance Performance

Kuei-Hui Chan, Shao-Zeng Hu, Kang-Hao Lu, Chun-Yi Shih. National Taiwan Sport University, Taoyuan, Taiwan.

(No relationships reported)

Carnitine has been presented to have the benefits on anti-oxidative and endurance capacity. High-intensity interval training (HIT) was demonstrated to increase the endurance capacity and oxidative stress.

PURPOSE: To investigate the effects of three weeks of carnitine supplementation and HIT combination on aerobic capacity and oxidative stress.

METHODS: Ten untrained healthy males were recruited and randomly assigned into carnitine group (25.0+4.4 yr, 80.3+8.5 kg, 170.2+4.3 kg) or placebo group (22.4+3.3 yr, 69.1+11.2 kg, 172.2+6.3 kg). Subjects received carnitine or placebo supplementation 2 g per day for 3 weeks. All subjects also performed the HIT three per week. The HIT protocol contains 10 bouts of cycling trail at 90%VO2max, with each bout lasting 2 min and separated by 1 min of rest. The increment running tests and high-intensity interval exercise tests were conducted before and after supplementation. The VO2max and time to fatigue were measured by the increment running test. Blood samples were drawn before test, immediately after test, 1 h and 3 h after test of high-intensity interval exercise test to determine the activities or concentrations of creatine kinase (CK) and uric acid.

RESULTS: After 3 week of supplementation, VO2max (43.0+2.4 vs. 37.6+5.0 mL/min/kg) and time to fatigue (1563.0+221.0 vs. 1496.0+207.6 sec) significantly increased (p<0.05) in carnitine group. However, there were no differences in placebo group. In carnitine group, the values of blood CK and uric acid in high-intensity interval exercise test before supplementation still elevated at 3 h after test (170.0+44.6 vs. 160.8+32.8 U/L for CK and 8.88+2.16 vs. 7.88+2.0 mg/dL for uric acid, p<0.05). But the values returned to baseline after 3 weeks of supplementation (184.8+48.7 vs. 174.6+43.5 U/L for CK and 7.82+1.98 vs. 7.74+1.95 mg/dL for uric acid).

CONCLUSION: Carnitine supplementation during HIT is benefit to aerobic capacity and recovery of high-intensity interval exercise.

Supported by NTSU Grant 99D014.

1368 Board #149 MAY 30 11:00 AM - 12:30 PM

Effects Of Chronic Green Tea Extract Supplementation On Substrate Utilization And Time-trial Performance

Brian J. Martin, J. Albert Bartolini, Taylor S. Thurston, Nicholas W. Aguirre, Benjamin M. Kamel, Jared W. Coburn, FACSM, Lee E. Brown, FACSM, Daniela A. Rubin, Daniel A. Judelson, FACSM. California State University, Fullerton, Fullerton, CA.

(No relationships reported)

Supplementation with green tea extract (GTE) has been shown to increase fat oxidation at rest and during moderate intensity exercise. Despite its potential ergogenic utility, little work examines if or how GTE supplementation influences metabolic function and performance during time-trial exercise in humans.

PURPOSE: To examine the effects of chronic GTE supplementation on markers of substrate oxidation and physiological stress during 1 h constant load submaximal exercise and performance during a subsequent 10 km time-trial.

METHODS: Nine male participants with previous 10 km or half-marathon race experience volunteered (age = 27 ± 5 y, height = 174.8 ± 7.2 cm, mass = 71.6 ± 6.1 kg, body fat = 10.3 ± 2.7%, and VO2max = 64.2 ± 6.0 ml·kg-1·min-1). In a double-blind crossover design, subjects supplemented with GTE (725 mg) or placebo for 14 days then performed 1 h of treadmill running at 50% VO2max immediately followed by a 10 km time-trial. Investigators collected 1) expired gasses during the constant load exercise only, and 2) heart rate (HR) and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) throughout both bouts. A 14 day washout separated supplementation periods.

RESULTS: No significant differences existed between trials in VO2 or respiratory exchange ratio during constant load exercise. GTE supplementation also failed to affect HR and RPE during either constant load exercise or time-trial. Time-trial performance was similar between trials (placebo = 47.9 ± 6.7 min, GTE = 46.6 ± 5.8 min).

CONCLUSIONS: Supplementation with GTE did not affect metabolic, physiological or perceptual variables during moderate intensity exercise. Additionally, no differences were observed in performance during a 10 km time-trial. These data suggest chronic GTE supplementation does not alter substrate utilization or increase endurance exercise performance in trained individuals.

1369 Board #150 MAY 30 11:00 AM - 12:30 PM

Green Tea Consumption And Risk Of Prostate Cancer: Meta-analysis Of Epidemiologic Studies

Byungsung Kim, Seunghyun Lee. Kyunghee University, Seoul, Korea, Republic of.

(No relationships reported)

Purpose Worldwide, prostate cancer has the second highest incidence of all male cancers. Prostate cancer incidence and mortality varies widely between geographic regions, with overall rates in USA being nearly six-times higher than that of Asian countries. This variation suggests that prostate cancer may be linked to lifestyle-related factors, particularly dietary factors. Several epidemiologic studies have focused on the lower incidence of prostate cancer in Asian countries where green tea consumption is high. We undertook a meta-analysis to verify the relation between green tea consumption and prostate cancer.

Methods We performed meta-analysis with the search of MEDLINE (PubMed), EMBASE and Cochrane Library, using the keywords “green tea” or “polyphenols” or “catechins” for the exposure factors, and “prostate cancer” for the outcome factors. Studies included in this review are prospective cohort and case-control studies published between 1966 and July 2010. The search was limited to English language.

Results A total of 20 articles were identified for this review. Only 6 studies met the inclusion criteria. When using all the case-control and cohort studies, the pooled RR of prostate cancer for the highest vs lowest category of green tea consumption was 0.82 (95% CI, 0.75-1.07). In case-control studies, green tea drinking habit showed preventive effect on prostate cancer with the odds ratio of 0.40 (95% CI, 0.17-0.92). When cohort studies were pooled, no significant association was seen between green tea consumption and prostate cancer. (RR, 1.08 CI, 0.89-1.32)

Conclusion Green tea consumption was not associated with the risk of prostate cancer in this meta-analysis. Further cohort studies are needed.

1370 Board #151 Abstract Withdrawn

1371 Board #152 MAY 30 11:00 AM - 12:30 PM

American Ginseng And Swimming Combined Effect On Glucose Tolerance In Fructose-Fed Rats

HUNG-MIN TSENG1, Chung-hsiang Yang1, Kuei-yu Chien2, Mei-chich Hsu2. 1National Taipei University of Education, Taipei, Taiwan. 2National Taiwan Sport University, Taoyuan, Taiwan. (Sponsor: Chia-Hua Kuo, FACSM)

(No relationships reported)

PURPOSE: The purpose of the present study was to investigate the combined effect of American ginseng and swimming on regulation of blood glucose homeostasis in fructose-fed insulin resistance rats.

METHODS: Seventy Wistar male rats were divided into ten groups. First group served as control, and remaining nine groups treated with 21% fructose water for 8 weeks to induce insulin resistance and hyperglycemia. After 8 weeks, oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was performed to confirm the insulin resistance (IR). Then, we treated rats with different doses of American ginseng and combined with swimming exercise for 28 days (low-dose, low-dose and exercise, medium-dose, medium-dose and exercise, high-dose, high-dose and exercise, placebo, placebo and exercise, metformin). Second time OGTT was performed to know American ginseng and swimming effects.

RESULTS: In our study, we found that fasting blood glucose was significantly increased in fructose-fed groups. After 8 weeks, the insulin resistance was markedly increased in fructose groups compare to control group (p<.05). Calculated glucose area under curve (GAUC) was significantly decreased in both high-dose of ginseng and medium-dose of ginseng combined with exercise compared to placebo group. The HOMA (homeostasis model assessment of IR), an indicator of insulin sensitivity, was significantly increased in placebo, low-dose and medium-dose groups (p<.05) compared to control group. This elevation was attenuated by exercise in placebo and low-dose groups. High-dose intake of ginseng also decreased the HOMA compare to placebo (p<.05) group.

CONCLUSIONS: Our study concludes that high-dose of American ginseng can control the blood glucose levels in hyperglycemia rats. Furthermore, medium-dose of American ginseng combined with swimming exercise also able control the blood glucose in hyperglycemia rats.

1372 Board #153 MAY 30 11:00 AM - 12:30 PM

Panax ginseng Extracts Suppress Hepatic Oxidative Damage in Exhaustive Exercised Rats

Ming-Fen Hsu1, Hsin-Yi Hsu2, Szu-Hsien Yu1, Mallikarjuna Korivi1. 1Taipei Physical Education College, Taipei, Taiwan. 2Aletheia University, Taipei, Taiwan. (Sponsor: Chia-Hua Kuo, FACSM)

(No relationships reported)

PURPOSE: Chinese herbal medicine is most popular in the world, and ginseng is widely used herb in that traditional medicine. Previous studies showed divergent results from ginseng extracts. This study was aimed to examine the effects of purified ginseng extract on oxidative damage in liver of rats.

METHODS: In the present study, 80 male Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were equally divided into four groups, including placebo (0.9 % saline), DS-20 (Dammarane oligo-saponins 20 mg/kg), DS-60 (60 mg/kg) and DS-120 (120 mg/kg bodyweight) groups. DS was orally administered for a period of 10 weeks. After completion of the last treatment half number of rats (n=10) from each group performed exhaustive swimming exercise.

RESULTS:A significant (p<0.05) decrease in hepatic glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity after exhaustive exercise in placebo group was ameliorated in DS pretreated rats. Glutathione S-transferase (GST) and glutathione reductase (GR) activities were not significantly altered after exhaustive exercise in placebo. Interestingly, DS pretreatment for 10 weeks significantly increased GST activity. The activity of free radical sourse enzyme, xanthine oxidase (XO) was significantly elevated after exhaustive swimming and abolished in DS pretreated rats. In addition, the lipid peroxidation marker, thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) was dramaticly raised after exhaustive performance in placebo group and attenuated in DS pre-treated group.

CONCLUSIONS: Administration of Panax ginseng extract, Dammarane oligo-saponins can protect liver from oxidative damage by suppressing free radical production and increasing antioxidant status after exhaustive exercise.

1373 Board #154 MAY 30 11:00 AM - 12:30 PM

Dose Dependant Studies of Panagin DS-1227 on Free Radical Scavenging System in the Liver of Exhaustive Exercise Rats

Mallikarjuna Korivi1, Hsin-Yi Hsu2, Ming-Fen Hsu1, Szu-Hsien Yu1, Feng-Chih Hsu3, Chih-Yang Huang4. 1Taipei Physical Education College, Taipei, Taiwan. 2Aletheia Universtity, Taipei, Taiwan. 3National Taoyuan Agricultural & Industrial Vocational High School, Taoyuan, Taiwan. 4China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan. (Sponsor: Kuo Chia-Hua, FACSM)

(No relationships reported)

PURPOSE: Ginseng extracts are able to cope against oxidative stress condition; however it is limited to emphasize the therapeutic application of specific compounds with specific dose. This study was designed to explore the therapeutic properties of Panagin DS-1227 (HPLC-grade extract of ginseng stem and leaves), against exhaustive exercise-induced oxidative stress in rats.

METHODS: Rats (n=120) were evenly divided into four groups such as, control, P-20, P-60 and P-120. Panagin DS-1227 (P) extracts were orally administered to respective groups at 20 (low), 60 (medium) and 120 (high) mg/kg bodyweight for 10-week. Half number of rats from each group performed exhaustive exercise in a swimming pool and sacrificed along with their unexercised rats immediately after exercise.

RESULTS: Exhaustive exercise-induced drastic (P<0.001) drop in liver glutathione (GSH) content was significantly restored in P-20 and P-60 groups, while unable to restore in DS-120 group. Oxidative damage to proteins was evidenced by increased protein carbonyl (PC) levels in control exercised rats. Interestingly, low dose was marginally, and medium dose was completely decreased the PC levels, whereas, no change with high dose of Panagin. In addition, high dose significantly increased the PC levels at resting condition. Nitric oxide (NO) levels were increased in control group after exhaustive exercise, nevertheless, no change with all doses of Panagin. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities were significantly decreased as a result of exercise in control group, and also with high dose of Panagin treatment at resting condition. In contrast, glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity was increased with all doses of Panagin.

CONCLUSIONS: Our findings elucidate that purified ginseng extract, Panagin DS-1227 attenuates the oxidative damage in liver of exhaustive exercised rats. Interestingly, low and medium doses of Panagin showed better results than the high dose.

1374 Board #155 MAY 30 11:00 AM - 12:30 PM

Effect of Dammarane Oligo-Saponins on Selected Biochemical Parameters in Blood of Rats after Exhaustive Exercise

Yi-Ting Lin1, Szu-Hsien Yu1, Ming-Fen Hsu1, Feng-Chih Hsu2, Mallikarjuna Korivi1. 1Taipei Physical Education College, Taipei, Taiwan. 2National Taoyuan Agricultural & Industrial Vocational High School, Taoyuan, Taiwan. (Sponsor: Chia-Hua Kuo, FACSM)

(No relationships reported)

PURPOSE: Therapeutic applications of ginseng extracts are controversial due to inconsistency in ginsenoside profile. In this study we investigated the beneficial effects of Dammarane Oligo-Saponins (DS) and their dose response on selected biochemical parameters in the blood of exhaustive exercised rats.

METHODS: Total sixty Sprague Dawley rats were evenly divided into four groups, including control, DS-20, DS-60 and DS-120. DS extract was orally administered to respective groups at the dose of 20, 60, 120 mg/kg bodyweight for a period of 8-week. All the rats were performed exhaustive swimming exercise after the last treatment. Blood samples were collected from the tail vein before exercise, immediately, 1-h and 3-h after exercise.

RESULTS: Recorded average swimming duration seems higher in DS treated groups, but statistically not reached the significant level. Baseline blood glucose, lactate, glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminases (GOT), blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatine kinase (CK) were not significantly different among groups. Blood glucose levels were significantly (P<0.05) higher in DS-60 and DS-120 groups compared to control group immediately after exercise, and 1-h after exercise. Contrary to other doses, high dose (DS-120) group showed significantly lower GOT levels 1-h after exercise. BUN levels were significantly lower 3-h after exercise in DS-60 group compared to control group at same time point. Interesting finding of the present study is that increased CK levels after exercise were decreased in all DS treated groups 3-h after exercise compared to control group.

CONCLUSIONS: The data of the present study concludes that purified ginseng extracts, Dammarane Oligo-Saponins possesses beneficial effects against exhaustive exercise challenge. Further detailed investigations are under progress to suggest the DS as nutraceutical substance.

1375 Board #156 MAY 30 11:00 AM - 12:30 PM

Coffee Reduces Liver Damage through Increased SOD Activity in Liver of NASH Rats

Yi-Tse Wang1, Che-Chang Chan2, Shan-Ken Hung1, Shiow-Chwen Tsai1. 1Taipei Physical Education College, Taipei, Taiwan. 2Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Internal Medicine, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Shih-Pai, Taipei 11217, Taiwan, R.O.C., Taipei, Taiwan. (Sponsor: Chia-Hua Kuo, FACSM)

(No relationships reported)

PURPOSE: Non-alcoholic fatty liver diseases (NAFLD) are wide spectrum diseases ranging from simple steatosis, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) to liver cirrhosis, and induce hepatocellular carcinoma. Coffee has been reported to reduce the risk of advanced liver disease and its complications as well as hepatocellular carcinoma.To investigate whether coffee improved MCD diet induced steatosis and oxidative stress in liver.

METHODS: In this study, 8-week-old male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into 5 groups: control (fed normal diet, W0), methionine-choline-deficient (MCD) diet fed for 9 weeks or 14 weeks combined fed with water (W9, W14) or fed with coffee (W9+Co, W14+Co). Coffee (corresponding to approximately 6 cups of espresso coffee or 2 cups of filtered coffee for a person weighing 70 kg) wase fed daily for 4 weeks to the rats who were being fed a MCD diet for the previous 5 or 10 weeks. The blood were collected and analyzed for AST. The liver tissues were collected, extracted and assayed for the production of glutathione (GSH) and lipid peroxidation and the activities of antioxidant enzymes by using commercial kits. The hematoxylin-eosin staining was used to determine the degree of lobular inflammation and fibrosis in liver. The degree of fibrosis and inflammation were evaluated by METAVIR score. The statistical analysis was done using the one-way ANOVA for independent samples, with significance level of 5%.

RESULTS: Rat fed with the MCD diet showed a rapid induction of AST and hepatic steatosis, loss of body weight and liver weight, but increased the ratio of liver and body weight. Coffee significantly decreased steatosis of W9 (p<0.05) and fibrosis of W14 (p<0.05). The production of lipid peroxidation in liver increased significantly in W14 (24.0±6.9 vs 0.40±0.05 nmole/min/μg protein, p<0.05) but not in W14+Co compared with W0 group. The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) in W14 and W14 +Co were increased compared with W0. Feeding with MCD diet for 14 weeks significantly decreased the activities of catalase (p<0.01), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) (p<0.05), and glutathione reductase (GR) (p<0.05). Administration of coffee did not alter MCD diet abolished activities of antioxidant enzymes.

CONCLUSIONS: Administration of coffee improves NAFLD through increased activity of SOD in liver.

1376 Board #157 MAY 30 11:00 AM - 12:30 PM

Baker’S Yeast Beta Glucan Supplementation Reduces The Number Of Cold/Flu Symptomatic Days After Completing A Marathon

James A. Navalta1, Katie C. Carpenter2, Whitney L. Breslin2, Tiffany Davidson2, Brian K. McFarlin, FACSM2. 1Western Kentucky University, Bowling Green, KY. 2University of Houston, Houston, TX. (Sponsor: Brian K McFarlin, FACSM)

(No relationships reported)

PURPOSE: Marathon running places a profound stress on one’s body. Such stress manifests itself in the form of muscle soreness, fatigue, and a weakened immune system. It is common for marathon runners to develop an upper respiratory tract infection in the days and weeks following completion of a marathon. The present study sought to examine a commercially available form of Baker’s yeast β-glucan (BG); this form of BG has been previously demonstrated to boost immune system function in marathon runners and in laboratory studies where subjects completed a defined exercise stimulus.

METHODS: We recruited 324 subjects who were completing in the 2011 Austin Livestrong Marathon (Austin, TX). Upon enrolling in the study, subjects completed a demographics question designed to provide information about their exercise training patterns and health status. Subjects were also provided either a BG (250 mg/d) or placebo (sugar pill, PL) supplement. Double-blind administration of the supplement was used to reduce bias. Subjects were also given 2 packets of surveys that were returned at 2 and 4 weeks post marathon. Of the 324 enrolled, only 182 subjects completed and returned both sets of surveys. The set of surveys included were the Profile of Mood States (POMS), the Wisconsin Upper Respiratory Tract Symptom Survey (WURSS), and a daily health/exercise log. Survey data was entered into a database using a custom scanning solution. Data were analyzed for significance using separate repeated measures ANOVAs with a P<0.05.

RESULTS: BG supplementation significantly reduced both the number of days that subjects reported both general health problems as well as cold/flu symptoms. We did not find any significant differences in either POMS or WURSS scores between groups.

CONCLUSIONS: The key finding of the present study was that BG supplementation post-marathon reduced the number of symptomatic days experienced by a subject. Based on previous studies from our lab and others, it is reasonable to speculate that the improvements associated with BG were likely due to alterations in monocytes, plasma cytokines, and improved mucosal immunity. This study was funded by Biothera, The Immune Health Company.

1377 Board #158 MAY 30 11:00 AM - 12:30 PM

Supplementation With Baker’S Yeast Beta Glucan Improves Mucosal Immunoglobulin Profile After Exercise In A Hot, Humid Environment

Brian K. McFarlin, FACSM, Whitney L. Breslin, Katie C. Carpenter, Tiffany Davidson, Amy Adams. University of Houston, Houston, TX.

(No relationships reported)

PURPOSE: Strenuous exercise is known to suppress mucosal immunity for up to 24-h, which can increase the risk of developing an upper respiratory tract infection. While many dietary interventions have been used to combat post-exercise immune suppression, most have been ineffective. Recent evidence has suggested that a commercially-available form of baker’s yeast β-glucan may be useful as an immune-booster. The purpose of this study was to determine if 10-d of supplementation with baker’s yeast β-glucan (BG) prior to a bout of exercise in a hot (37±2°C), humid (45±5% relative humidity) environment improves mucosal immunity during recovery from exercise in recreationally active subjects (29 men, 31 women, 22±4 y).

METHODS: Subjects completed 49±6 min of cycling after consuming either BG (250 mg/d) or a placebo (sugar pill, PL) for 10-d prior to each exercise session. The investigators were blinded to the supplement conditions until all data was collected and analyzed. Saliva was collected using a salivette placed under the tongue at baseline (BASE), before exercise (PRE), immediately after (POST), and two-hours after (2H) exercise. The salivette was kept in the mouth for 10-min and then transferred to a specially designed freezer tube and frozen (-80°C) until analysis for salivary IgA, IgM, IgG1, and IgG2 using a multiplex kit (MagPix). Data were analyzed using separate repeated measures ANOVAs and significance was set at P<0.05.

RESULTS: BG supplementation was associated with an increase in salivary IgA (P=0.048) and a decrease in salivary IgM (P=0.029) at 2H compared to placebo. In the placebo condition, there was a progressive decline in IgA and an increase in IgM, with the most pronounced changes occurring at 2H. Also, in the BG condition, IgA was increased and IgM was decreased at 2H compared to PRE and the placebo 2H samples. We did not find any significant differences for either salivary IgG1 or IgG2.

CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that supplementation with baker’s yeast β-glucan may improve mucosal immunity following a strenuous bout of exercise. While previous research is not conclusive, a boost to mucosal immunity may reduce susceptibility to upper respiratory tract infection. This study was funded by Biothera, The Immune Health Company.

1378 Board #159 MAY 30 11:00 AM - 12:30 PM

Baker’S Yeast β-glucan Supplementation Improves Monocyte And Cytokine Responses Following Exercise In A Hot, Humid Environment

Katie C. Carpenter, Whitney L. Breslin, Tiffany Davidson, Amy Adams, Brian K. McFarlin, FACSM. University of Houston, Houston, TX. (Sponsor: Brian K McFarlin, FACSM)

(No relationships reported)

PURPOSE: Strenuous exercise is known to suppress the immune system, which can increase the chances of getting sick in the hours after exercise. The purpose of this study was to determine if 10-d of supplementation with yeast β-glucan alters monocyte concentration, LPS-stimulated cytokine production, and plasma cytokine concentration in recreationally active subjects.

METHODS: Recreationally active subjects (29 men, 31 women, 22±4 y) completed 49±6 min of cycling (37±2°C, 45±5% relative humidity) after consuming either yeast β-glucan (250 mg/d, BG) or a placebo (sugar pill, PL) for 10-days prior to each exercise session. The investigators were blinded to the supplement conditions until all data was collected and analyzed. Venous blood was collected at baseline (prior to supplement), pre-, post-, and 2-hours (2H) post exercise. Total and subset monocyte concentration was measured by flow cytometry. LPS-stimulated production of 12 cytokines was measured using a whole blood assay. Plasma concentration of 13 cytokines was measured using a high-sensitivity MagPix assay.

RESULTS: Monocyte (CD14+) concentration was significantly greater at 2H (P=0.05) with BG. Also, compared to PL, BG boosted LPS-stimulated production IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, and IFN-γ at PRE and POST (P<0.05). Plasma concentration of IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-7, IL-10, and IFN-γ were significantly greater at 2H in the BG compared to PL. In the placebo condition we observed the traditional response to strenuous exercise (rise at POST and suppression at 2H). It appears that 10-days of supplementation with BG primed blood leukocytes for the production of IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, and IFN-γ. These cytokines were elevated prior to and immediately after exercise in LPS-stimulated cultures and subsequent elevation were observed at 2H with unstimulated plasma measures. In addition to cytokine changes, BG appeared to blunt post-exercise reduction in blood monocyte concentration, which may have implication of immune-surveillance.

CONCLUSIONS: The key findings of the present study demonstrate that BG may be a suitable countermeasure to protect and boost the immune system following stressful exercise. Such boost is likely to lower the duration of the “open window” response. This study was funded by Biothera, The Immune Health Company.

1379 Board #160 MAY 30 11:00 AM - 12:30 PM

Effect of Six Weeks of Oral Echinacea Purpurea Supplementation on Erythropoiesis

Tyler D. Martin1, Michael S. Green1, Malcolm T. Whitehead2, Timothy P. Scheett3, Michael J. Webster, FACSM4. 1Troy University, Troy, AL. 2Arkansas State University, State University, AR. 3College of Charleston, Charleston, SC. 4The University of Southern Mississippi, Hattiesburg, MS.

(No relationships reported)

Echinacea purpurea, a purple coneflower plant of the compositae family (Asteraceae), is native to North America and commonly used as an herbal supplement to enhance immune function. Recent research has demonstrated that four weeks of oral Echinacea purpurea supplementation (8,000 mg·d-1) in untrained males (42.5 ± 1.6 mL·kg-1·min-1) significantly increased serum erythropoietin (EPO). The increase in EPO was not accompanied by a significant increase in the number of red blood cells (RBCs) or hemoglobin concentration [Hb]; however, there were non-significant increases in the erythropoietic status by the end of the four week study (% change in RBC, hematocrit (Hct), [Hb], mean corpuscular volume (MCV)), suggesting the initiation of erythropoiesis.

PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of six weeks of oral Echinacea purpurea supplementation on serum EPO and erythropoietic status.

METHODS: Twenty-four males (mean ± SE): age = 25.2 ± 1.4 yr, height = 178.1 ± 1.4 cm, mass = 78.1 ± 1.6 kg, percent body fat = 12.7 ± 0.9 %, VO2 max = 52.9 ± 0.9 mL·kg-1·min-1 were randomly grouped using a matched-pair, double-blind design and self-administered 8,000 mg·d-1 (5 × 400 mg × 4 times·d-1) of either Echinacea purpurea (ECH) (n=12) or placebo (PLA) (n=12) for 42 consecutive days. Blood samples were collected and analyzed for EPO, RBCs, Hb, Hct, MCV, and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC). Separate 2 × 4 (Group × Time) factorial ANOVA with repeated measures were used to determine statistical differences with significance set at p ≤ 0.05.

RESULTS: There were no statistically significant (p > 0.05) interaction, group or time effects observed for EPO or erythropoietic status markers.

CONCLUSION: Six weeks of oral ECH supplementation in apparently healthy, recreationally active, males with above average fitness status (VO2max = 52.9 ± 0.9 mL·kg-1·min-1), does not enhance EPO or erythropoietic status. These findings are in contrast with previous reports of Echinacea supplementation. Any explanation for these differences, including the role that training and/or physical fitness level of participants, is unclear and speculative.

Supported by Troy University Faculty Development Research Grant.

1380 Board #161 MAY 30 11:00 AM - 12:30 PM

Effects of 16wk Fucoxanthin and Punicic Acid Supplementation I: Body Composition and Hemodynamic Changes

Geoffrey M. Hudson, Lisa A. Knecht, Cody J. Tullos, Emily R. Buras, Bethany L. Boleware, James T. Goetz, David E. Krzeminski, Alicia D. Sample, Michael J. Webster, FACSM. The University of Southern Mississippi, Hattiesburg, MS.

(No relationships reported)

Supplementation with 100 mg brown seaweed extract (0.8 % fucoxanthin) and 100 mg pomegranate seed oil (70 % punicic acid), abbreviated as Xan, has been shown to significantly reduce body fat, liver fat, and blood pressure (BP) in obese females.

PURPOSE: To determine the effects of Xan supplementation on body composition, heart rate, and BP in obese men and women.

METHODS: Twenty-nine obese men and women (29±8 y; 36.50±5.39 kg/m2; 43.8±8.0 % body fat) were matched on gender, age, and body fat percentage and randomized to either a Xan (n=14) or olive oil placebo (Pla; n=15) group. This study was double-blind and placebo-controlled. Participants were instructed to ingest 200 mg capsules of their given supplement three times per day (prior to meals) for 16 weeks while consuming a reduced calorie diet (equivalent to their resting energy expenditure). The 2011 ACSM physical activity guidelines were also recommended. Data were analyzed with repeated measures ANOVA and presented as means ± SD changes from baseline.

RESULTS: Analysis of the data demonstrated that body mass (Xan:-1.83±3.48 kg; Pla:-3.17±3.42 kg) and body mass index (Xan:-0.64±1.19 kg/m2; Pla:-1.14±1.21 kg/m2) were significantly reduced over the 16 weeks (p=0.001; p=0.001) with no group differences. Diastolic BP was significantly reduced (Xan:-6±9 mmHg; Pla:-2±9 mmHg; p=0.021), while there was a trend for a reduction of systolic BP (Xan:-10±10 mmHg; Pla:-3±13 mmHg; p=0.059). No significant within- or between-group effects were observed in body fat percentage or lean body mass.

CONCLUSION: The 16 weeks of Xan supplementation (600 mg/d) did not augment the effects of exercise and a reduced calorie diet on weight and BP in this obese population.

Supported by a grant from P.L. Thomas & Co., Inc.

1381 Board #162 MAY 30 11:00 AM - 12:30 PM

Effects of 16wk Fucoxanthin and Punicic Acid Supplementation II: Metabolism

Bethany L. Boleware, Lisa A. Knecht, Geoffrey M. Hudson, Cody J. Tullos, Emily R. Buras, David E. Krzeminski, James T. Goetz, Alicia D. Sample, Michael J. Webster, FACSM. The University of Southern Mississippi, Hattiesburg, MS.

(No relationships reported)

Supplementation with 100 mg brown seaweed extract (0.8 % fucoxanthin) and 100 mg pomegranate seed oil (70 % punicic acid), abbreviated as Xan, has been shown to significantly reduce body fat and liver fat assumedly by increasing metabolism.

PURPOSE: To determine the effects of Xan supplementation on resting energy expenditure (REE) and respiratory quotient (RQ) in obese men and women.

METHODS: Twenty-nine obese men and women (29±8 y; 36.50±5.39 kg/m2; 43.8±8.0 % body fat) were matched on gender, age, and body fat percentage and randomized to either a Xan (n=14) or olive oil placebo (Pla; n=15) group. This study was double-blind and placebo-controlled. Participants were instructed to ingest 200 mg capsules of their given supplement three times per day (prior to meals) for 16 weeks while consuming a reduced calorie diet (equivalent to their resting energy expenditure). The 2011 ACSM physical activity guidelines were also recommended. Data were analyzed with repeated measures ANOVA and presented as means ± SD changes from baseline.

RESULTS: Analysis of the data demonstrated significant reductions in REE (Xan:-38±140 kcal·d-1; Pla:-59±153 kcal·d-1) and absolute VO2 (Xan:-0.003±0.021 L·min-1; Pla:-0.008±0.021 L·min-1) over the 16 weeks (p=0.007; p=0.001) with no between-group effects. No within- or between-group effects were observed with relative VO2, VCO2, or RQ.

CONCLUSION: As expected, weight loss resulted in a reduced REE; however, 16 weeks of Xan supplementation (600 mg/d) did not prevent reductions in REE typically occurring with weight loss.

Supported by a grant from P.L. Thomas & Co., Inc.

1382 Board #163 MAY 30 11:00 AM - 12:30 PM

Effects of 16wk Fucoxanthin and Punicic Acid Supplementation III: Serum Lipids Changes

Cody J. Tullos, Lisa A. Knecht, Geoffrey M. Hudson, Bethany L. Boleware, Emily R. Buras, Alicia D. Sample, Michael J. Webster, FACSM. The University of Southern Mississippi, Hattiesburg, MS.

(No relationships reported)

Supplementation with 100 mg brown seaweed extract (0.8 % fucoxanthin) and 100 mg pomegranate seed oil (70 % punicic acid), abbreviated as Xan, has been shown to significantly reduce body fat, liver fat, and serum lipids in obese females.

PURPOSE: To determine the effects of Xan supplementation on serum lipid levels [i.e. high-density lipoprotein (HDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), total cholesterol, triglycerides] in obese men and women.

METHODS: Twenty-nine obese men and women (29±8 y; 36.50±5.39 kg/m2; 43.8±8.0 % body fat) were matched on gender, age, and body fat percentage and randomized to either a Xan (n=14) or olive oil placebo (Pla; n=15) group. This study was double-blind and placebo-controlled. Participants were instructed to ingest 200 mg capsules of their given supplement three times per day (prior to meals) for 16 weeks while consuming a reduced calorie diet (equivalent to their resting energy expenditure). The 2011 ACSM physical activity guidelines were also recommended. Data were analyzed with repeated measures ANOVA and presented as means ± SD changes from baseline.

RESULTS: Data analysis demonstrated that there was a trend for a reduction in serum triglycerides (Xan:-31±45 mg·dl-1; Pla:-5±66 mg·dl-1; p=0.071) and a trend for an interaction effect (p=0.088). No significant within- or between-group effects were observed in serum total cholesterol, HDL, or LDL levels.

CONCLUSION: The 16 weeks of Xan supplementation (600 mg/d) did not significantly augment the beneficial effects of exercise and a reduced calorie diet on serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels in this obese population. However, a larger decrease in serum triglyceride levels was observed in the Xan group, which may be of clinical significance. Supported by a grant from P.L. Thomas & Co., Inc.

1383 Board #164 MAY 30 11:00 AM - 12:30 PM

Effects of 16wk Fucoxanthin and Punicic Acid Supplementation IV: Markers of Liver and Kidney Function

Emily R. Buras, Geoffrey M. Hudson, Lisa A. Knecht, Bethany L. Boleware, Cody J. Tullos, Alicia D. Sample, Michael J. Webster, FACSM. The University of Southern Mississippi, Hattiesburg, MS.

(No relationships reported)

Supplementation with 100 mg brown seaweed extract (0.8 % fucoxanthin) and 100 mg pomegranate seed oil (70 % punicic acid), abbreviated as Xan, has been shown to significantly reduce body fat, liver fat, and improve serum markers of liver function in obese females.

PURPOSE: To determine the effects of Xan supplementation on serum markers of liver and kidney function in obese men and women.

METHODS: Twenty-nine obese men and women (29±8 y; 36.50±5.39 kg/m2; 43.8±8.0 % body fat) were matched on gender, age, and body fat percentage and randomized to either a Xan (n=14) or olive oil placebo (Pla; n=15) group. This study was double-blind and placebo-controlled. Participants were instructed to ingest 200 mg capsules of their given supplement three times per day for 16 weeks while consuming a reduced calorie diet (equivalent to their resting energy expenditure). The 2011 ACSM physical activity guidelines were also recommended. Data were analyzed with repeated measures ANOVA and presented as means ± SD changes from baseline.

RESULTS: Data analysis demonstrated that significant reductions in serum levels of alkaline phosphatase (ALP; Xan:-5±6 U·L-1; Pla:-3±9 U·L-1; p=0.001), alanine aminotransferase (ALT; Xan:-12±22 U·L-1; Pla:-4±7 U·L-1; p=0.021), total protein (Xan:-0.3±0.3 g·dl-1; Pla:-0.2±0.3 g·dl-1; p<0.001), and creatinine (Xan:-0.11±0.15 mg·dl-1; Pla: X:-0.08±0.13 mg·dl-1; p<0.001) were observed over the 16 weeks with a trend for an interaction effect for ALT (p=0.101), but no other between-group effects. Blood urea nitrogen (BUN) levels did not change over time, but there was a significant between-group effect (Xan:14±4 mg·dl-1; Pla:11±3 mg·dl-1; p=0.018). No within- or between-group effects were observed in serum aspartate aminotransferase, total bilirubin, or albumin.

CONCLUSION: The 16 weeks of Xan supplementation (600 mg/d) did not affect these liver and kidney function markers in this obese population.

Supported by a grant from P.L. Thomas & Co., Inc.

1384 Board #165 MAY 30 11:00 AM - 12:30 PM

The Effect of Yoga Exercise and Ascorbic acid Supplementation on Stress Hormones in Korean Young Females

Malryun Shin1, Jungho Cho1, Ikwon Kang2, Jihyun Lee1, Jaehyun Jung1, Sunmin Kim1, Myungjoo Yang1, Sooyoun Kim1. 1Sookmyung Women’s University, Seoul, Korea, Republic of. 2Hongik University, Seoul, Korea, Republic of.

(No relationships reported)

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of 8 weeks of ascorbic acid supplementation and yoga exercise on epinephrine, norepinephrine, glucagon and cortisol.

METHODS: Thirty young females were randomly assig±ned to one of three group, I.e., Group I(n=10): placebo(1000mg/day); GroupII(n=10): ascorbic acid(500mg/day) and placebo(500mg/day); Group III(n=10): ascorbic acid(1000mg/day) with yoga exercise(55-75% of HRmax, 3-4 d/w, 60-90min/d). The following measurements were made on all subjects before and after 8 week of experiment. Analysis of covariance and bonferroni test were used to determine the statistical significance.

RESULTS: There were no significant differences in epinephrine, norepinephrine and glucagon but cortisol were significantly changed(p<.05).

CONCLUSIONS: 8 week’s ascorbic acid supplementation with yoga exercise was effective for epinephrine, norepinephrine, glucagon and cortisol in Korean young females. Determination of which exercise types, ascorbic acid dosage and fitness status of individuals would produce reproducible ergogenic effects is a logical extension of current research.

1385 Board #166 MAY 30 11:00 AM - 12:30 PM

Vitamin C Does Not Prevent Endurance Training-induced Improvement Of Glucose Tolerance And Insulin Sensitivity

Ayuko Nii, Koichi Yada, Shigeru Obara, Hideki Matoba. The University of Tokushima, Tokushima, Japan.

(No relationships reported)

Conflicting results have been reported concerning the involvement of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in endurance training-induced improvement of glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity.

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to determine whether vitamin C supple-mentation prevented the training-induced improvement of glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in rats.

METHODS: Twenty male rats,4-week of age,were assigned to four groups:sedentary control,sedentary with vitamin C supplementation,trained control,trained with vitamin C supplementation (n=5 each).The rats of vitamin C supplemented groups were ad-ministered 500mg per kg body weight of vitamin C from 12 days before the start of the training until the end of the training period.The rats of the trained groups swam 6h/day with two 3h sessions separated by 45 min of rest.The training lasted for 2 weeks with a frequency of 5 days per week.After the training period, the rats underwent intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (IPGTT).Glucose and insulin responses during IPGTT were assessed by the area under the curve (AUC).Insulin resistance was eva-luated using homeostasis model assessment as an index of insulin resistance (HOMA-R).Insulin sensitivity was evaluated using composite whole-body insulin sensitivity index (ISI (comp)).

RESULTS: The training significantly suppressed body weight gain (P<0.01).There was no difference in fasting glucose levels and fasting insulin levels among the groups.There was also no significant difference in the HOMA-R indices among the groups.On the other hand,the training significantly lowered the AUC for glucose and insulin (P<0.05).The training significantly increased ISI (comp)(P<0.05).The vitamin C supplementation did not alter the AUC for glucose,the AUC for insulin and ISI (comp).

CUNCLUSION: This study suggests that the vitamin C supplementation does not prevent the training-induced improvement of glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in rats.

1386 Board #167 MAY 30 11:00 AM - 12:30 PM

Effects of Quercetin Supplementation on Physical Function in Older Adults

Stephen C. Chen1, J. Mark Davis, FACSM1, E. Angela Murphy1, Michele Neese2, Matthew Kostek1, Kei Lam1, John Sieverdes1, Victor Hirth2, Andres Leone2, Seung H. Jung1, Benjamin Gordon1, Katie Becofsky1, Toni Torres-McGehee1, Steve Blair, FACSM1, J. Larry Durstine, FACSM1. 1University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC. 2Palmetto Health Senior Primary Care, Columbia, SC. (Sponsor: Mark Davis, FACSM)

(No relationships reported)

Fatigue is a common complaint among older adults and is associated with functional decline and multiple adverse health outcomes. Previous studies in our laboratory have shown that the dietary flavonoid quercetin can enhance voluntary activity and endurance performance in mice as well as aerobic capacity in young adults. However, the benefits of quercetin on physical function in older adults has not yet been evaluated.

PURPOSE: To determine the effects of short-term quercetin (QUE) versus placebo (PLA) supplementation on habitual physical activity (N=10), physical performance (N=18) as well as markers of mitochondrial biogenesis (N=4) in healthy older adults (61 to 89 years).

METHODS: Subjects were randomized to receive QUE (1000 mg·day-1) or PLA for 14 days using a double-blind, placebo controlled, crossover study design with a 2-week washout period. Physical activity patterns were assessed by accelerometry daily throughout the study. After completion of treatments, physical performance including VO2 peak, Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB) and 6-minute walk (6MW) were determined, and muscle biopsies acquired from the vastus lateralis were analyzed for mRNA gene expression of PGC-1α, citrate synthase and cytochrome c using RT-PCR.

RESULTS: QUE feedings significantly increased daily steps count by 16.7% compared with PLA (4811.7 ± 778.5 vs. 5614.9 ± 993.3 steps·day-1, respectively, P=0.02), along with a trend for increased minutes of moderate intensity of physical activity (10.5 ± 3.9 vs. 7.6 ± 2.6 min·day-1, P=0.11). QUE increased mRNA gene expression of PGC-1α, citrate synthase and cytochrome c by 49%, 26% and 32%, respectively, although these did not reach statistical significance which is likely due to the small sample size that was used in this analysis. No differences were found between QUE and PLA conditions for VO2 peak, SPPB score, and 6MW distance.

CONCLUSION: These novel data suggest that short-duration QUE feedings can promote physical activity in older adults, and that these effects may be partially attributed to the increased muscle mitochondrial biogenesis which plays a role in fatigue development. Overall, the results of this study provide evidence in support of dietary QUE as a possible safe and effective nutritional strategy for disease prevention and health promotion in the elderly.

1387 Board #168 MAY 30 11:00 AM - 12:30 PM

Effect Of Resveratrol On Oxidative Stress And Skeletal Muscle Oxygenation With NIRS In Trained Cyclists

Claude Lajoie, Sana Driss, Maria-Grazia Martinoli, Simon Bergeron-Vaillancourt, Louis Laurencelle, Fanny Longpré. UQTR, Trois-Rivieres, QC, Canada. (Sponsor: Francois Trudeau, FACSM)

(No relationships reported)

During strenuous exercise, there is a dramatic increase in oxygen consumption that leads to an increased oxygen species (ROS) production. This increase in ROS results in oxidative stress, which has been associated with muscle fatigue and impaired recovery following high-intensity aerobic exercise.

PURPOSE: The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effects of a Resveratrol supplementation on protein blood markers of oxidative stress and blood antioxidant capacity during a single bout of intermittent exercise and recovery in trained cyclists. A second purpose was to measure vastus lateralis muscle oxygenation, using near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), blood lactate concentration and whole body oxygen consumption under the Resveratrol condition.

METHODS: A double-blind study was conducted with 7 male trained cyclists, aged 37.3 11.7 years. The participants completed two sessions high intensity interval training (HIT) in two conditions, with and without Resveratrol supplementation (1000 mg daily) in orange juice, 7 consecutive days before the experiment, with partially counterbalanced conditions across subgroups. Blood sampling was collected pre- and post-exercise for the determination of protein carbonyls (PC) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC).

RESULTS: Resveratrol supplementation did not improve organism’s antioxidant defence and protein carbonyl blood concentrations following HIT. Under Resveratrol supplementation, tissue saturation index in oxygen (TSI%) in vastus lateralis was slightly less attenuated (p<0.05) at the end of HIT (Δ = -1.3%) as compared to placebo condition (Δ = -2.0%). Resveratrol had no effect on skeletal muscle oxyhemoglobin (O2Hb) deoxyhemoglobin (HHb) and total hemoglobin (THb). Heart rate and blood lactate concentration recovery both showed a tendency (p 0.10) to decrease following 15 min passive recovery under the Resveratrol condition. However, a positive correlation trend (r = 0.72, p = 0.07) was

observed between THb and TAC.

CONCLUSION: This study did not show an effect of Resveratrol on protein carbonyl and antioxidant capacity. However, Resveratrol improved tissue saturation index (TSI%) in vastus lateralis during the HIT.

1388 Board #169 MAY 30 11:00 AM - 12:30 PM

Involvement of PI3K/Akt/mTOR Pathway in Angelica sinensis Induced Myotube Hypertrophy.

Tzu-Shao Yeh, FACSM1, Jen-Fang Liu1, Mei-Chich Hsu, FACSM2. 1Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan. 2National Taiwan Sport University, Taoyuan, Taiwan.

(No relationships reported)

PURPOSE: Herbal medicine has long been used in ergogenic aids for athletes but there is little scientific evidence for their actions. To investigate whether Angelica sinensis increases hypertrophy of myotubes through activating the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway, have been proposed to promote skeletal muscle hypertrophy and prevent muscle atrophy.

METHODS: We examined the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway in C2C12 myotubes, a well-established in vitro model of skeletal muscle hypertrophy, with or without Angelica sinensis extract for 72 hours.

RESULTS: In Angelica sinensis extract treated, the average myotube diameter was 1.34±0.13 fold to normal, which is significantly larger than the diameter in non-herbal supplements cultures. This indicates clearly that myotubes were hypertrophied by Angelica sinensis extract. Hypertrophy was largely suppressed by wortmannin or rapamycin, inhibitors of PI3K or mTOR, respectively. The PI3K inhibitor, wortmannin, decreased the diameter of Angelica sinensis extract treated myotubes by 25%, as well as that of positive controls by approximately 30%. The mTOR inhibitor, rapamycin behaved similarly to wortmannin. These results indicate that the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway plays an important role in Angelica sinensis-induced myotube hypertrophy.

CONCLUSIONS:Angelica sinensis promotes hypertrophy in cultured skeletal myotubes through activating the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway. Furthermore, phosphorylation of Akt was enhanced by Angelica sinensis treatment and suppressed by wortmannin. Angelica sinensis and its derivatives may be promising candidates for the treatment of muscular dystrophy.

1389 Board #170 MAY 30 11:00 AM - 12:30 PM

Efficacy of Tart Cherry Juice to Reduce Inflammation Among Patients with Osteoarthritis

Adriana E. Sleigh, Kerry S. Kuehl, Diane L. Elliot, FACSM. Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, OR.

(No relationships reported)

PURPOSE: Osteoarthritis (OA) is a common syndrome affecting 65 million Americans characterized by joint pain, limitation of movement, crepitus, occasional effusion, and variable degrees of local inflammation. Up to 40% of OA patients have inflammation. Numerous antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agents have been identified in tart cherries and may be beneficial for the treatment of pain and inflammation. This study assessed the effects of tart cherry juice on serum inflammation biomarkers among women with inflammatory OA.

METHODS: We used a three week, randomized, placebo controlled design among twenty 40-70 year old females with inflammatory OA. All subjects fulfilled the 1990 American College of Rheumatology classification guidelines for the diagnosis of osteoarthritis with evidence of swelling in at least one joint in the past year. For 21 days, subjects ingested 10.5 fl oz of tart cherry juice or a placebo beverage twice a day. Pre and post drink intervention blood measurements included IL-6, IL-10, TNF-α, and CRP.

RESULTS: Among the subjects who consumed tart cherry juice, all serum biomarkers showed evidence of decreased inflammation, however the only statistically significant change was observed in TNF-α (P<0.05). In addition, a subset analysis was performed on those subjects with active inflammation as defined by CRP>3.0 mg/L. Within the high inflammation subset (n=12), there was a statistically significant decrease in TNF-α and CRP for subjects on the tart cherry juice as compared to placebo.

CONCLUSIONS: Tart cherries have the highest antioxidant and anti-inflammatory content of any food. This study suggests a benefit of tart cherry juice in reducing inflammation as measured by certain serum inflammatory biomarkers among women with OA. Pain relief and improvement of functional disability are the main goals of OA treatment and it is important to look at healthy alternative therapies to conventional methods in the treatment and management of inflammatory osteoarthritis. Tart cherries may provide beneficial anti-inflammatory activity helping OA patients manage their disease.

1390 Board #171 MAY 30 11:00 AM - 12:30 PM

Melatonin And Sleep Quality Are Increased Following Tart Cherry Juice Consumption

Glyn Howatson, FACSM1, Phillip G. Bell1, Jamie Tallent1, Benita Middleton2, Malachy P. McHugh, FACSM3, Jason Ellis1. 1Northumbria University, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, United Kingdom. 2University of Surrey, Guildford, United Kingdom. 3Nicholas Institute of Sports Medicine and Athletic Trauma, NY, NY.

(No relationships reported)

Tart Montmorency cherries contain high levels of phytochemicals that include melatonin. Considering the alleged rampant use of prescription sleep medications in professional sports with a lot of travel (e.g. NHL), cherry juice might be a viable non-pharmacological alternative. We hypothesized that consumption of a tart cherry juice concentrate would provide an exogenous supply of melatonin and have a positive influence on sleep.

PURPOSE: The aim of our investigation was to examine the effect of tart cherry juice on melatonin metabolism and the subsequent influence on sleep quality in healthy asymptomatic adults.

METHODS: Twenty volunteers participated in this randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled, cross-over trial. Cherry juice or a placebo was administered for 7 days following a 48 h baseline period. Measures of sleep quality were determined with actigraphy (sleep onset latency, time in bed, fragmentation index, total sleep time and sleep efficiency) and urinary 6-sulfatoxymelatonin (aMT6); these were recorded for both baseline periods and the final 48 h of each supplement period. Determination of the circadian rhythm (amplitude, acrophase and mesor of aMT6) was determined using cosinor analysis. In addition, total aMT6 was also determined for the aforementioned epoch.

RESULTS: Total sleep time was significantly greater with cherry juice than baseline and placebo trials (P = 0.003; 95% CI = 14.7 - 63.6 min). Sleep efficiency also showed improvements with the cherry juice over placebo trials (P = 0.017; 95% CI = 0.5 - 9.4%). Although circadian rhythm measures were not different, total aMT6 was greater with cherry juice (P < 0.001; 95% CI = 2519 - 5450 ng).

CONCLUSIONS: Tart cherry juice provides an increase in exogenous melatonin, improves sleep indices and hence the propensity for improved sleep quality in healthy adults. These findings present athletic and clinical populations with an alternative and viable solution for managing disturbed sleep.

1391 Board #172 MAY 30 11:00 AM - 12:30 PM

Dose Response Effects of Pomegranate Juice Concentrate Supplementation on DOMS

Daniel R. Machin, Kevin M. Christmas, Ting-Heng Chou, Sarah C. Hill, Douglas Van Pelt, Justin R. Trombold, Edward F. Coyle, FACSM. The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX.

(No relationships reported)

An acute bout of unaccustomed eccentric exercise causes prolonged strength loss and delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) for several days. Chronic dietary supplementation with polyphenols, from pomegranates, has been shown to accelerate recovery following eccentric exercise (Trombold et al. MSSE 42 (3) 493-498, 2010), however the optimal dose is unknown.

PURPOSE: To determine the effect of dietary supplementation with different doses of pomegranate juice concentrate (PJC) on isometric strength and soreness throughout a 96-hour period following an acute bout of eccentric exercise.

METHODS: Forty-five healthy, recreationally active males (22.3 +/- 4.0 y, 73.8 +/- 11.5 kg, 174.9 +/- 6.2 cm) were assigned to one of three treatment groups: Once-daily PJC (1×), twice-daily PJC (2×), or placebo (PLA) supplementation over a period of eight days. A 1× dose of PJC provided approximately 650 mg GAE. On day four of each treatment, subjects performed downhill running intervals (-10% decline) over a 40 minute period followed by 40 repetitions of eccentric elbow flexion at 100% of concentric 1-RM. Muscle soreness and maximal isometric strength of the elbow flexor and knee extensor muscles were assessed pre-exercise, 2, 24, 48, 72, and 96 hours post-exercise. Treatment comparisons were made using a one-way ANOVA with p < 0.05. Values were reported as mean +/- SD.

RESULTS: Throughout the 96-hour period after exercise, isometric elbow flexor strength was significantly higher in 1× and 2× groups as compared to PLA (main treatment effect, 83.6 +/- 2.7%, 85.6 +/- 1.9%, and 78.4 +/- 1.8%, respectively; p < 0.001). Isometric knee extensor strength was significantly higher in 1× and 2× groups as compared to PLA (main treatment effect, 93.9 +/- 1.5%, 91.6 +/- 1.5%, and 87.1 +/- 1.8%, respectively; p < 0.001). Muscle soreness peaked 24-48 hours following exercise, but was not different between treatments.

CONCLUSION: Dietary supplementation with 1× or 2× PJC results in higher isometric strength values compared to placebo for elbow flexor and knee extensor muscles during the 96-hour period after an acute bout of eccentric exercise. Once per day supplementation of PJC is equally effective as twice per day for recovery of isometric strength in the four days after downhill running or eccentric elbow flexion exercise.

Funded by POM Wonderful LLC

1392 Board #173 MAY 30 11:00 AM - 12:30 PM

Effects Of A Botanical Supplement On Recovery From Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness

Corey A. Rynders, Judy Y. Weltman, Chelsea Williams, Frank I. Katch, FACSM, Jay Hertel, FACSM, Arthur Weltman, FACSM. University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA.

(No relationships reported)

PURPOSE: We examined the effects of a supplement containing a proprietary blend of botanical concentrates of Aphanizomenon flos-aquae (blue-green algae), antioxidants, enzymes, and D-Ribose (StemSport, Stemtech HealthSciences, Inc., San Clemente, CA) suggested to increase circulating stem cells, decrease local muscle inflammation, and attenuate exercise induced muscle damage on recovery from delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS).

METHODS: Fifteen males (N=7) and females (N=8); age 24.4 ± 4.8 years; stature 171.9 ± 10.0 cm, mass 72.2 ± 14.7 kg) were randomized in a crossover, double-blind, placebo controlled trial to receive a placebo or supplement (4050 mg/day) for 14 days. DOMS was induced on day 7 for both placebo and active conditions in the non-dominant elbow flexor group with repeated eccentric contractions. Muscle swelling (biceps girth), elbow flexor isometric strength (hand held dynamometer), muscle pain/tenderness (visual analog scale), and range of motion (active elbow flexion and extension) were measured at baseline and at 24, 48, and 72 h post eccentric exercise. The crossover washout period was ≥14 days.

RESULTS: No significant condition-by-time interactions occurred between placebo and supplementation for the criterion measures of muscle swelling (p= 0.59), elbow flexion (p=0.27), isometric strength (p=0.74), pain (p=0.16), or tenderness (p=0.53). Decrements in elbow extension range of motion between 24 and 48 h post-exercise were less following supplementation (Δ elbow extension 24-48h post; supplement, -.04 ± 5.0 deg; placebo, -2.8 ± 5.5 deg; p=0.04).

CONCLUSIONS: Compared to placebo, supplementation did not significantly improve recovery outcome measures related to muscle recovery after upper-arm induced DOMS.

Supported in part by an unrestricted gift from Stemtech HealthSciences, Inc., San Clemente, CA. 92673. F.I. Katch, J. Hertel, and A. Weltman serve as scientific advisors to Stemtech HealthSciences.

1393 Board #174 MAY 30 11:00 AM - 12:30 PM

Can Therapeutic Use Of Terbutaline Be Distinguished From Doping Use With A Urine Sample

Jimmi Elers. Copenhagen University Hospital: Bispejberg, Copenhagen, Denmark.

(No relationships reported)

PURPOSE: We examined urine and serum concentrations after therapeutic use of single and repetitive doses of inhaled terbutaline and supratherapeutic use of a single oral dose of terbutaline.

METHODS: : We compared the concentrations in asthmatics with regular use of beta2-agonists prior to study and healthy subjects with no previous use of beta2-agonists. We enrolled 10 asthmatics and 10 controls in an open-label, cross-over study in which subjects were administrated 2 mg inhaled and 10 mg oral terbutaline on two study days. Further 10 healthy subjects were administrated 1 mg inhaled terbutaline every second hour (total 4 mg), which is the maximum permitted daily dose by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA). Blood samples were collected at baseline, 30 min, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 6 h after the first inhalations. Urine samples were collected at baseline, 0-4 h, 4-8 h, and 8-12 h after the first inhalations.

RESULTS: Median (IQR) urine concentrations peaked in the period 0-4 h after inhalation with Cmax 472 (324) ng x mL-1 in asthmatics and 661 (517) ng x mL-1 in healthy subjects, and 4-8 h after oral use with Cmax 666 (877) ng x mL-1 in asthmatic and 402 (663) ng x mL-1 in healthy subjects. All urine concentrations were corrected for the urine specific gravity.

CONCLUSION: In conclusion we found no significant differences in urine and serum concentrations between asthmatic and healthy subjects. We compared urine and serum concentrations after therapeutic inhaled doses and supratherapeutic oral doses and observed significant statistical diffences in both groups. We found high variability in urine concentrations between subjects in both groups. The variability between subjects was still present after the samples were corrected for urine specific gravity. When evaluating our results we found it impossible to distinguish between permitted therapeutic use and prohibited supratherapeutic use based on doping tests with urine and blood samples.

1394 Board #175 MAY 30 11:00 AM - 12:30 PM

Effect of Exercise and Aged Garlic Extract on Metabolic Parameters in High-Fat Diet-Induced Obese Rats

Dae Yun Seo1, Sung Ryul Lee1, Yeong Ho Baek2, Yi Sub Kwak3, Arturo Figueroa4, Nari Kim1, Byoung Doo Lee1, Kyuong Soo Ko1, Tae Hee Ko1, Jin Han1. 1Inje University, Busan, Korea, Republic of. 2Pusan National University, Busan, Korea, Republic of. 3Dong Eui University, Busan, Korea, Republic of. 4Florida State University, Tallahasse, FL.

(No relationships reported)

The worldwide prevalence of obesity is increasing at an alarming rate, with major adverse consequences for human health. Aged garlic extract (AGE) is widely promoted as a cholesterol-lowering agent and exercise alone is widely perceived to be beneficial for improving metabolic function in high fat diet (HFD) induced obese rats through reducing metabolic parameters.

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of exercise and/or AGE on body weight, lipid profiles, inflammatory and oxidative stress markers in HFD induced obese rats.

METHODS: Forty Sprague Dawely rats were switched to HFD diet for 6 week and randomized into five groups: HFD (n=10), HFD with exercise (n=10), HFD with AGE (n=10), and HFD with exercise and AGE (n=10) for 4 weeks. AGE was administered orally at a dose of 2.86 g/kg. Exercise consisted of 15∼60 min of running 5 times/day with gradually increasing intensity.

RESULTS: AGE (p<0.01), Exercise, and Exercise with AGE (p<0.001) significantly decreased body weight gain, average weight gain and food efficiency rate compared to HFD. AGE significantly decreased visceral fat (p<0.05), and liver (p<0.01). Exercise significantly decreased visceral fat, and liver (p<0.01). In reducing visceral fat (p<0.001), epididymal fat (p<0.01) and liver weight (p<0.001), Exercise with AGE was effective but exercise showed stronger suppressing effect than AGE admin. Consumption of AGE significantly inhibited the increase in total cholesterol (65.1±10.0 vs HFD: 92.64±2.9) and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (37.4±8.1 vs HFD: 52.1±18.6). C-reactive protein (CRP) and malondialdehyde (MDA) were significantly decreased compared to HFD (p<0.05).

CONCLUSION: AGE supplementation and exercise alone have anti-obesity effects AGE with exercise result in improvements of inflammatory and oxidative stress markers independently of changes in adiposity and lipids.

1395 Board #176 MAY 30 11:00 AM - 12:30 PM

Effects of Oxygenated Water on Aerobic Performance in Division II Collegiate Male Soccer Players

Tina M. Manos, Peter J. Fuller, Thomas J. Koesterer. Humboldt State University, Arcata, CA.

(No relationships reported)

Supplemental oxygen (O2), ingested in commercially-available “oxygenated water” preparations, has not been shown to have consistent effects on aerobic performance measures. Most researchers have found no significant differences in oxygen saturation of hemoglobin, VO2 max, and time to exhaustion when comparing the effects of oxygenated water to placebo; yet, in some studies, highly-fit subjects ingesting oxygenated water were found to have significantly higher values for these measures.

PURPOSE: To determine the effects of oxygenated water on aerobic performance in Division II male soccer players.

METHODS: A randomized, double-blind, cross-over design was used to study 12 Division II soccer players (age = 20.1 ±+ 1.4 years; mass = 73.3 ± 10.6 kg; height = 176.0 ± 6.9 cm) with the fastest two-mile run times (12:34 ± 0:19 min:sec) of their team (n = 20). Two maximal tests were conducted (8 mph, 2.5% grade initially, with increments of 2.5% grade every two minutes until volitional exhaustion) approximately 1 week apart; conditions were 500 ml of bottled water (placebo) or commercial “activated stabilized oxygen” water taken 15 min prior to the test. Time to exhaustion, oxygen saturation of hemoglobin (SpO2; via pulse oximetry), heart rate (HR), and expired gases were measured.

RESULTS: The SpO2 (95.58 ± 3.05 vs. 96.08 ± 2.46%; p = .497), HR (187.00 ± 8.66 vs. 187.16 ± 7.73 bpm; p = .942), and VO2 (57.26 ± 4.93 vs. 58.15 ± 3.87 ml/kg/min; p = .351) at the highest common workload achieved on both trials were not different between the placebo and oxygenated water conditions, respectively. The SpO2 at the lowest point during the maximal testing (94.58 ± 2.90 vs. 94.92 ± 2.06%; p = .732) and the SpO2 at exhaustion (94.75 ± 3.01 vs. 95.16 ± 2.24%; p = .610) were not different between conditions. VO2 max (59.97 ± 4.24 vs. 60.92 ± 3.51 ml/kg/min; p =.247) and maximum HR (192.08 ± 7.69 vs. 191.08 ± 7.63 bpm; p = .597) also were not significantly different between the conditions. Although the time to exhaustion (428.83 ± 62.54 vs. 451.17 ± 57.05 sec; p = .072) was longer by 22.34 seconds for oxygenated water versus placebo, the difference did not reach statistical significance.

CONCLUSION: Ingestion of oxygenated water did not result in any changes in aerobic performance measurements in Division II male soccer players.

1396 Board #177 MAY 30 11:00 AM - 12:30 PM

Polyphenol Rich Juice Supplementation in Olympic Swimmers does not alter Inflammation or Immune Biomarkers

Amy M. Knab1, Nicholas D. Gillitt2, Lynn Ciadella-Kam1, David C. Nieman, FACSM1, R. Andrew Shanely1. 1Appalachian State University, Kannapolis, NC. 2Dole Nutrition Research Institute, Kannapolis, NC.

(No relationships reported)

PURPOSE: This study investigated the effects of consumption of a juice blend made from whole fruits and vegetables on innate immunity, and chronic and acute inflammation in elite swimmers training three hours per day, compared to non-athletic controls.

METHODS: Nine male swimmers and seven controls were recruited and compared before and after a 10-day study period. Swimmers were randomized, and completed 10 days supplementation with or without 16 fl oz of the juice ingested pre- and post-workout, with a three week wash out period between supplementation periods. Blood samples were taken pre-supplementation, post-10 days supplementation, and immediately post-exercise on the 10th day.

RESULTS: Age was not different between swimmers (24.6 ± 0.7 y) and controls (25.7 ± 1.3 y). Swimmers were significantly fitter (VO2max = 53.1 ± 1.4 ml·kg·min, body fat = 11.7 ± 0.8 %) compared to controls (VO2max = 39.9 ± 2.7 ml·kg·min, body fat = 19.6 ± 1.6 %). All pre-exercise measures of inflammation and immune function were not different between swimmers and controls. The patterns of change (chronic) in inflammatory cytokines (IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10, IL-8, IL-12p70, and TNF-α) and innate immune function (granulocyte and monocyte phagocytosis/ oxidative burst activity) were not different between juice and non-juice conditions over the 10-day study period. A single training bout at the end of the 10-day supplementation period caused a small but significant increase in plasma IL-6 (0.3 ± 0.1 to 0.8 ± 0.1 pg·ml with juice, and 0.5 ± 0.1 to 0.8 ± 0.1 pg·ml with no juice) and IL-10 (but not other cytokines), with no differences between juice and non-juice conditions. The training bout caused a small but significant increase in phagocytosis and oxidative burst activity, with no differences between juice and non-juice conditions.

CONCLUSIONS: Contrary to expectations, high-level training in elite swimmers was not associated with chronic inflammation or dysfunctional innate immunity, and acute changes post-3-h aerobic/anaerobic training bouts were mild or indicative of immune stimulation. The mixed fruit-vegetable juice supplement (∼9500 ORAC units) is a nutritious addition to the training diet, but has no influence on inflammation and innate immune measures that could be considered already at favorable levels. (Funded by Dole Foods Inc.)

1397 Board #178 MAY 30 11:00 AM - 12:30 PM

Effect of 4 Weeks Resveratrol Supplementation on Body Composition in Healthy Adults

Sarah J. Wherry1, James M. Smoliga2. 1Arizona State University, Phoenix, AZ. 2High Point University, High Point, NC.

(No relationships reported)

Resveratrol, a polyphenol found in grapes and other plants, has been demonstrated to have a number of beneficial health effects in laboratory models. Current evidence suggests there is much potential for resveratrol to decrease fat mass and increase muscle mass and bone mass. However, no human clinical trials have examined the effects of resveratrol supplementation on body composition.

PURPOSE: To evaluate the effects of 4 weeks oral supplementation of a resveratrol mixture (400mg 98% pure trans-resveratrol, 400mg grape extract, 100mg quercetin) on body composition parameters in healthy individuals, including total mass, fat mass, lean mass, and bone mass.

METHODS: 41 healthy adults (13 male, 28 female) between the ages of 18-75 were randomized to either the resveratrol (RES, n = 21) or placebo (PLA, n = 20) groups. Individuals participated in two testing visits: baseline (Pre) and post-supplementation (Post). Each visit included a fasting Dual-Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DEXA) scan during which total body mass, fat mass, lean mass, and bone mass were measured. Following Pre, participants self-administered their respective supplement once daily for 4 weeks. Participants then underwent their Post DEXA scan. Data were analyzed using Repeated Measures ANOVA to determine if a significant (p ≤ 0.05) Group x Visit effect existed.

RESULTS: Total body mass was unchanged between groups (mean ± sd; PLA: Pre = 70.4 ± 14.1kg, Post = 70.2 ± 13.9kg; RES: Pre = 74.7 ± 14.7kg, Post = 74.8 ± 14.8kg; p = 0.317, power = 0.167). There were no significant Group x Visit effects for fat mass (PLA: Pre = 24.2 ± 9.5kg, Post = 24.3 ± 9.6kg; RES: Pre = 23.7 ± 9.3kg, Post = 23.7 ± 9.3kg; p = 0.664, power = 0.071), lean mass (PLA: Pre = 46.4 ± 10.3kg, Post = 46.1 ± 9.9kg; RES: Pre = 48.1 ± 10.2kg, Post = 48.3 ± 10.0kg, p = 0.195, power = 0.251), or bone mass (PLA: Pre = 2.83 ± 0.62kg, Post = 2.84 ± 0.63kg; RES: Pre = 2.87 ± 0.62kg, Post = 2.87 ± 0.63kg; p = 0.435, power = 0.120). DISCUSSION: It appears that short-term resveratrol supplementation does not alter body composition parameters in healthy adults. Further research using larger sample sizes, longer supplementation periods, and concurrent exercise in a variety of populations should be performed to better evaluate resveratrol’s efficacy.

1398 Board #179 MAY 30 11:00 AM - 12:30 PM

The Bioavailability Of Resveratrol (3,4’,5 Trihydroxystilbene)

Martin R. Lindley1, Annika Rasijeff1, Shannon R. Siegel2, Timothy D. Mickleborough, FACSM3. 1Loughborough University, Loughborough, United Kingdom. 2California State University , San Bernadino, San Bernadino, CA. 3Indiana University, Bloomington, IN. (Sponsor: T.D. Mickleborough, FACSM)

(No relationships reported)

PURPOSE: Resveratrol is one of many phenolic compounds that have been suggested as having potential applications in chronic disease prevention, however, most of the current evidence is based on in vitro findings. Given the potential benefits of resveratrol for combating chronic inflammatory diseases, it is important to evaluate the bioavailability of resveratrol especially as it has been suggested that the compound is rapidly metabolized and eliminated in humans.

METHODS: Twelve healthy, young males completed the study. Blood samples were collected at 30, 60 and 90 min following ingestion of a 1 g oral resveratrol dose (Transmax, Biotivia Bioceuticals,Vienna, Austria). Plasma samples were analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography and eluted resveratrol and metabolite peaks identified by mass spectrometry. The identity of resveratrol was confirmed by MS in plasma samples containing a standard at 100 ng/mL and 200 ng/mL concentrations with retention time identified by spikingOut of six peaks appearing on the HPLC chromatogram, the identities of resveratrol, and two metabolites were confirmed by MS (Metabolite B - mono-glucuronide; metabolite C- mono-sulfate conjugate).

RESULTS: The concentration of resveratrol (ng/mL) and metabolites (resveratrol equivalents in ng/mL) showed an increasing trend over time following ingestion. Plasma concentrations of resveratrol and metabolites at 30, 60 and 90 min post-dose were different from baseline (p< 0.008) except for metabolites C and E. There was an increase in the concentration of metabolite D: 181.3 ng/mL ± 284.4, 1325.9 ng/mL ± 1425.3, (p= 0.005) and metabolite F: 155.0 ng/mL ± 311.4, 1926.5 ng/mL ± 2365.9 (p= 0.005) between 30 and 60 minutes. Significant increases from 30 to 90 min were seen for metabolite B (438.4 ng/mL ± 756.3 to 1634.1ng/mL ± 1327.4, p= 0.006), metabolite D (181.3 ng/mL ± 284.4 to 1748.1 ng/mL ± 1578.0, p= 0.005 ), metabolite F (155.0 ng/mL ± 311.4 to 2783.7 ng/mL ± 2174. 3,p< 0.001) and resveratrol (p< 0.001). No differences were seen in resveratrol or any of its metabolites from 60 to 90 minutes (p>0.008).

CONCLUSIONS: Resveratrol has been shown to have low bioavailability as well as being lower than its metabolites and as such future research should focus not only on resveratrol bioavailability but also that of its metabolites.

1399 Board #180 MAY 30 11:00 AM - 12:30 PM

Effects of High Antioxidant Foods on Antioxidant Capacity in Post-Menopausal Women

Shelby Kloiber1, Robert Sawyer2, Melanie Hart1, Jacalyn McComb1. 1Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX. 2Utah Valley University, Orem, UT.

(No relationships reported)

Oxidative stress brought on by free radicals can lead to an increased risk of certain diseases such as heart disease and some cancers. Oxidative stress mediated damage can be reduced by scavengers, or antioxidants that can eliminate the high reactivity of free radicals by turning them into non-radical and nontoxic metabolites. Many scientists have investigated the effects of different kinds of foods (whole, liquid, or supplement) to measure the change in oxidative damage and antioxidant capacity.

PURPOSE: To examine the effects of two types of foods high in antioxidants on antioxidant capacity in postmenopausal women.

METHODS: Healthy post-menopausal women without hormone replacement, (N=16) were randomly divided into four groups: fruits (F), soymilk (S), fruits and soymilk (S+F) and control (C). The intervention included a one week wash-out period where participants refrained from a list of foods high in antioxidants. The next four weeks involved a diet intervention. The S group was instructed to consume a total of 706 ml of approved soymilk throughout the day. The F group was instructed to consume 5 or more servings of fruit per day. The S+F group followed both the soymilk and fruit instructions. Subjects in the C group were instructed to maintain their normal diet. Fasting blood samples were drawn before and after the intervention. Spectrophotometric assays were conducted for antioxidant capacity by SOD (Cayman Chemical).

RESULTS: SOD showed a significant main effect for Test with the mean for the pre-test (M = 0.28 units/ml, SD = 0.15) being significantly lower than the mean for the post-test (M = 0.39 units/ml, SD = 0.23). There were no significant between group differences in SOD.

CONCLUSION: The results of a diet high in antioxidant rich food, specifically fruits and/or soymilk, after a 4 week time period, did significantly increase antioxidant levels. Both diets appear effective in increasing antioxidant capacity, with no diet being more effective than the other.

1400 Board #181 MAY 30 11:00 AM - 12:30 PM

Impact Of Intermittent And Continuous Physical Exercise On Endothelial Function And Oxidative Stress Postprandially

Robinson Ramirez-Velez1, Jose G. Ortega1, Ana C. de Plata Aguilar1, Cristina Araujo, Nut1, Celia Escobar Hurtado1, Ricardo A. Agredo Zuñiga1, Jorge H. Ramirez2. 1University of Valle, Cali, Colombia. 2University ICESI, Cali, Colombia.

(No relationships reported)

PURPOSE: To evaluate the impact of intermittent and continuous physical exercise on endothelial function and blood oxidative stress postprandially after a high-fat meal.

METHODS: Crossover trial in 14 healthy male subjects, 20 years of age, randomized to three experimental groups: (i) no exercise, (ii) 1 hour of moderate intensity continuous physical exercise, and (iii) 1 hour of moderate intensity intermittent physical exercise. Endothelium dependent flow mediated dilatation (FMD%) and plasmatic levels of nitrites and nitrates (NO2/NO3) were used to assess vascular endothelial function. Oxidative stress was evaluated using the total antioxidant capacity (TAC) test. Endothelial function and oxidative stress were assessed after 14 to 18 hours of physical inactivity (baseline); posterior measurements were performed 1h and 2h after the consumption of a high-fat meal.

RESULTS: No statistically significant differences were found on baseline FMD% in the three experimental groups. However, NO2/NO3 levels were significantly higher in the intermittent and continuous exercise groups compared to the control group (P<0.01). After the high-fat meal ingestion the FMD% decreased in the no-exercise and continuous exercise group but significatively increased in the intermittent exercise group. Furthermore, intermittent exercise was associated with increased TAC compared to no exercise and continuous exercise.

CONCLUSIONS: Moderate intensity intermittent physical exercise was found to be associated with beneficial effects on endothelial function and oxidative stress in the postprandial state. Randomized clinical trials assessing the effect of intermittent versus continuous physical exercise on hard outcomes of cardiovascular disease and metabolic syndrome are warranted.

1401 Board #182 MAY 30 11:00 AM - 12:30 PM

Antioxidant Supplementation To Prevent The Progression Of Microangiopathy In Hindlimb Unloading-induced Atrophied Soleus Muscle In Rats

Hidemi Fujino1, Miho Kanazashi1, Hiroyo Kondo2, Shinichiro Murakami1, Naoto Fujita1, Fumiko Nagatomo3, Akihiko Ishihara3. 1Kobe University Graduate School of Health Sciences, Kobe, Japan. 2Nagoya Women’s University, Nagoya, Japan. 3Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan.

(No relationships reported)

PURPOSE: Exposure of skeletal muscle to oxidative stress increases the expression of important components of the proteasome proteolytic system and induces the damage of endothelial cell. The aim of this study was to explore the effects of the antioxidant supplementation during the phase of unloading on capillary regression in atrophied soleus muscle.

METHODS: Four groups of Wistar rats were studied: control (Con), control with ASX (Con+ASX), hindlimb unloading (HU), hindlimb unloading with astaxanthin (HU+ASX) groups. In the Con+ASX and HU+ASX groups, astaxanthin (ASX) was orally administered twice in a day for seven consecutive days (50mg/kg). Hindlimb unloading was applied to animals by suspending their tails for seven days. Intracellular ROS generation was determined by use of the redox-sensitive probe dihydroethidium. The capillary network of the soleus muscle was visualized using confocal laser microscopy. The expression levels of SOD-1 and VEGF protein were measured by immunoblotting and the mRNA expression levels of angiogenic factors (VEGF, KDR, Flt-1, Ang-1, Ang-2, Tie-2, and HIF-1 alpha) in the soleus muscle were determined by TaqMan probe-based real-time PCR.

RESULTS: HU resulted in an increase of ROS and a decrease of the number of capillaries, capillary volume, and capillary luminal diameter. Namely, the capillary network of the soleus muscle regressed in HU. In addition, HU caused the overexpression of SOD-1 and decreased the expression level of VEGF. However, the capillary network of the soleus muscle prevented disuse-induced capillary regression in HU+ASX. Furthermore, ASX supplementation abolished the unloading-induced overexpression in SOD-1 and attenuated the decrease in VEGF expression, and other angiogenic factors.

CONCLUSIONS: These results revealed that astaxanthin is effective to attenuate the development of oxidative stress and maintain the architecture of capillary network in disused skeletal muscle.<br

Supported by Grants-in-Aid for Science Research from the Japanese Ministry.

1402 Board #183 MAY 30 11:00 AM - 12:30 PM

Uric Acid Is A Key Antioxidant Against Iron-mediated Oxidative Stress In Resistance/power Exercise.

Marcelo P. Barros1, Leandro Lorenço-Lima1, Douglas Ganini2, Cristina V. Vardaris1, Etelvino J.H. Bechara3, Rui Curi4, Tacito P. Souza-Junior5. 1Universidade Cruzeiro do Sul, Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil. 2National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, NIH, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, NC. 3Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP), Diadema, SP, Brazil. 4Universidade de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil. 5Universidade Federal do Parana, Curitiba, PR, Brazil. (Sponsor: Tania Pithon-Curi, FACSM)

(No relationships reported)

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are normally produced in humans during endurance (mainly by mitochondrial electron transport system) or resistance exercise (augmented xanthine oxidase activity in cytosol). Drastic drops in performance, precocious fatigue, exacerbated inflammation processes, and injury risk are regular outcomes of the excessive production of ROS in athletes. Paradoxically, balanced ROS production is also essential to provide the desired physiological adaptations of training and also the health benefits from exercise. Furthermore, iron homeostasis is recognized as a key factor in controlling oxidative stress during exercise.

PURPOSE: This work aims to evaluate key biomarkers of iron-related oxidative stress in plasma of young athletes after an anaerobic power test.

METHODS: Young male college athletes (n = 17; age, 23.1 ± 5.8 years; height, 175.4 ± 2.3 cm; weight, 81.1 ± 9.3 kg; from Universidade Metodista de Santos, Brazil) were selected. A Wingate Test was carried out using a Cybex cycle ergometer with increasing loads up to 10% BW (after familiarization and pre-heat procedure for 5 min). Blood samples (5 mL) were collected before (t0) and 5/60 min after (t5 and t60) the Wingate test, and total iron, heme-iron, uric acid, xanthine oxidase activity (XO), ferric-reducing activity (FRAP), and malondialdehyde (MDA, biomarker of lipid oxidation) were measured in plasma. RESULTS:Plasma iron content was increased immediately after Wingate (up to 3-fold, at t5), whereas heme-iron content only varied slightly (25% maximum). However, total FRAP levels varied consistently with total iron (R2 = 0.939) in order to limit iron-mediated lipid oxidation in plasma. Remarkably, uric acid - a major purine catabolite from energy(ATP)-depleted muscles - accumulated in plasma lately (25% higher at t60) to adequately provide an extended antioxidant capacity, as shown by its high correlation with FRAP (R2 = 0.788).

CONCLUSIONS: Even under exhaustive conditions, there is a tight control of iron homeostasis in plasma of athletes, and uric acid, massively produced by exhausting muscles during resistance/power exercise, contributes to restrain oxidative stress in plasma based mostly on its iron-chelating capacity, identified here by FRAP activity. Financial support: FAPESP, CAPES & CNPq (Brazil).

1403 Board #184 MAY 30 11:00 AM - 12:30 PM

The Effect of Quercetin Supplementation on Volitional Fatigue and Skeletal Muscle Mass Retention During Cancer Cachexia

Justin P. Hardee, Kandy T. Velazquez, Melissa J. Puppa, Johannes D. Aartun, Aditi A. Narsale, Shuichi Sato, J Mark Davis, FACSM, James A. Carson, FACSM. University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC.

(No relationships reported)

Cancer cachexia (CC) has been defined as an unintentional 10% loss of body weight (BW) over a 12-month period that occurs in the presence of an underlying disease. Two common hallmarks of CC are decreased muscle mass and hypogonadism. The APCMin/+ mouse is an IL-6 dependent model of CC.

PURPOSE: To determine the effects of quercetin supplementation on volitional grip strength, muscle mass, and testes size during the progression of CC.

METHODS: At 15 weeks of age, male C57BL/6 and APCMin/+ mice were randomly assigned to vehicle (B6 and Min-V) or quercetin supplementation (Min-Q) for 3 weeks. Quercetin was administered via oral gavage daily at a dose of 25 mg/kg of BW. Grip strength was measured pre- and post-supplementation.

RESULTS: Cachexia decreased grip strength 19% (B6: 2.42 ± 0.07 N vs Min: 2.01 ± 0.08 N; p < 0.001); however, quercetin maintained grip strength over 3 weeks (Min-V: 1.67 ± 0.08 N vs Min-Q: 2.09 ± 0.13 N). Bodyweight decreased 13% (p < 0.001) with cachexia; while quercetin attenuated BW loss (Min-Q: -7%). Cachexia decreased gastrocnemius (GAS) muscle mass 33% and rectus femoris (RF) muscle mass 37% (p < 0.05); whereas quercetin attenuated muscle mass loss. Cachexia reduced testes size 29% (p < 0.01) and quercetin attenuated the loss (Min-Q: 12%). Min GAS and RF muscle mass were correlated with testes size (R2 = 0.68 and 0.62, p < 0.05, respectively).

CONCLUSION: Quercetin supplementation for 3 weeks maintained volitional grip strength in mice undergoing cachexia, which may be due to the retention of muscle mass and testes size. Funded by NCI R01-CA121249

A-37 Free Communication/Poster - Occupational Physiology

MAY 30, 2012 7:30 AM - 12:30 PM

ROOM: Exhibit Hall

1404 Board #185 MAY 30 11:00 AM - 12:30 PM

Daily Aspirin Therapy Does Not Increase Body Core Temperature Responses in Firefighters During Exertion in Thermal Protective Clothing

Serina J. McEntire, Steven E. Reis, Diane Comer, Charity G. Moore, Riana R. Pryor, Jennifer Erin, Priya Khorana, Joe Suyama, Francis X. Guyette, David Hostler. University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA. (Sponsor: Robert Robertson, PhD, FACSM)

(No relationships reported)

Heart attack is the most common cause of line-of-duty deaths in the fire service. Daily aspirin therapy is a common preventative measure used to reduce the morbidity of heart attacks in the general population. However, the mechanism of aspirin can hypothetically impair thermoregulation and anecdotal reports have suggested aspirin use increases the risk of heat illness. In spite of these observations, the safety profile of aspirin during uncompensable heat stress has not been well described.

PURPOSE: Determine if fourteen days of daily aspirin therapy (81mg PO) alters body core temperature responses during exertion in the heat while wearing thermal protective clothing (TPC).

METHODS: In this double-blind, placebo controlled study, 102 firefighters were randomized to receive either 14 days of aspirin (N=54) or a placebo (N=48) prior to completing a 50 minute bout of treadmill exercise in the heat (38.9±1.1°C; 24±7% RH) while wearing TPC and self contained breathing apparatus. Heart rate, weighted mean skin temperature, and body core temperature were monitored throughout the 50 minutes of exercise.

RESULTS: There were no differences in age, height, mass, BMI, or VO2max between groups. Heart rate at the end of exercise did not differ between aspirin and placebo groups (174±17 vs. 171±17 bpm, respectively). In the aspirin group, baseline core body temperature was 37.1±0.3°C, which was similar to the placebo group (37.2±0.5°C; p=0.55). Maximal body core temperature was 38.7±0.5°C in the aspirin group and 38.6±0.5°C in the placebo group (p=0.39). The percent change in core temperature from baseline was 4.3±1.2% in the aspirin group and 3.9±1.6% in the placebo group (p=0.20). Upon completion of exercise, maximal weighted skin temperature was 38.3±0.5°C in the aspirin group and 38.1±0.6° in the placebo groups. Skin temperature rose 12.5±2.3% from baseline in the aspirin group and 12.2±2.6% with the placebo (p=0.55).

CONCLUSIONS: Fourteen days of aspirin therapy does not alter temperature responses among firefighters performing exertion in the heat.

1405 Board #186 MAY 30 11:00 AM - 12:30 PM

Physiological and Thermoregulatory Responses to Wearing N95 Filtering Facepiece Respirators

Jung-Hyun Kim, Raymond J. Roberge, Stacey M. Benson. CDC/NIOSH/NPPTL, Pittsburgh, PA.

(No relationships reported)

The use of filtering facepiece respirators (FFR) has increased enormously in both public and occupational sectors for respiratory protection from infectious airborne particles. The N95 class of FFR, which filters out at least 95% of airborne particles >0.3 μm, is the most common type of FFR; however, there has been a lack of scientific information on physiological and thermal burdens of wearing N95 FFR.

PURPOSE: To investigate physiological and thermoregulatory responses to wearing N95 FFRs while performing low-moderate intensity exercise.

METHODS: Twenty healthy subjects (13 men, 7 women), who passed a physical examination and a respirator quantitative fit test, performed three trials of treadmill exercise (5.6 km/h, 0% grade, 60min duration) in a thermoneutral environment (21.4±0.7°C, 23.5±7.9%) while wearing two popular styles (cup-shaped and flat fold) of N95 FFR or not wearing FFR for control (CON). Study variables included core body temperature (Tco), skin temperature at the cheek (Tcheek) and abdomen (Tabdomen), heart rate (HR), respiratory rate (RR), transcutaneous carbon dioxide (tcPCO2), and oxygen saturation (SpO2). Deadspace microclimate temperature and humidity were also measured in FFR trials. Data were analyzed by two-way (Trials × Time) repeated measures ANOVA.

RESULTS: Tco, Tcheek, and Tabdomen rose significantly by time in all trials (p<0.001) and the final deadspace microclimate temperature and humidity reached up to 33°C and 90%, respectively. However, there was no statistical difference in these temperature variables between CON and the FFR trials. HR and RR increased significantly by time in all trials (p<0.001), but at a greater rate in the FFR trials than in CON (HR; P<0.001, RR; P<0.01). There was no statistical difference in SpO2 levels between CON and FFR trials, however, tcPCO2 levels were significantly higher in the FFR trials than in CON (p<0.001).

CONCLUSION: Wearing N95 FFR while performing low-moderate work for 60 min in a thermoneutral environment did not impose a significant thermal burden on the wearer. However, significantly elevated HR and RR in the FFR trials indicated that wearing N95 FFR may add additional metabolic demands. Also, breathing through N95 FFR did not interfere with SpO2, but caused some mild degree of CO2 retention (tcPCO2 ≥ 45 mmHg).

1406 Board #187 MAY 30 11:00 AM - 12:30 PM

Increased Salivary Cortisol and State Anxiety Levels in Firefighter Candidates during Repeated Fire Suppression Tasks

Deena Campbell1, Heather E. Webb2, Christopher J. Jackson1, Daniel Cross3. 1University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia. 2Mississippi State University, Starkville, MS. 3Mississippi State Fire Academy, Jackson, MS.

(No relationships reported)

Research suggests that the combined psychological and physiological stress load of firefighting may contribute to an exacerbated cortisol response during fire suppression.

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to examine the salivary cortisol (SCORT) response in firefighter candidates during simulated fire suppression tasks.

METHODS: Twelve firefighter candidates (age = 25.25 ± 5.69) participated in two research sessions, an informational session during which consent and demographic/psychometric data were obtained, and a second session in which the candidates completed two fire suppression evolutions. In each evolution, the participants entered the burn building in pairs and undertook fire suppression tasks. Baseline measures of SCORT and state anxiety (SAI) were collected immediately prior to each evolution, and collected again within 5 minutes of completion of each evolution.

RESULTS: The fire suppression tasks resulted in elevated SCORT levels (when controlling for participant order) compared to baseline in both evolution 1 and 2 (t = 11.27, p = 0.004 and t = 44.07, p = 0.000 respectively). Anxiety levels also increased but did not reach significance in evolution 1, and increased significantly in evolution 2 (t = -2.66, p = 0.026).

CONCLUSIONS: These finding suggest that the candidates experienced both physical and psychological stress in both evolutions. Further, findings suggest that the experience of the first evolution did not reduce the psychological stress and the resultant physiological load of the second evolution.

1407 Board #188 MAY 30 11:00 AM - 12:30 PM

Review of Current Minimum Riding Weights in Australian Horse Racing - Implications for Jockey Health and Wellbeing

Caron B. Jander1, David A. Greene2, Helen O’Connor3, Giles D. Warrington, FACSM4. 1Australian Racing Board, Freshwater, Australia. 2Australian Catholic University, Strathfield, NSW, Australia. 3University of Sydney, Lidcombe, NSW, Australia. 4Dublin City University, Dublin, Ireland.

(No relationships reported)

Despite the international popularity of horse racing there is a dearth of population specific research available describing the physiological demands and health and lifestyle characteristics of jockeys. Given the weight-restricted nature of horse racing, jockeys often engage in extreme and unhealthy weight-loss practices, which are likely to place riders at an increased risk of injury. As a consequence, the Australian Racing Board (ARB) commissioned a scientific review of the minimum riding weight for flat jockeys.

PURPOSE: The purpose of this review was to identify potential health issues associated with jockeys complying with current stipulated weight standards operating in Australian horse racing.

METHODS: The review comprised (i) a comprehensive review of national height and weight statistics, (ii) a review of the international scientific literature on population specific normative data , (iii) evaluations of race-day jockey urine samples collected on 875 jockeys over the past 3 years in New South Wales for determination of urine specific gravity (Usg) (iv) and the comparison of the results of Usg samples collected for the purpose of drug testing in the work place in the state of Victoria on 452 petrochemical workers (control group) and 305 jockeys at the race course.

RESULTS: Jockeys were found to have 8 key health issues associated with race riding. Issues included: ‘Making weight’; poor dietary practices; compromised bone health; dehydration; smoking; engaging in a high risk sport; lifestyle challenges; and mood disorders. Disturbing levels of consistent and pervasive dehydration were found in jockeys both on race day and non-race days. Results indicate that on race day 48.4% of 875 samples indicated significant dehydration,(Usg ≤1.025), 27% had moderate to high levels of dehydration (Usg<1.025 and ≥ 1.02), 24.5 % within the dehydration threshold as defined by Sawka et al., 2007 (Usg ≤1.020)

CONCLUSION: Based on these findings, the following recommendations were presented to the ARB; (i) increase the minimum riding weight by 1 kg to 54 kg; and (ii) increase the median and maximum riding weight by 1 kg. It is anticipated that immediate health outcomes will result in a decrease in the extreme dehydrating practices currently employed by many jockeys.

1408 Board #189 MAY 30 11:00 AM - 12:30 PM

Anthropometric Measurements of Obesity and Their Link to Lifestyle and Cardiovascular Risk in Colorado Firefighters

Tiffany Lipsey, Lorin O’Toole, Tracy Nelson, Jennifer Peel, Richard G. Israel, FACSM. Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO.

(No relationships reported)

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in firefighters as it is in the general population. Despite data promoting Colorado as the leanest state in the nation and the image of firefighters as healthy and physically fit, obesity is evident in Colorado firefighters and continues to be an important CVD risk factor. Job performance and health outcomes among those in public safety are greatly impacted by obesity despite the perception of the general public that firefighters are healthy and fit.

PURPOSE: To determine obesity prevalence, depending on measurement and classification, and its association with lifestyle factors and cardiovascular (CV) risk in a cohort of Colorado firefighters.

METHODS: Analyses were conducted on data from 466 Colorado firefighters (41 females; 425 males; mean age 38 y). Using standard classification cut-points, rates of obesity were determined using body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD), and percent body fat (%BF) from skin fold (SF) and hydrodensiometry (H) measurements. Lifestyle factors used in the analysis included diet, physical activity, sleep, and stress. Lipids, C-reactive protein (CRP), predicted maximal oxygen consumption and strength measures were also included. CV risk was also assessed using the Cooper Risk Profile. Correlation statistics were run for each anthropometric measure with the above variables.

RESULTS: Obesity prevalence varied by measurement in females and males respectively: BMI=9.8 %, 19.1%; WC=19.5%, 19.8%; SAD=31.6%, 43.5%; %BF(SF)=17.1%, 15.1%; and %BF(H)=23.7%, 28.6%. In both sexes, anthropometric measures were positively correlated with triglycerides and CRP but inversely associated with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, sit & reach, and estimated maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max)(besides BMI in females ) (p≤0.05). All anthropometric measures were significantly correlated with CV risk (p≤0.05) except WHR in females. The strongest link to CV risk was %BF(SF) in females and WHR in males.

CONCLUSIONS: The rate of obesity in Colorado firefighters varies depending on the measure used. There are significant associations between obesity, lifestyle factors and CV risk that should be further explored in light of the already increased risk for CVD in firefighters.

1409 Board #190 MAY 30 11:00 AM - 12:30 PM

The Beneficial Effects Of Walking Following Repeated Bouts Of Sustained Static Postures

François Taillefer, Jean P. Boucher, FACSM, M Zummo, R Savard, A S. Comtois. University of Quebec in Montreal, Montreal, QC, Canada.

(No relationships reported)

PURPOSE: We have shown that 20 min of various sit, sit-stand and stand static postures interspersed by 5 min walking periods was beneficial for lower limb muscle blood flow and oxygenation (Taillefer et al., 2011). However, the physiological impact of walking on the lower limbs following static postures remains to be shown, especially in individuals confronted with varicose veins. Thus, the present study measured the physiological effects of a 5’ walk following repeated bouts of 20’ static periods.

METHODS: Two groups (n = 10 per group) of women (without varicose veins, C0 and with varicose veins, C2) were studied during the maintenance of 6 twenty minute periods of different static postures all interspersed by 5 min walking periods. The following measurements were continuously recorded on the left lower limb during each static and walking periods: blood perfusion (foot), transcutaneous partial pressure (TcP) of O2 and CO2 (foot), cutaneous temperature (Ct, medial malleola), EMG of the gastrocnemius muscle, VO2, and heart rate (HR).

RESULTS: Physiological variables were pooled since no significant differences were observed between both groups (C0 vs C2). The variables were significantly (p<0.05) modified during walking when compared to the static postures (blood perfusion, 120.0 ± 35.31 vs 5,7 ± 1.79 perfusion units; TcPO2, 75.7 ± 19.56 vs 59.4 ± 16.77 mmHg; TcPCO2, 27.48 ± 5.83 vs 33.1 ± 5.82 mmHg; Ct, 28.4 ± 1.60 vs 27.8 ± 1.34; EMG, 23.4 ± 9.50 vs 2.3 ± 2.50 mV; VO2, 629.9 ± 195.50 vs 219.9 ± 40.10 ml*min-1; HR, 84.7 ± 10.40 vs 72.5 ± 10.60 b*min-1, respectively).

CONCLUSIONS: The varicose vein group (C2) responded very similarly to the non varicose vein group (C0) during walking. These results indicate the importance of walking to maintain lower limb oxygenation to possibly minimize the cascade of physiological events leading to the appearance of varicose veins, especially when these individuals have to maintain prolonged static postures.

1410 Board #191 MAY 30 11:00 AM - 12:30 PM

The Effect of Pre-cooling on Cardiovascular and Metabolic Strain During Incremental Exercise

Eric M. Hultquist1, Logan Arena1, Welsey K. Lefferts1, Thomas W. Storer2, Christopher B. Cooper, FACSM2, Patricia C. Fehling, FACSM1, Denise L. Smith, FACSM1. 1Skidmore College, Saratoga Springs, NY. 2UCLA, Los Angeles, CA.

(No relationships reported)

Pre-cooling has been shown to improve endurance performance and to lessen heart rate (HR) for a given level of work. However, the effect of pre-cooling on the relationship between HR and oxygen uptake (VO2) has not been well studied.

PURPOSE: To investigate the relationship between cardiovascular and metabolic responses during maximal exercise performed at either normal or depressed core temperature (Tco).

METHODS: Ten men (age, 21 ± 1 yr; VO2max, 60.2 ± 6.9 ml·kg-1·min-1) performed a maximal treadmill test following two conditions: (a) control (CON), in which participants rested in a thermoneutral laboratory (21.6 ± 4.8 °C), and (b) pre-cooling (PC), during which participants were submerged up to their armpits in 23.1 ± 0.2 °C water for 24 min. The chronotropic index (CI) was derived from the slope of the regression line between HR and VO2. A repeated measures ANOVA was employed to examine differences in Tco, HR, and VO2 and the CI. Significance was set at P < 0.05.

RESULTS: Prior to the onset of exercise Tco was significantly lower for PC (36.69 ± 0.32 °C) compared to CON (37.12 ± 0.39 °C; P < 0.05). Time to fatigue was significantly longer in the CON (914 ± 97 s) compared to the PC condition (889 ± 97 s). Tco during exercise remained consistently lower for PC compared to CON (P < 0.05). Furthermore, there was a significant condition x time interaction for Tco between conditions (P < 0.05). VO2 was not significantly different between conditions. PC resulted in an 8-10 b·min-1 lower HR than the CON condition at any given time point during the exercise protocol and at peak (PC, 178 ± 9 b·min-1; CON, 188 ± 6 b·min-1). The CI did not differ between conditions; however, the y-intercept was significantly lower for PC compared to CON (PC, 53.6 ± 11.0; CON, 67.3 ± 11.0).

CONCLUSION: Reductions in Tco significantly reduced cardiovascular strain (HR) at any given workload and decreased time to fatigue. However, pre-cooling did not change VO2 or alter the relationship between HR and VO2 (CI). Although there was no change in the CI, pre-cooling decreased the HR response, shifting the regression line down. These results suggest potential use of pre-cooling to mitigate cardiovascular strain in firefighters.

Supported by contract from DHS Science and Technology (UCLA contractor).

1411 Board #192 MAY 30 11:00 AM - 12:30 PM

Cardiovascular and Metabolic Responses During Maximal Incremental Exercise in Firefighter’s Personal Protective Equipment

Wesley K. Lefferts1, Eric M. Hultquist1, David A. Barr1, Thomas W. Storer2, Christopher B. Cooper, FACSM2, Patricia C. Fehling, FACSM1, Denise L. Smith, FACSM1. 1Skidmore College, Saratoga Springs, NY. 2UCLA, Los Angeles, CA.

(No relationships reported)

Personal protective equipment (PPE) is worn by firefighters to protect them from work related hazards. Work in PPE increases the metabolic cost of a given work load. Due to added weight, restrictive properties and the circulatory effects of full encapsulation, working in PPE may affect the relationship between heart rate (HR) and oxygen uptake (VO2) as expressed as the chronotropic index (CI) (slope of the regression line for HR vs.VO2); however, the extent to which the physiological stress imposed by PPE impacts the CI is unknown.

PURPOSE: To investigate the effects of PPE on cardiovascular and metabolic responses during incremental exercise and to determine if PPE affects the CI.

METHODS: HR and VO2 were measured in 10 male participants (age, 21 ± 2 yr; height, 178 ± 8 cm; weight, 76.2 ± 3.1 kg; VO2max, 51.9 ± 5.0 ml·kg-1·min-1) when performing graded exercise tests across 3 conditions: control (CON; wearing athletic attire), wearing PPE (PPE) and weighted vest (WV) (weight equal to PPE).

RESULTS: Time to exhaustion was significantly different across all 3 conditions (CON, 866 ± 121 s; PPE, 582 ± 92 s; WV, 671 ± 105 s; (P < 0.01). Over time, submaximal VO2 and HR were significantly lower in the CON condition (P < 0.01) compared to the PPE and WV conditions, which were similar to each other. Peak HR was significantly higher in the CON (191 ± 11 b·min-1) condition compared to the WV (187 ± 10 b·min-1) and PPE (183 ± 9 b·min-1) conditions (P < 0.01). There was a tendency for peak HR in the PPE condition to be lower than the WV condition (P = 0.07). VO2max was significantly different among all 3 conditions (P < 0.01). VO2max was 9.4% higher in the CON (3.96 ± 0.5 l·min-1) condition compared to the PPE (3.62 ± 0.4 l·min-1) condition (P < 0.01). VO2max was 4.8% higher in the CON condition compared to the WV (3.78 ± 0.4 l·min-1) condition; however, this was not statistically significant (P = 0.07). The CI (CON, 31.8 ± 4.4; PPE, 31.7 ± 5.4; WV, 32.6 ± 4.6) and y-intercept (CON, 72.1 ± 20.7; PPE, 74.6 ± 23.8; WV, 72.0 ± 18.8) were similar across all conditions.

CONCLUSION: The present study has shown that increasing the physiological strain with PPE or equivalent weight increases HR and VO2; however, the tight linear relationship between HR and VO2 (CI) remains unaffected.

Supported by contract from DHS Science and Technology (UCLA contractor).

1412 Board #193 MAY 30 11:00 AM - 12:30 PM

The Relationship Between Bmi And A Graded Maximal CPR Compression Test

Patrick W. Davidson1, Christopher C. Dunbar, FACSM2, Robert Curran3, Paul F. Martinowicz2. 1Springfield College, Springfield, MA. 2Brooklyn College, Brooklyn, NY. 3Brooklyn College, Brooklyn College, NY.

(No relationships reported)

PURPOSE: To determine if there was a relationship between subject BMI and VO2peak during an Incremental Work Test using a CPR simulator (IWT)

METHODS: Eleven male subjects (age: 23 +/- 4 yrs; body mass: 81.06 +/- 11.40 kg; BMI: 25.86 +/- 3.03 kg/m2) underwent the following conditions: 1) Incremental Work Test (IWT): using a CPR simulator where the cadence of CPR compressions increased every 30 sec to volitional fatigue 2) Treadmill VO2max (TM): incremental oxygen consumption (VO2) test using the Bruce Protocol. During all conditions VO2 and Heart Rate (HR) were measured using a Parvo-Medics True One 2400 Metabolic Measurement System (Sandy, Utah).

RESULTS: The VO2peak measured during maximal graded treadmill testing using the Bruce Protocol averaged 38.13 mL/kg/min +/- 5.98. The VO2peak measured during maximal graded CPR compression testing averaged 14.76 mL/kg/min +/- 3.46. There was no relationship found between subject BMI and TM; however, a significant (p < .05) inverse relationship was found between subject BMI and IWT

CONCLUSION: A significant inverse relationship was found between BMI and IWT. The results indicate that the larger an individual is relative to height, the poorer the performance during repeated CPR compressions irrespective of cardiorespiratory fitness as measured by treadmill exercise.

1413 Board #194 MAY 30 11:00 AM - 12:30 PM

Changes in Physical Fitness and Anthropometry of Police Academy Cadets During a 16-Week Physical Training Program

Ross A. Sherman, Amy A. Crawley, William R. Crawley, William J. Burgess, III. Grand Valley State University, Allendale, MI. (Sponsor: Jeffrey A. Potteiger, FACSM)

(No relationships reported)

Law-enforcement organizations require their employees to attain and maintain a threshold level of physical fitness so they are ‘fit to work’. As part of a college-run police academy, cadets undertake a structured 16-week physical training program.

PURPOSE: To describe changes in physical fitness and anthropometry of police academy cadets during their 16-wk physical training program.

METHODS: 15 cadets (24±4 yrs; 1.80±0.08 m), thirteen males and two females, were tested in Wks 1, 8, and 16 of their 3-day per wk police academy training program. A battery of tests was used to assess physical fitness (flexibility, vertical jump, grip strength, sprint speed, and agility) and anthropometrical characteristics (body mass and body fat) and . Time-related changes in each test are shown as mean difference and 95% confidence interval (CI).

RESULTS: Only 40-yd sprint time substantially improved during the 16-wk program; specifically between Wk 1 and Wk 8 (-0.45 [-0.78 to -0.12] s). However, flexibility was found to marginally decrease during the 16-wk program (Wk 1-16: -5.4 [-10.9 to 0.1] cm). The remaining markers of physical fitness did not change (see Table 1.).

Neither body mass (Wk 1-16: -1.9 [-15.0 to 11.1] kg) nor body fat (Wk 1-16: -0.6 [-4.6 to 3.3]%) changed during the course of the 16-wk training program.

Table 1
Table 1
Image Tools

CONCLUSION: The 16-wk physical training program currently used had little or no impact on pre-academy physical fitness or anthropometric characteristics. Only 40-yd sprint performance improving during the first eight week block, and there were no improvements in any test during the second eight week block.

1414 Board #195 MAY 30 11:00 AM - 12:30 PM

Wildland Firefighters Demonstrate Seasonal Acclimatization to the Heat Despite No Changes in Aerobic Fitness

Brianna Lui, Walter S. Hailes, John S. Cuddy, Brent C. Ruby, FACSM. Montana Center for Work Physiology and Exercise Metabolism, The University of Montana, Missoula, MT.

(No relationships reported)

Wildland fire suppression involves long hours of strenuous work across rugged terrain with frequent exposure to high ambient temperatures. These physical demands of the job, coupled with the environmental conditions, increase the probability of heat related injury (HRI). Although heat acclimatization may mitigate the risk of HRI, the degree to which wildland firefighter’s (WLFF) demonstrate seasonal acclimatization is unknown.

PURPOSE: To determine the physiological changes associated with heat acclimatization across the 4-month fire season in the western United States.

METHODS: (n=26 males) 12 WLFF (27 ± 7 yrs; 179 ± 7 cm; 79 ± 10 kg) and a comparison group of 14 non-WLFF (25 ± 4 yrs; 180 ± 7 cm; 77.7 ± 8.8 kg) completed a 60-min heat stress trial (treadmill walking at 50% VO2max) in a climate controlled chamber (43.3°C, 33% RH) prior to and following the western Montana fire season (May and September, respectively). VO2max and body composition was also measured pre- and post-season. Core temperature, heart rate, and physiological stress index (PSI) was continuously monitored and analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA. A significance level was set at p<0.05.

RESULTS: VO2max did not change for the WLFF across the season. In contrast, non-WLFF demonstrated a significant increased in VO2 max (55.9 ± 7.8 ml/kg/min vs. 58.7 ± 8.6 ml/kg/min pre and post season, respectively, p<0.05). Neither group demonstrated significant seasonal differences in the heart rate response to the heat stress trials. In contrast, WLFF demonstrated a significant seasonal reduction in core temperature during the heat stress trials at 45-min (38.1 ± 0.31°C vs. 38.2 ± 0.30°C, p=0.032) and 60-min (38.2 ± 0.39°C vs. 38.5 ± 0.34°C, p=0.022). WLFF PSI also demonstrated a significant seasonal decrease from 5.84 ± 1.3 to 5.13 ± 1.2 (p<0.05, main effect of season). There were no differences in core temperature or PSI for the non-WLFF.

CONCLUSIONS: WLFF demonstrate significant changes in seasonal acclimatization to exercising in the heat independent of changes in aerobic capacity. This suggests that long-term exposure to the environment strongly drives adaptation to hot environments.

1415 Board #196 MAY 30 11:00 AM - 12:30 PM

Deployment of an Advanced Electrocardiographic Analysis (A-ECG) to Detect Cardiovascular Risk in Career Firefighters

Brett A. Dolezal1, Tom Storer1, Marlon Abrazado1, Reed Watne1, Todd Schlegel2, Maxim Batalin1, William Kaiser1, Denise Smith, FACSM3, Christ Cooper, FACSM1. 1UCLA, Los Angeles, CA. 2NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX. 3Skidmore College, Saratoga Springs, NY.

(No relationships reported)

INTRODUCTION: Sudden cardiac death is the leading cause of line of duty death among firefighters, accounting for approximately 45% of fatalities annually. Firefighters perform strenuous muscular work while wearing heavy, encapsulating personal protective equipment in high ambient temperatures, under chaotic and emotionally stressful conditions. These factors can precipitate sudden cardiac events like myocardial infarction, serious dysrhythmias, or cerebrovascular accidents in firefighters with underlying cardiovascular disease.

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to deploy and then evaluate the contribution of resting advanced ECG (A-ECG) in addition to other screening tools (family history, lipid profiles, and cardiopulmonary exercise tests, XT) in assessment of an individual’s cardiac risk profile.

METHODS: Forty-four career firefighters were recruited to perform comprehensive baseline assessments including tests of aerobic performance, fasting lipids and glucose. Five-min resting 12-lead A-ECGs were obtained in a subset of firefighters (n=21) and transmitted over a secure networked system to a NASA physician collaborator. Using myocardial perfusion and other imaging as the gold standard, A-ECG scoring has been proven useful in accurately identifying a number of cardiac pathologies including coronary artery disease (CAD), left ventricular hypertrophy, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, and non-ischemic and ischemic cardiomyopathy.

RESULTS: Subjects’ mean (SD) age was 43 (8) years, weight 91 (13) kg, and BMI 28 (3) kg/m2. Fifty-one percent of subjects had ≥3 cardiovascular risk factors. One subject had ST depression on XT ECG, at least one positive A-ECG score for CAD, and documented CAD based on cardiology referral. While all other subjects, including those with fewer risk factors, higher aerobic fitness, and normal exercise ECGs, were classified as healthy by A-ECG, there was no trend for association between risk factors and any of 20 A-ECG parameters in the grouped data.

CONCLUSIONS: We have demonstrated that remote capture of a standard resting 12-lead ECG analyzed with advanced algorithms is a simple, time and cost-effective approach that offers the prospect of early identification of individuals potentially at risk for line-of-duty death from cardiovascular incidents.

A-38 Free Communication/Poster - Older Adults

MAY 30, 2012 7:30 AM - 12:30 PM

ROOM: Exhibit Hall

1416 Board #197 MAY 30 9:30 AM - 11:00 AM

The Practice of Physical Exercise is a Modifiable Factor for Urge Urinary Incontinence in Older

Giovana Zarpellon Mazo, Virtuoso Franck Janeisa. UDESC, Florianópolis, Brazil.

(No relationships reported)

The symptoms of urinary urgency tend to increase with advancing age. The literature suggests a number of risk factors that can be modified by an active lifestyle through healthy eating and physical exercise.

PURPOSE: To examine the modifiable risk factors of urge urinary incontinence (UUI) in older women.

METHODS: The sample consisted of 200 elderly (60 years or older) with a mean age of 69,06 ± 6,26 years. We identified the presence of UUI and behavioral risk factors (consumption of coffee, alcohol consumption, smoking and presence of constipation). Was also applied to the Domain 4 for International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) to identify the level of physical activity and measured body mass index and waist circumference. The data were processed using descriptive and inferential statistics with a significance level of 5%.

RESULTS: The prevalence of UUI in the sample was 15,5%. Among the modifiable factors, only the level of physical activity was associated with the occurrence of UUI, and the physical exercise appeared as a protective factor among very active women (OR = 0,288) and less active (OR = 0,356).

CONCLUSIONS: The symptoms of urgency can be softened by regular physical exercise. Through a healthy lifestyle can minimize a number of modifiable factors in the genesis of urge urinary incontinence.

1417 Board #198 MAY 30 9:30 AM - 11:00 AM

Intermuscular Adipose Tissue Change is Related to Improved Physical Performance in Older Adults

Adam J. Santanasto, Anne B. Newman, Robert M. Boudreau, Mark A. Newman, Bret H. Goodpaster, Nancy W. Glynn. University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA.

(No relationships reported)

Obesity exacerbates age-related declines in physical function, but there is controversy about the whether older adults should lose weight and whether weight or particular aspects of body composition should be targeted.

PURPOSE: To determine the relationship between changes in body composition and physical function in older adults, who participated in a 1 yr intervention study of physical activity + weight loss (PA+WL) compared to physical activity (PA).

METHODS: Thirty-six overweight to moderately obese (body mass index (BMI) 28-39.9 kg/m2) sedentary older adults mean age 70.3±5.9 yrs were randomized (GRP) to a 12 month program. PA program had a goal of 150 min/wk treadmill walking plus lower limb resistance and balance. The PA+WL group also underwent a weight loss intervention promoting 7% weight loss. Calorie and fat gram goals were based on the Diabetes Prevention Program. At baseline (BL) and 12-months (12) computerized tomography (CT) for intermuscular adipose tissue (IMAT) area of the thigh, visceral adipose tissue (VAT) area, thigh muscle area, muscle density, an indirect measure of intramuscular fat, in Hounsfield units (HU), subcutaneous adipose tissue area , BMI and short physical performance battery (SPPB) were assessed. The relationship between concurrent changes in body composition and physical function were determined using multivariate linear regression. Intervention groups were combined in these analyses.

RESULTS: SPPB score increased by an average of 0.53 ± 1.52 in both groups combined. Changes (BL-12) in several fat depots were associated with change in function. Change in IMAT was significantly related to change in SPPB after adjusting for BL IMAT, GRP and BL SPPB score, βadj = -0.29, SE =0.12, p=0.02; this was not explained by adjustment for change in BMI (βadj-bmi = -0.24, SE =0.12, p=0.05). HU and VAT were each associated with change in SPPB after adjusting for GRP and BL HU or VAT (p=0.06 and 0.05), respectively but these associations were completely attenuated by change in BMI. Change in muscle area was not related to change in SPPB.

CONCLUSION: Change in IMAT was the body composition parameter most strongly related to change in function. Interventions that target IMAT in older adults may be of particular importance for improving function.

Supported by CDC cooperative agreement 1 U48 DP000025

1418 Board #199 MAY 30 9:30 AM - 11:00 AM

Association Between Sociodemographic, Neighborhood Environment And Domain Of Physical Activity Among Middle-aged And Elderly Japanese.

Yoshinobu Saito1, Yuko Oguma2, Shigeru Inoue3, Ayumi Tanaka4, Yoshitaka Kobori4. 1Fujisawa City Health and Medical Center, Fujisawa, Kanagawa, Japan. 2Keio University, Yokohama, Japan. 3Tokyo Medical University, Shinjuku, Japan. 4Fujisawa City Health and Medical Center, Fujisawa, Japan.

(No relationships reported)

Recent studies suggested the importance of neighborhood environment as physical activity determinants. However, few studies have been investigated in Japan.

PURPOSE: To examine the association of moderate-to-vigorous intensity leisure-time physical activity (LTPA), walking for recreation, walking for transportation with sociodemographic/health and neighborhood environmental factors among community dwelling middle-aged and elderly Japanese.

METHODS: The study included 2,449 adults aged 40-69 years living in Fujisawa city, located at 40km southwest of Tokyo, who had taken the Specific Health Checkups in 2009 and responded to the additional survey by mail in 2010. Sociodemographic/health factors (gender, age, education, working, economic, children in household, self-rated health, orthopedic disorders, body mass index), the long version of International Physical Activity Questionnaire and its Environmental Module were obtained. The adjusted odds ratios (OR) of high levels of LTPA, walking for active transportation/recreation were calculated in relation to these sociodemographic/health and neighborhood environmental factors using multiple logistic regression models.

RESULTS: Higher age and good self-rated health were significantly associated with high level of each physical activity outcome (P<0.05). Having work (OR=0.74), presence of children in household (OR=0.65), higher educational attainment (OR=1.58), higher economic status (OR=1.38), good access to recreational facilities (OR=1.26), and not owing household motor vehicles (OR=0.65) were associated with longer LTPA time. Women (OR=0.68), having work (OR=0.52), presence of children in household (OR=0.62), not having strong pain by orthopedic disorders (OR=1.58), seeing people being active (OR=1.41), and good aesthetics (OR=1.37) were associated with longer walking time for recreation. Higher economic status (OR=0.81), not owing household motor vehicles (OR=2.18), good access to shops (OR=1.35), and presence of sidewalks (OR=1.24) were associated with longer walking time for transportation.

CONCLUSION: The results suggest that different individual and neighborhood environmental variables are associated with different physical activity outcomes among community-dwelling middle-aged and elderly Japanese.

1419 Board #200 MAY 30 9:30 AM - 11:00 AM

Assessment of a Physical Activity Program in Low-Income Seniors Living in Independent Community Residences

Leticia Malavasi, Cathy Inouye. California State University, East Bay, Hayward, CA. (Sponsor: Calvin Caplan, FACSM)

(No relationships reported)

The Nutrition and Fitness program offered through the Senior Support Program of the Tri-Valley provides on-site free of charge physical activity classes for low-income seniors living in community residences. Their primary goal is to improve the quality of life in part by helping participants maintain their independence, of which fitness is a pivotal component. The following analysis of senior fitness assessments was conducted on data gathered from five community sites over a 9-18 month time period. Based on those findings, recommendations for programmatic changes will be implemented with oversight from the investigators and following the securement of grant funding.

PURPOSE: To analyze the effect of an on-site physical activity program for independent-living seniors and implement subsequent programmatic changes.

METHODS: Forty-two female (75±4.6 years) and 9 male (81±4 years) participants attended two 60-minute exercise classes per week. Classes were led by 3 different instructors and followed a program template that included a 5-10 min warm-up, 20-30 min aerobic, strength, and balance exercises, 5-10 min cool-down, and 5 min relaxation session. Pre to post-fitness assessments of balance, strength, muscular endurance, agility, and flexibility were analyzed using dependent t-tests. Post-test scores between sites was analyzed using independent t-tests.

RESULTS: Pre to post-strength (bicep curls/30 sec, 16.7±4.9 vs. 19.8±5.1 repetitions, p<0.05) and agility (8’ Up & Go, 7.3±2.2 vs. 7.8±2.6 seconds, p=0.05) increased when data was combined for all sites. Comparison of post-strength scores between one versus multi-instructor sites was also significant (22.6±5.8 vs. 18.8±4.6 repetitions, p=0.02)

CONCLUSION: The lack of change in several fitness parameters and on-site observation of individual classes has led to a number of programmatic recommendations including standardization of instruction, implementation of balance courses, incorporation of activities that utilize large muscle groups, and closer monitoring of exercise intensity.

1420 Board #201 MAY 30 9:30 AM - 11:00 AM

Habitual Physical Activity is Associated With Cognitive Function And The Risk Factors For Hip Fracture In Older Adults

Hyuntae Park1, Youchan Kwon2, Eunhee Kim2, Jinkee Park2, Sangkab Park2. 1National Center for Geriatrics and Gerontology, Aichi, Japan. 2Dong-A University, Busan, Korea, Republic of.

(No relationships reported)

Regular physical activity is an important component of a healthy lifestyle, conferring many physical health benefits, including protection against, osteoporosis, sarcopenia and cognitive impairment. However, only a few study has reported actual daily physical activity levels in relation to the reduction of cognitive function and risk factors of hip fracture.

PURPOSE: In this prospective study, we examined the association between baseline physical activity and cognitive decline and risk factor for hip fracture in order adults.

METHODS: Using the KMMSE, we tested the cognitive function, and participants reported all previous hip fracture with circumstances leading to fracture between baseline and 2 year follow-up. Using an electronic accelerometer calculated total number of steps during a month. Body sway was measured by using the Dynamic Posturography (AMTI OR 6-7-2000, Massachusetts, U.S.A.). Each subject performed 10 m maximal walk speed, maximal step length, one-legged-stand, 40cm step up and down test, and functional reach and trunk flexion tests.

RESULTS: The risk of cognitive decline in the lowest two quartiles (lowest and low activity group, with respectively means of counts of about 3400 and 6800 steps/day) was 1.6-2.6 times higher than in the top quartile (highest group, taking means of about >10000 steps/day). We founded significant lineal associations between physical activity levels and the gait velocity.

Compared with a lowest and low activity group, older adults reporting a high activity group (> 7000 steps/day) had a significantly lower risk of hip fractures such as a lateral body sway, functional reach and maximal step length.

CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we suggest that to improve cognitive decline and the risks of hip fracture older adults should be encouraged to undertake > 7000 steps/day.

1421 Board #202 MAY 30 9:30 AM - 11:00 AM

Evaluating Moderate Intensity Walking With A Hip-worn Accelerometer In Elders

Todd Manini, Jeff Knaggs. University of Florida, Gainesville, FL.

(No relationships reported)

PURPOSE: The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) uses activity counts from accelerometers to objectively categorize the population’s physical activity level. It is unclear activity counts correspond to metabolic effort in older adults. This study set out to examine the association between activity counts derived from a hip-worn accelerometer and metabolic effort in older adults performing usual and rapid paced walking.

METHODS: Forty-five community-dwelling older adults (70-90 years) performed long-distance walking tasks at a self-selected usual and rapid pace in a laboratory setting. During each walking test, participants wore a portable metabolic unit to measure pulmonary gas exchange and a hip-worn accelerometer (Actigraph GT1M) to measure activity counts. Metabolic equivalents (MET) were calculated as ventilation of oxygen (VO2) / 3.5 ml·kg-1·min-1. Values that surpassed 3.0 METs and 2020 counts/min were considered walking at or greater than moderate intensity. Participants were categorized as a “slow walker” if they had a usual pace < 1.0 meters/sec_ a common cutoff used to designate an older person with functional impairments.

RESULTS: Activity counts recorded while walking at rapid (r = 0.62, p < 0.01), but not usual pace (r = 0.24, p = 0.11) was significantly associated with METs. Slow walkers attained only half the amount of activity counts during each walk condition (usual: 1125 ± 132 vs. 2242 ± 121; rapid: 1534 ± 214 vs. 3117 ± 219 counts/min, p < 0.01) while at the same time achieving between 82-90% of MET level of individuals who walked ≥ 1.0 m/sec. When using the NANES cutoff of 2020 counts/min, 75% of slow walkers were misclassified as not achieving a moderate intensity MET level (18 out of 24 occurrences, p = 0.09). Walking above 1.0 m/sec misclassified 25% of the individuals as not achieving a moderate intensity MET level (13 out of 52 occurrences, p < 0.01).

CONCLUSIONS: Activity counts from a hip-worn accelerometer are marginally correlated with walking metabolic rate in older adults. Accelerometers might misclassify functionally impaired older adults with slow walking speed as not achieving the recommended physical activity intensity to produce health benefits. Additional research is needed to derive better accelerometer activity count thresholds for older adults.

1422 Board #203 MAY 30 9:30 AM - 11:00 AM

Exploring Physical Activity Patterns on Body Composition Phenotypes of Sarcopenia and Obesity in Older Adults

Mi-Ji Kim, Hunkyung Kim, Narumi Kojima. Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology, Tokyo, Japan.

(No relationships reported)

Along with sarcopenia, obesity is an important cause of the development of functional impairment and frailty in older adults. Physical inactivity or low physical activity (PA) has been reported to be independently associated with sarcopenia and obesity. However, little is known about the impact of PA patterns on body composition phenotypes based on sarcopenia and obesity in older adults.

PURPOSE: This study examined the association between objectively measured PA patterns and body composition phenotypes based on sarcopenia and obesity in frail older women.

METHODS: A cross-sectional analysis was conducted on 109 community-dwelling frail older women with a mean age of 80.3 years (SD = 2.7, range = 75-88). Measurements of appendicular skeletal muscle mass and body fat percentage were assessed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, which were used to characterize normal (N), sarcopenic (S), obese (O), and sarcopenic/obese (SO) body composition phenotypes. The objective assessment of physical activity was obtained for a 1-week period using a triaxial accelerometer (Activity Style pro). With intensity as sedentary (1.0-1.5 metabolic equivalent units, METs), light PA (1.6-2.9 METs), and moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA, ≥ 3 METs), average daily time spent being each PA was examined.

RESULTS: The O group was the most prevalent 36.7% in frail older women, followed by the S (29.4%), N (22.0%), and SO (11.9%) groups. On average, participants wore the accelerometer for 766.3 ± 102.8 min/day. Overall, participants spent 57.6% of their daily time being sedentary behavior, 39.7% in light PA, and 2.7% in MVPA. The time spent in sedentary behavior was significantly more in the O and SO groups than the normal group (p < 0.05). Time spent in light PA was similar between the O (292.7 ± 91.8 min/day) and SO (243.6 ± 88.1 min/day) groups but significantly less than the N (357.5 ± 97.1 min/day) group (p < 0.05), but not the S group. There was no difference in time spent in MVPA among body composition phenotypes.

CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that majority of daily time in frail older women spend being sedentary lifestyle, and obesity phenotypes are more strongly related to the light PA level, independent of sarcopenia.

1423 Board #204 MAY 30 9:30 AM - 11:00 AM

5-year Changes In Functional Fitness of Brazilian Elderly Women

Maressa P. Krause1, Hassan M. Elsangedy2, Kleverton Krinski2, Fredric L. Goss, FACSM3, Sergio G. DaSilva2. 1Universidade Tecnológica Federal do Parana, Curitiba, Brazil. 2Universidade Federal do Parana, Curitiba, Brazil. 3University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA.

(No relationships reported)

Functional fitness tests have been used to evaluate functional components associated with physiological parameters, which are necessary for older adults to perform activities of daily living independently. Aging can decrease functional fitness; however, evidence had indicated that exercise can reverse or attenuate this process.

PURPOSE: To verify changes on functional fitness of Brazilian elderly women, classified according to their physical activity status.

METHODS: On 2011, 78 women (mean: 73.2yrs) were evaluated with the same procedures of the first assessment, conducted on 2005-2006. Functional fitness components were evaluated by body mass index (BMI), cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) using the 6-min walk test (6WT), flexibility using the chair sit-and-reach (CSR), strength using the arm curl (AC) and chair stand (CS), and dynamic balance and agility using the 8-ft up-and-go (8ft). Regular physical activity was evaluated by the Modified Baecke Questionnaire for older adults.

RESULTS: MANOVA determined time (F1,140=5.950; p<0.05) and groups main effect (F2,140=1.850; p0.05). There was a significant decrease on CRF over time in the active group (-9.2%); on muscle strength of upper body in the inactive (-35.2%) and active (-25.5%) groups; and, on muscle strength of lower body in the active group (-11.8%). Active women had a greater CRF (480.3±72.3m) than inactive women (409.5±119.9m) on the second assessment; also, active women had a better performance on the dynamic balance and agility test (5.86±098s) than inactive women (7.11±1.41s) on the first assessment, and on the second assessment (5.91±1.01s; and 7.50±2.80s, respectively) (all p<0.05).

CONCLUSIONS: Active elderly women showed a lower decrease on functional fitness than inactive women. Also, the active group had a better cardiorespiratory fitness and dynamic balance and agility than inactive women. These results highlight the benefits of regular exercise practice on functional fitness of older women.

1424 Board #205 MAY 30 9:30 AM - 11:00 AM

Recruitment Of Frail Older Adults Residing At Assisted Living Facilities Into An Exercise-nutrition Field Trial.

Michael P. Corcoran, Miriam E. Nelson, FACSM, Roger A. Fielding, Jennifer M. Sacheck, Sara C. Folta. Tufts University, Boston, MA.

(No relationships reported)

Exercise-nutrition programs designed to improve functional mobility in older adults are essential. Researching the efficacy of such programs in this population presents unique challenges, particularly with respect to study recruitment.

PURPOSE: To describe the challenges to recruitment of mobility limited older adults in assisted living facilities, and to compare the relative resource requirements and efficacy of two recruitment methods.

METHODS: Fifteen facilities in the greater Boston area were selected for this study. Residents were eligible if they were ≥65 years old, exhibited moderate mobility limitations, no severe memory impairment, and were not severely obese. At eight sites, “informational sessions”, which were heavily advertised through facility channels and included a brief presentation about the study, were the only type of recruitment activity conducted. At seven sites, informational sessions were preceded by a researcher attending an activity offered by the facility (“activity attendance”), such as dances and bingo games. Staff time for both recruitment types was documented, as was number screened, number eligible, and number enrolled (eligible minus withdrawals) for each facility.

RESULTS: Severe memory impairment (38.7%) followed by severe mobility limitations (14.5%) were the leading causes of ineligibility, indicating the population was more functionally limited than anticipated. Other challenges included apathy due to institutionalized status and high facility staff turnover making it difficult to obtain support for recruitment activities. The addition of activity attendance resulted in 4-11 additional research staff hours spent on recruitment per facility. Compared with an informational session alone, attendance at activities resulted in better targeting: slightly more of those screened were eligible (51.7% vs 43.9% respectively), and significantly more of those who were eligible remained in the study (70.0% vs 12.0%, p<0.01). The two leading causes of withdrawal overall were loss of interest and/or time constraints (40%) and illness (40%).

CONCLUSION: Increased interaction with older adults residing at assisted living facilities results in improved recruitment and retention in an exercise-nutrition study, and is likely worth the additional resources required.

1425 Board #206 MAY 30 9:30 AM - 11:00 AM

Prediction of Maximal Oxygen Pulse without Exercise Testing in Older Adults

Geraldo A. Maranhao Neto1, Ricardo B. Oliveira2, Paulo T.V. Farinatti2, Jonathan N. Myers, FACSM3. 1Gama Filho University, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. 2Rio de Janeiro State University, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. 3Palo Alto/Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA. (Sponsor: Jonathan N. Myers, FACSM)

(No relationships reported)

Maximal Oxygen Pulse (O2Pmax) has been considered a surrogate for cardiovascular function and has demonstrated to be an independent predictor of all cause mortality in healthy subjects and patients with cardiovascular disease. Although readily available from cardiopulmonary exercise testing, the O2Pmax depends on maximal volitional effort which may limit its measurement in older subjects with physical limitations.

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to develop a model to estimate the maximal O2 pulse without exercise in elderly subjects.

METHODS: The equation was derived from a sample of 67 older adults (69.4 ± 7.1 yrs; 41 men) through a hierarchical linear regression that included body weight, Veterans Specific Activity Questionnaire (VSAQ) score, gender, beta-blocker usage and resting heart rate. The model was cross-validated against an independent sample (67.7 ± 6.4 years; N=30; 17 men). In order to detect the classification accuracy of the model, the estimated and actual O2Pmax were ranked in tertiles and treated by the gama (γ) nonparametric correlation in both groups (validation and cross-validation).

RESULTS: The model resulted in a R2=0.83 and standard error of estimate=1.68ml/beat. The comparison of the estimated against the actual O2Pmax in the independent sample was r=0.80. A high probability for the model to rank the values in the same tertile in both validation and cross-validation groups was observed (γ=0.98; γ=0.92, respectively).

CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that O2Pmax can be estimated with reasonable precision without aerobic effort, being an alternative option for older subjects not able to perform maximal exercise testing.

Commercial Relationship: Paulo T.V. Farinatti, CNPq Research Grant Recipient.

1426 Board #207 MAY 30 9:30 AM - 11:00 AM

Group Pilates Program And Muscular Strength And Endurance Among Elderly Woman

Ina Shaw1, Marinda Fourie2, Gertrude M. Gildenhuys2, Brandon S. Shaw2, Gregory A. Brown, FACSM3. 1Monash South Africa, Johannesburg, South Africa. 2Tshwane University of Technology, Pretoria, South Africa. 3University of Nebraska at Kearney, Kearney, NE.

(No relationships reported)

Muscular strength and peak power output substantially decline with age and can lead to impairments in neuromuscular function, degradation of the hormonal system and intrinsic factors such as age-related alterations in calcium homeostasis.

PURPOSE: The purpose was to determine the effects of mat Pilates on muscular strength using dumbbell biceps curls and squats, and muscular endurance using chair squats in elderly woman.

METHODS: Fifty sedentary, apparently healthy females aged 60 and older were randomly assigned into a control (CON, n = 25) or an intervention (INT, n = 25) group. The INT took part in an eight-week supervised progressive Pilates exercise program with sessions being conducted by a qualified Pilates instructor. The programme consisted of three non-consecutive 60 minute sessions that were repeated for the eight-week period only increasing in intensity. All sessions commenced with breathing, followed by a flowing system from standing, to sitting, to lying down exercises and ended in the rest position. The CON did not take part in any structured exercises throughout the eight-week period and were instructed to continue their usual activities.

RESULTS: Significant (p ≤ 0.05) improvements in upper-body muscular strength (19.12 ± 5.13 repetitions (reps) - 27.84 ± 5.68 reps; p = 0.000), lower-body muscular strength (13.24 ± 3.23 reps - 7.52 ± 3.81 reps; p = 0.000) and muscular endurance (24.48 ± 11.62 reps to 44.16 ± 18.97 reps; p = 0.000) were observed following Pilates training.

CONCLUSIONS: Programs utilizing Pilates can improve muscular strength and endurance in the elderly and may assist in decreasing dependency and possibly lead to an improved quality of life in the elderly.

1427 Board #208 MAY 30 9:30 AM - 11:00 AM

Past Year Leisure Moderate to Vigorous Physical Activity is Associated with Calcaneal Bone Density and Stiffness in Perimenopausal and Postmenopausal Women

Heather C. Medema-Johnson1, Kathleen F. Janz, FACSM2. 1St. Ambrose University, Davenport, IA. 2University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA.

(No relationships reported)

Along with calcium intake, weight-bearing moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) has been shown to decrease the rate of bone loss in peri- and postmenopausal women. However, the importance of domain- and time-specific characteristics of MVPA to bone remains unclear.

PURPOSE: To evaluate relationships among domain-specific long term (past year) and short term (past week) MVPA, calcium and vitamin D intakes, and calcaneal BMD and stiffness (QUI).

METHODS: For this cross-sectional-study, 87 peri- and postmenopausal women (43-65 years) completed demographic/health questionnaires and the Block calcium and vitamin D screener. Participants wore a NL-1000 pedometer for one week to assess short-term MVPA (total steps/day and MVPA-min/day). Past year MVPA, past year leisure MVPA, past year occupational/household MVPA, past week leisure MVPA, and past week occupational/household MVPA were assessed with the Modifiable Activity Questionnaire. Calcaneal BMD and QUI were measured with a Sahara Quantitative Ultrasound (Hologic, Inc.). Pearson correlation coefficients and stepwise linear regression analyses were used to examine the relationships among measures of MVPA, calcium and vitamin D intakes, calcaneal BMD and QUI. Income and education entered as control variables in stepwise regression analyses.

RESULTS: Bivariate analyses revealed significant relationships between BMD and pedometer-measured MVPA-min/day (r = 0.23, p < 0.05). Past year MVPA (r = .25, p < 0.05), and past year leisure MVPA (r = 0.35, p < 0.01) measured via survey were associated with BMD. Significant relationships were found between QUI and past year MVPA (r = 0.23, p < 0.05) and past year leisure MVPA (r = 0.34, p < 0.01). For stepwise linear regression analyses, income, education, and past year leisure MVPA entered the models, collectively explaining 19% and 18% of the variance in BMD and QUI.

CONCLUSION: Past year MVPA performed in the leisure domain is associated with calcaneal BMD and QUI in peri- and postmenopausal women. Our results suggest the value of long-term measures of PA when considering bone health and the likelihood that women engage in more osteogenic activity during leisure when compared to other domains. These findings can be used to support future interventions and the continued need for multi-dimensional PA measures.

1428 Board #209 MAY 30 9:30 AM - 11:00 AM

Lumbar Lordosis Angle Predicts Walking Ability In Community-dwelling Elderly Men

Junya Miyazaki1, Shin Murata2, Jun Horie1, Tibor Hortobagyi, FACSM3, Shuji Suzuki4. 1Kobe International University, Kobe, Japan. 2Nishikyushu University, Kanzaki, Japan. 3University of Groningen, Groningen, Netherlands. 4Waseda University, Tokorozawa, Japan.

(No relationships reported)

PURPOSE: Aging modifies the sagittal plane structural alignment of the human spine as measured with the gravity line method (Schwab F et al., 2006). At the 2010 ACSM meeting we reported that the physical function of elderly males correlated with the lumbar lordosis angle (LLA) but not with the thoracic kyphosis angle (TKA) measured in the sagittal plane. Here we examine the possibility that a structural measure of the spine, the LLA, predicts gait speed and distance in old adults.

METHODS: Subjects were 103 elderly male community residents (72.9 ± 7.2 yr, 1.59 ± 0.15m, 59.4 ± 8.7 kg). To characterize sagittal plane spinal alignment, we measured LLA in all participants using the Spinal Mouse (Idiag AG, Switzerland). The LLA (deg) was measured as the sum of the angles between each of the five lumbar vertebral bodies relative to the 1st sacral vertebral body. We also measured quadriceps femoris muscle strength (QMF) with a hand-held dynamometer (Anima Corp., Japan), one-leg standing (OLS) time with eyes open, maximum walking speed (MWS), and distance in the 6-min walking test (6MWT). In regression analyses we predicted MWS and 6MWT from LLA, QMS and OLS and used p < 0.05 for all analyses.

RESULTS: Mean (± SD) LLA was -13.1° (± 9.2). Mean QMF, OLS time, MWS, and 6MWT distance was, respectively, 39.9 kg (± 11.6), 34.1 s (± 36.8), 2.6 m/s (± 1.0), and 477.4 m (± 90.2). The regression analysis showed that LLA (p < 0.01, β = -0.43) and QMF (p < 0.01, β = 0.46) predicted strongly MWS. QMF (p < 0.01, β = 0.63) was also a strong predictor of walking distance.

CONCLUSION: Gait speed predicts mortality (Studenski et al., 2011)

and here we show that not only a functional (muscle strength) but a structural factor (LLA) may also play a role in the regulation of gait in old age. Thus, interventions should target muscle strength and postural aligment to be most effective in preserving gait speed in old adults.

1429 Board #210 MAY 30 9:30 AM - 11:00 AM

Effects of Fall Prevention PNF Program on Body Function and Fall Efficacy in Elderly Women

Seokhwan Kim1, Michael G. Bemben, FACSM2, Daeyeol Kim2, Donghee Kim3, Youngkwan Kim3, Hayan Lee3, Doohong Kuk3, Meehyun Yang4, Gieun Jang5. 1Seoyeong University, Gwangju, Korea, Republic of. 2University of Oklahoma, Oklahoma, OK. 3Chonnam National University, Gwangju, Korea, Republic of. 4University of Gwangju Women’s, Gwangju, Korea, Republic of. 5Dongshin University, Naju, Korea, Republic of. (Sponsor: Michael G. Bemben, FACSM)

(No relationships reported)

PURPOSE: To investigate the effects of a fall prevention program with proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) on body functions (gait, balance, lower extremity power and instrumental activities daily living) and fall efficacy in elderly women.

METHODS: Subjects (n = 38, 65 - 70 years) participated this study and were randomly assigned to an experimental (n = 18, EXP) or a control (n = 20, CON) group. The subjects in both EXP and CON performed the fall prevention training three times at pre, 6th and 12th week. Only subjects in the EXP completed PNF sprint & skate program (40 - 60 min, 60 - 80% HRmax) three times per week for 12 weeks. The body function (Time up & go test, 2 min step test, balance by Tetrax and Berg balance scale, sit to stand test, one leg standing test, and instrumental activities of daily living) and fall efficacy (fall efficacy scale) were determined at pre, 6th and 12th week. Two-way repeated measure ANOVA was utilized to compare groups and times with statistical significance set at p<0.05.

RESULTS: The Gait, balance, lower extremity power functions in the EXP were significantly higher than CON. The balance function in the EXP was significantly higher than CON. Also, the Instrumental activities of daily and fall efficacy in the EXP were significantly greater than CON.

CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that the fall prevention program with PNF was effective to prevent fall and to increase fall efficacy. Thus, the fall prevention program with PNF is considered to be helpful to prevent fall and the quality of life for elderly people by strengthening their body functions and fall efficacy.

1430 Board #211 MAY 30 9:30 AM - 11:00 AM

Increased Sitting Time is an Independent Risk Factor for All-cause Mortality in Community-Dwelling Older Adults

Steven N. Blair, FACSM1, Xuemei Sui1, Ali Ahmed2. 1University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC. 2University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL.

(No relationships reported)

PURPOSE: Older adults often assume a sedentary lifestyle and spend more time sitting or lying, than younger adults. Sedentary lifestyle has been shown to be associated with increased risk of poor clinical outcomes. However, the association of sedentary lifestyle as measured by time spent sitting and lying with mortality has not been well studied in community-dwelling older adults.

METHODS: Participants were 5060 community-dwelling older adults from the Cardiovascular Health Study, age ≥65 years, with data on baseline history of hours spent sitting or lying. Participants were categorized into tertiles of hours per day spent sitting or lying: <11, 11-13, and ≥14 (reference). Cox regression models were used to estimate association of the 2 lower tertiles with all-cause mortality adjusting for other confounders. To study association with incident heart failure, a second cohort of 4833 participants free of prevalent heart failure at baseline was assembled.

RESULTS: Participants had a mean (±SD) age of 73 (±6) years; 58% were women; and 16% were African American. Unadjusted, age-sex-race-adjusted, and multivariable-adjusted associations of the 2 lower tertiles of hours spent sitting or lying with all-cause mortality and incident HF during over 13 years of follow-up are displayed in the Table below.

CONCLUSIONS: Among community-dwelling older adults, those spending <14 hours sitting and lying, had lower risk of all-cause mortality but had no significant independent association with incident HF after multivariable adjustment for confounders.

1431 Board #212 MAY 30 9:30 AM - 11:00 AM

Development and Evaluation of a Health Empowerment Program to Improve Depression and Meaning in Life

Sherry A. Barkley1, Tracey Hughes2, Nancy L. Fahrenwald3, Angie L. Larson3, Joyce Fjelland3, Patricia Shaver3, Mary Minton3, Jane Mort3. 1Augustana College, Sioux Falls, SD. 2Dow Rummel Village, Sioux Falls, SD. 3South Dakota State University, Brookings, SD. (Sponsor: Matthew D. Vukovich, FACSM)

(No relationships reported)

Older adults in residential settings are at risk for depression. Health empowerment, a dynamic process wherein residents purposefully connect to create environmental change and personal meaning, may help control depression and quality of life.

PURPOSE: To develop and evaluate Project MILE: Meaning in Life Enrichment for Older Adults, a theory-based program using resident-driven activities intended to decrease depression and increase quality of life.

METHODS: Residents and selected staff at a residential living community partnered with researchers in exercise science and healthcare to develop and implement Project MILE. A random sample of 20 older adult residents (16 female, 4 male), mean age = 86.7 years, participated in this pilot study. Needs assessment, conducted through structured interviews between residents and exercise science students, was used to inform Project MILE activities. A descriptive-correlational study was used to evaluate reliability of measurement instruments and to determine cross-sectional relationships between multi-item measures of depression (Geriatric Depression Scale [GDS]) and meaning in life (Personal Meaning Index [PMI]). A paired samples t-test was used to compare baseline and follow up scores in these measures. Feasibility and acceptability of the intervention was evaluated through written/oral review of strengths, weaknesses, and suggestions by and with residents.

RESULTS: Needs analysis identified themes that contribute to meaning and quality of life: learning new skills, volunteering, meaningful social engagement, and aesthetic experiences. Participants selected and planned weekly activities (e.g., computer class, reading to children, Mexican Day, cycling, going fishing) based on identified themes. GDS and PMI met acceptability criteria for reliability (α > .70) and construct validity. Baseline scores (mean + SD) for GDS and PMI (6.8 + 5.4, 86.2 + 10.3) respectively were not significantly different (p > .05) at follow up (7.7 + 5.1, 86.2 + 10.3). Intervention strategies (i.e., activities and measurement instruments) were found acceptable to residents.

CONCLUSIONS: Although we saw no significant change in GDS and PMI scores, evaluation of this pilot study generated evidence to support the use of this health empowerment approach in a future randomized trial.

1432 Board #213 MAY 30 9:30 AM - 11:00 AM

An Examination of the Survivability of Professional Wrestlers

Christopher W. Herman1, Anna S.C. Conlon2, Andrew R. Burghardt1, Stephen J. McGregor1. 1Eastern Michigan University, Ypsilanti, MI. 2The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI. (Sponsor: Christopher J. Womack, FACSM)

(No relationships reported)

In recent years, much attention has been given to the occurrence of premature deaths in professional wrestling.

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to determine the survival estimates for professional wrestlers active between 1985 and 2011.

METHODS: Data required for this study was collected using public records and wrestling company publications. A comprehensive review of age, race, sex, BMI, cause of death (if applicable) and age at death (if applicable) of 625 wrestlers who were active between January 1, 1985 and September 30, 2011 was completed. Specifically, 557 males and 68 females were considered consistently active wrestlers during this time period. 2007 published mortality rates from the CDC were used to compare the general population to the wrestlers by age, race, BMI, time period, and cause of death for both males and females. Additionally, a Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and Cox Proportional Hazards Models for survival data were performed using the R statistical software package (Vienna, AT) to determine the degree of professional wrestlers’ premature death.

RESULTS: 65 wrestlers (61 males and 4 females) died during the observation period. Wrestler mortality rates calculated for age groups 25-34, 35-44 and 45-54 were approximately 22.9, 16.5 and 7.6 times greater than the mortality rates for the same three age groups of the general population. After controlling for age at which the wrestlers started wrestling and number of years wrestled prior to 1985, survival estimates and 95% confidence limits from the Cox hazard regression models indicated that sex and BMI are significantly associated with the hazard of death from the time someone starts wrestling (Sex: p = 0.02; BMI: p <0.0001). Specifically, the hazard of death for women was only 30% that of men and the hazard of death increased by 80% for each increase in BMI category. Kaplan-Meier survival estimates and Cox hazard estimates indicated that there was no significant difference in time to death between wrestler starting age groups (p = 0.31).

CONCLUSION: Professional wrestlers are more likely to die prematurely compared to the general population. Morbidly obese and male wrestlers are especially at risk for premature death. Results from this study may be useful for future corporate wellness policy implementation among professional wrestling companies.

A-39 Free Communication/Poster - Pacing Strategies and Time Trials

MAY 30, 2012 7:30 AM - 12:30 PM

ROOM: Exhibit Hall

1433 Board #214 MAY 30 11:00 AM - 12:30 PM

Accumulated Rpe: A Distance Independent Marker Of Effort During Cycle Time Trials

Carl Foster, FACSM, Jose Rodriguez-Marroyo, Annabel Splinter, Joyce van Tunen, Corey Speaker, Jana Hagen, Kayla Henslin, Blair Johnson, Trent Joseph, John P. Porcari, FACSM, Jos J. de Koning, FACSM. University of Wisconsin-La Crosse, La Crosse, WI.

(No relationships reported)

Decisions about whether to accelerate or decelerate during competitions are based on the Rating of Perceived Exertion in relation to the % distance remaining (e.g. the Hazard Score). However, the percent of distance remaining may not be an accurate representation of the % effort expended by the athlete (e.g. the classic expression that a marathon (42km) is 50% over at 32km (∼75% distance)).

PURPOSE: This study compares the accumulated RPE during cycle time trials of different distances, to determine whether ΣRPE would be independent of distance.

METHODS: Well-trained and task habituated cyclists performed freely paced (FP) time trials (2.5km, n=9, 3km, n=10, 5km, n=17, 10km, n=50) on a Velotron cycle ergometer. RPE was measured measured every 5% of the total distance, summated and normalized to the maximum value.

RESULTS: The ΣRPE increased in a regular, but non-linear, fashion during all races, and the pattern of increase amongst distances was overlapping. The relationship between % distance completed and ΣRPE was well explained with a 2nd order polynomial (R2=0.9881).

CONCLUSIONS: The ΣRPE may provide a tool for measuring the relative effort expended during competitive effort that is superior to the % distance completed, with 50% effort being completed at ∼60% distance.

1434 Board #215 MAY 30 11:00 AM - 12:30 PM

The Effect of Music on Cycle Time Trial Performance

Jana Hagen, Carl Foster, FACSM, Jos J. deKoning, FACSM, Charles R. Hendrix, Richard P. Mikat, FACSM, Jose Rodriguez-Marroyo, John P. Porcari, FACSM. University of Wisconsin-La Crosse, La Crosse, WI.

(No relationships reported)

High intensity competitive exercise depends on the interaction of a pre-exercise template with feedback from the body. In well-trained people the interaction between template and feedback is complex and can be understood in terms of comparisons between expected and experienced Rating of Perceived Exertion (RPE) at each point in the trial. Motivational music generally augments exercise performance, potentially by the arousal from music changing the template or by suppression of feedback from homeostatic disturbance.

PURPOSE: This study compared both the level of performance and the pattern of PO during a 10km cycle time trial in relation to the presence of motivational music.

METHODS: Well-trained, task habituated cyclists (n=18) performed two randomly ordered time trials, listening either to self-selected motivational music or no music (control). Performance markers including PO, HR, blood lactate [BL] & RPE) were monitored.

RESULTS: Music had no effect on maximal HR 174±11 vs 172±10, mean PO 222±66 vs 220±65 W, maximal RPE 8.4±1.5 vs 8.5±1.6, maximal [BL] 8.2±3.6 vs 8.2±3.5 mmol*l-1 or time 17.7±2.1 and 17.8±2.1 min (p>.05). Further, the pattern of PO during the trial did not suggest a change in pacing pattern consistent with arousal related template modification (e.g. increased early PO) or suppression of feedback (e.g. higher mid-trial PO).

CONCLUSIONS: The results show that, despite the subjects preferring the time trial with music, there were no significant differences in time trial responses relative to the presence of music.

1435 Board #216 MAY 30 11:00 AM - 12:30 PM

Effects of Warm-up Duration on Vo2 Kinematics and Lactate During a Cycling Time Trial

Jennifer Bunn. Campbell University, Buies Creek, NC.

(No relationships reported)

Effects of Warm-up Duration on VO2 Kinematics and Lactate during a Cycling Time Trial

J. Bunn1, M. Magal (FACSM)2, L.C. Eschbach2, R. Vogel3, and R. Yow3

1) Campbell University, Buies Creek, NC; 2) NC Wesleyan

A warm-up prior to long-duration exercise has been shown to be effective during the initial phase of the activity, but may not have a significant impact on performance for the entire activity.

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate if the duration of a warm-up affects VO2 kinematics and lactate during a 5K cycling time trial (TT).

METHODS: Sixteen trained cyclists (41.0 ± 7.7 years, 76.5 ± 13.5 kg, 1.75 ± 0.11 m, 50.5 ± 11.7 ml/kg/min) completed a cycling graded exercise test to measured maximum oxygen consumption (VO2max) and lactate threshold, followed by an orientation session the TT. At subsequent visits, participants completed one of three warm-up protocols, in randomized order, and the TT. The warm-up protocols included: 1) a short duration three-minute warm-up at 60% max power (SW), 2) a long duration warm-up of 10 minutes at 60% max power (LW), and 3) no warm-up (NW). All cycle testing was completed using a stationary cycle simulator and the participant provided their own bicycle, and testing sessions were completed approximately one week apart. Data were analyzed to address differences amongst type of warm-up for VO2, TT time, and lactate at the 1K split and the entire 5K.

RESULTS: There was no difference between type of warm-up (p > 0.05) for VO2 (SW: 50.1 ±9.0, LW: 49.5 ± 9.4, NW: 50.6± 9.0 ml/kg/min), post-TT lactate levels (SW: 9.0 ± 2.9, LW: 7.9 ± 3.2, NW: 8.0 ± 3.2 mmol/l), or TT completion time. There was also no difference between warm-ups (p> 0.05) after completion of 1K for VO2 (SW: 41.5 ± 7.6, LW: 46.1 ± 10.3, NW: 37.4 ± 5.2 ml/kg/min) or 1K split time.

CONCLUSION: This data conflicts current evidence that a warm-up may be beneficial during the initial phase of an endurance activity, but agrees with research that indicates no difference amongst warm-up types for the entire performance. This study limited the warm-up sessions to steady state exercise, but future research should address variations in intensity during the warm-up in addition to the duration.

1436 Board #217 MAY 30 11:00 AM - 12:30 PM

Physiological And Performance Comparisons Between A Simulated Time Trial And The Respiratory Compensation Point In Well-Trained Cyclists

Rick T. Bradley, Jamie L. Donkin, Raymond Martinez, Jr., Roberto Quintana, Daryl L. Parker. Irvin Faria Exercise Physiology Laboratory CSUS, Sacramento, CA.

(No relationships reported)

Graded exercise test (GXT) results are commonly used to prescribe exercise. However, investigators have found that GXT power overestimates submaximal steady-state (SS) power.

PURPOSE: This study evaluated the physiological and performance values from a simulated 576 kj (∼20 km) time trial (TT) in comparison to the values at the respiratory compensation point (RCP) from a GXT.

METHODS: Eight (female n=1) well-trained cyclists [VO2max: 62.3±7.16 ml·kg·-1·min-1, maximal power (Wmax): 374±54.5 W, BMI: 23.5±4.5 kg·(m2)-1, Age: 32.8±7.5 years] served as volunteer participants for this investigation. Each volunteer first underwent a GXT on a cycle ergometer to exhaustion beginning at 70 W (female=50 W) and increasing at a rate of 35 W·min-1 (female=25 W·min-1) to determine RCP and VO2max. On a separate day, a self-paced 576 kj (∼20 kilometer) TT was performed at an “all-out” effort, with only simulated distance revealed. A one-way ANOVA for RCP and TT variables; heart rate (HR), power, respiratory exchange ratio (RER), ventilation (Ve) and VO2 at 144 kj (∼5 K), 288 kj (∼10K), 432 kj (∼15K) and 576 kj (∼20K) was used to detect differences. Relationships between RCP and TT variables were assessed with Pearson’s r.

RESULTS: RCP values were; HR (178±8.32 bpm), power (317±47.2 W, 85% of Wmax), RER (1.07±0.06), Ve (100±19.2 l·min-1) and VO2 (3.81±0.56 l·min-1, 91% of VO2max). No significant difference was found over the course of the TT for any variable (p>0.05). HR, Ve and VO2 were not different between the TT and RCP (p>0.05), but power (249±55 W) and RER (0.96±0.05) from the TT were significantly less than RCP (p<0.05, p<0.01). RCP HR, power and VO2 were significantly correlated to TT HR (r=0.92, p<0.05), power (r=0.90, p<0.05) and VO2 (r=0.93, p<0.05).

CONCLUSION: The RCP HR, Ve and VO2 from a GXT are similar to TT responses in well-trained cyclists, but RCP power and RER are overestimated compared to the TT. As expected, strong correlations were found between RCP and TT HR, power and VO2; and RCP power and VO2 from this study are similar to others’ findings as a percentage of maximum (∼85-90%). Interestingly, we found the RCP power to be much greater than TT power (67.8±23.6 W), with the difference being greater than that found between the ventilation threshold and equivalent sub-maximal SS exercise by previous investigators (45±12 W).

1437 Board #218 MAY 30 11:00 AM - 12:30 PM

Decision Making Relative To Pacing Strategy: Test Of The Hazard Score Hypothesis

Katherine R. Malterer, Carl Foster, FACSM, Jos J. de Koning, FACSM, Samantha Bischel, Frieder Krause, Miranda Menke, Jose Rodriguez-Marroyo, Christian Thiel, John P. Porcari, FACSM. University of Wisconsin-La Crosse, La Crosse, WI.

(No relationships reported)

Performance in any physically demanding task depends on a motor template and feedback regarding how the task is affecting the body. The ‘language’ of this feedback is the rating of perceived exertion (RPE). Previous evidence from our laboratory suggests that RPE x the % of distance remaining, the Hazard Score (HS), determines whether the athlete speeds up or slows down.

PURPOSE: This study tested if the HS will predict changes in running velocity during individual 3km time trials.

METHODS: Well-trained, task-habituated subjects (N=12), completed three 3km running time trials with individual starting times to discourage drafting/pacing off other runners. Changes in momentary running velocity vs. HS were computed every 200m by comparing the running velocity immediately (100m) before providing a RPE score vs the running velocity immediately (100m) after the RPE score, to test the hypothesis that HS>3 yields deceleration & <1.5 yields acceleration.

RESULTS: Regression analysis (R2=0.16) of a total of thirty-four 3km time trials, yielding 469 observations, revealed a regression curve predicting acceleration with HS <1.5 and deceleration with HS >3.5, which substantially supports the experimental hypothesis.

CONCLUSION: HS may be a tool for understanding how humans regulate energy expenditure during exercise.

1438 Board #219 MAY 30 11:00 AM - 12:30 PM

Long Range Correlations And Complex Regulatory Control Of Pacing In Half Marathon Racing

Olaf Hoos1, Tobias Boeselt1, Martin Steiner1, Kuno Hottenrott2, Ralph Beneke, FACSM1. 1Philipps-University Marburg, Institute of Sports Science, Marburg, Germany. 2Martin-Luther-University Halle-Wittenberg, Institute for Media, Communication and Sports, Halle, Germany.

(No relationships reported)

Fractal scaling properties serve as evidence of complex regulatory controlling. Recent studies on prolonged, self-paced laboratory and field time trials have shown substantial variability and suggest fractal scaling in speed or power output. High resolution data on speed (S) reflecting stride frequency (SF) and stride length (SL) during real-world endurance competition are lacking.

PURPOSE: To determine and classify spectral and fractal properties of S, SF and SL fluctuations and interrelationships with half-marathon running performance.

METHODS: High-resolution (1 Hz) data on S (m/s), SF (Hz) and SL (m) were assessed during half-marathon (21,098 m) competition using a miniaturized accelerometric device in 21 male experienced runners (38 ± 11 yrs, BMI: 23 ± 2 kg*m-2). Performance times, coefficient of variation (CV), spectral powers (TP) and peaks (PP), fractal scaling exponent (beta) and fractal dimension (FD) of S, SF and SL were computed.

RESULTS: S, SF, SL were 3.65 ± 0.41 m/s, 1.41 ± 0.05 Hz and 2.58 ± 0.25 m, respectively. Variability of SF (CV: 1.7 ± 0.4 %; TP: 0.0004 ± 0.0002 n.u.) was lower (p < 0.05) than that of S (CV: 4.5 ± 1.3 %; TP: 0.0260 ± 0.0195 n.u.) and SL (CV: 4.4 ± 1.4 %; TP: 0.0116 ± 0.0081). Non-stationary fractional Brownian motion (fBm) was found in SF (beta: 1.35 ± 0.16; FD: 1.82 ± 0.08), SL (beta: 1.45 ± 0.19; FD: 1.77 ± 0.10) and S (beta: 1.57 ± 0.20; FD: 1.71 ± 0.10) with similar PP-values (S: 0.00156 ± 0.00109 Hz; SF: 0.00170 ± 0.00099 Hz; SL: 0.00150 ± 0.00108 Hz). Fractal and spectral variability measures were independent of performance. The semi-partial explanation of S variation was 84 ± 6 % for SL and 16 ± 6 % for SF. PP (r = 0.56) and beta (r = 0.91) were interrelated for S and SL.

CONCLUSIONS: fBm in SL, SF and S indicate long range correlations and complex regulatory control of pacing in real-world half marathon running. In experienced runners this control mechanism is independent of performance.

1439 Board #220 MAY 30 11:00 AM - 12:30 PM

Incidence Of Plateau At VO2max Is Influenced By Prior Knowledge Of Trial Number

Dan A. Gordon1, Oliver Caddy1, Rutendo Ganyani1, Marie Gernigon2, Nicolas Buttinger3, James Latchford3, Don Keiller1, Richard Barnes3. 1Anglia Ruskin University, Cambridge, United Kingdom. 2University of Angers, Angers, France. 3University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom.

(No relationships reported)

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to examine the VO2 plateau response during a series of VO2max trials in a group of well-trained an un-trained individuals who had no prior-experience of completing incremental tests to exhaustion.

METHOD: Following University Institutional ethical approval, n=10 well-trained male athletes (WT) (age, 23.0 ± 3.16 yrs; height, 183.3 ± 5.5 cm; weight, 77.5 ± 11.1 kg; VO2max, 66.3 ± 5.7 ml·kg-1·min-1) and n=7 un-trained male subjects (UT) (age, 20.1 v 0.9 yrs; height, 181.6 ± 6.2 cm; weight, 72.9 ± 10.0 kg; VO2max 48.8 ± 5.3 ml·kg-1·min-1) volunteered and agreed to participate. The subjects completed four VO2max trials (Tr 1-4) at the same time of day, each trial being seperated by 72 h. For each trial the subject completed a cycle-based incremental ramp starting at 100 W. After 60 s of cycling the workrate increased by 0.42 W·s-1 while maintaining a constant cadence of 60 rpm (UT) and 80-90 rpm (WT). The incremental ramp test was terminated either when the cadence decreased by <10 rpm or when the subject stopped due to volitional exhaustion. Verbal encouragment was initiated after 360 s of cycling and re-introduced continusouly once VE displayed a significant break from linearity. Throughout all trials, the VO2 response to exercise was recorded on a breath-by-breath basis using a pre-calibrated metabolic cart. The first criterion for a plateau in VO2 was determined according to a ΔVO2 < 1.5 ml. kg-1.min-1 over the final two consecutive 30 s sampling periods. Secondary criteria were RER ≥1.15, ΔRER ≥0.4, peak blood lactate ≥ 8.0 mM·l-1, HRmax ≥ 220-age ± 10 b·min-1 and an RPE > 19.

RESULTS: In the WT group the ΔVO2 (ml·kg-1·min-1) during the final two consecutive 30 s sampling periods was 2.52 ± 1.63 for Tr1, 1.68 ± 1.05 for Tr2, 1.68 ± 1.19 for Tr3 and 1.28 ± 0.87 for Tr4 (P= 0.083), there was no-significnant difference across trials for UT (P= 0.699). Plateau incidence for WT was 20% Tr1, 50% Tr 2-3 and 70% Tr4, while for UT incidence it was 7% across Tr 1-4. For both WT (P= 0.295) and UT (P= 0.694) there was no-significnat difference in VO2max across Tr 1-4.

CONCLUSION: The data suggets that the incidence of plateau at VO2max is influenced by other factors aside from anaerobic substrate metabolism. The results suggest that a form of pacing occurs in WT based on the prior knowledge and anticipation of the number of trials.

1440 Board #221 MAY 30 11:00 AM - 12:30 PM

Racing the Favourite: Effects of Competition During Laboratory Based 4,000-m Cycling Time Trials

Mark R. Stone1, Kevin Thomas2, Alan St Clair Gibson2, Michael Wilkinson2, Kevin G. Thompson2. 1Buckinghamshire New University, High Wycombe, United Kingdom. 2The University of Northumbria at Newcastle, Newcastle upon Tyne, United Kingdom.

(No relationships reported)

Cyclists can achieve marginal reductions in the time taken to complete a time trial (TT) whilst racing against a simulated opponent compared with riding alone. However, in previous studies the opponent has typically mirrored the participants own previous performance. It is not known whether a simulated opponent whose exercise intensity is known to be greater than that previously achieved could ‘push’ participants to realise meaningful reductions in performance time.

PURPOSE: To assess whether trained cyclists could reduce the amount of time taken to complete a 4,000-m TT during head-to-head competition against a simulated opponent who they understood to be performing at a higher power output than their own previous performance.

METHODS: Ten trained male cyclists each performed four, 4,000-m TT with between three and seven days separating each trial. The first TT served to acclimatise participants and the second was used to form a baseline condition (BL). During TT three and four, two avatars were displayed on a video screen; one of these represented the progress of the participant and the other represented the progress of the simulated opponent. The power output of the simulated opponent was set at either 102% or 105% of the participants mean BL power output in a randomised and counter balanced order. Participants were briefed about the nature of the experiment and encouraged to try to beat their opponent. Heart rate was monitored continuously and session RPE was recorded on completion of each trial.

RESULTS: There were no significant differences between BL and either the 102% or 105% TT for time taken [(F = 1.2012, p = 0.3), (359.4 ± 11.1, 360 ± 11.7 and 361.2 ±12.8 s, respectively)]; mean heart rate [(F = 0.4682, p = 0.6 ), (180 ± 15, 180 ± 13 and 179 ± 12 bpm, respectively)] or session RPE [(F = 0.5362, p = 0.6), (18 + 1, 18 + 1 and 19 + 1, respectively)].

CONCLUSION: The presence of a simulated opponent, known to be exercising at an intensity which was greater than participants achieved during BL, did not affect performance time or the physiological or perceptual responses during a 4,000-m TT. These findings indicate that the regulation of self paced exercise is a robust mechanism which is not readily influenced by the presence of a simulated opponent designed to ‘push’ the athlete to reduce the amount of time taken to perform a TT.

A-40 Free Communication/Poster - Posture/Balance

MAY 30, 2012 7:30 AM - 12:30 PM

ROOM: Exhibit Hall

1441 Board #222 MAY 30 11:00 AM - 12:30 PM

The Influence of Occupational Footwear on Balance

John C. Garner, III1, Harish Chander1, Nicole C. Dabbs1, Jennica Roche2, Chip Wade3. 1University of Mississippi, University, MS. 2University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA. 3Auburn University, Auburn, AL. (Sponsor: Mark Loftin, FACSM)

(No relationships reported)

There is a wealth of research investigating human balance following exposure to smooth, level surfaces, with recent investigations examining posture following exposure to ramps, stairs, steps, and uneven terrain. Occupational footwear worn for a work setting are often designed for safety and stability, rather than comfort or aesthetics. As such the functionality of occupational footwear may impact balance characteristics over time.

PURPOSE: The purpose of the study was to examine balance while wearing different types of occupational footwear for extended durations.

METHODS: 14 adult males (age: 22-26yrs, ht: 181±5.32cm, wt: 197±32.14lbs) with no vestibular, neurological, or gait related problems were selected for this study. The experimental session included an extended duration of walking (4hours) with balance testing done at 30min intervals (Pre, 30, 60, 90, 120, 150, 180, 210 & 240min). The standing balance protocol was assessed in the eyes open condition with sway velocities in the A/P and M/L directions (APVELO & MLVELO) and RMS Sway in the A/P and M/L directions (APRMS & MLRMS). Participants were randomly assigned 3 different types of occupational footwear: Work Boots (WB), Tactical Boots (TB) and Low Top Boots (LB) with a minimum of 72 hours of rest between conditions.

RESULTS: Balance related dependent variables were evaluated using a 3 x 9 (Boot) x (Extended duration of walking intervals) RMANOVA for each dependent variable, p = 0.1. Significant difference over time was seen only in MLRMS (p=0.063), with a main effect for boot type seen in APRMS (p=0.025).

CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that balance; with reliable sensory inputs from each of the 3 systems (i.e. visual, somatosensory, vestibular) was not influenced over time during the extended duration of walking on a hard flat surface except for MLRMS. Further these results suggest that the fatigue level due to extended duration walking was not enough to alter sway parameters when tested with eyes open on a stable platform and visual environment. Significance found between LB and TB, where LB had a higher APRMS sway, despite having a greater mass, suggests the increased boot shaft height of TB may be the reason for greater stability. Results from this data suggest that the high boot shaft supports the ankle, resulting in decreased fatigue, thus better balance.

1442 Board #223 MAY 30 11:00 AM - 12:30 PM

Mediolateral Control Of The Center Of Pressure During Quiet Stance Is Altered In Parkinson’s Disease

Ryan T. Roemmich1, Joe R. Nocera2, Shinichi Amano1, Chris J. Hass, FACSM1. 1University of Florida, Gainesville, FL. 2Department of Veteran Affairs, Gainesville, FL. (Sponsor: Chris J. Hass, FACSM)

(No relationships reported)

Presentation of unilateral motor symptoms is a hallmark of early Parkinson’s disease (PD). While unilateral deficits in appendicular motor function have been studied in PD, influence of unilateral symptoms on postural control has remained relatively ignored.

PURPOSE: To examine whether unilateral symptoms affect postural control in persons with PD.

METHODS: Twenty persons with PD (64±11 y) and six healthy older adults (HOA, 72±10 y) stood in a quiet stance on a single force plate with their eyes open for two two-minute trials. Kinematic and kinetic data were collected using a 12-camera Vicon Nexus motion capture system (120 Hz; Vicon Nexus, Oxford, UK) and a Bertec force plate (360 Hz; Bertec Corporation, Columbus, OH). The participants with PD completed the Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS), which was subsequently scored by an independent rater. The participants’ more-affected side (MAS) and less-affected side (LAS) were defined based on their subscores on UPDRS items 20-26. Of the 20 participants with PD, 13 performed the static balance trials with their center of pressure (COP) displaced toward their MAS relative to their center of mass (COM) for at least 50% of each trial (PD MAS). The remaining 7 PD participants displaced their COP toward their LAS relative to their COM (PD LAS). For each participant, we calculated the average anterior-posterior (AP) and medial-lateral (ML) velocities of the COP. We also calculated the average root mean square error (RMSE) of the COP position relative to COM position. A one-way ANOVA with Bonferroni post-hoc corrections for pairwise comparisons was performed to compare each variable across the three groups.

RESULTS: HOA demonstrated significantly lower ML COP velocity than the PD MAS and PD LAS groups (10.22 vs. 20.18 and 19.27 mm/sec, respectively; p = .011, p = .014). HOA also demonstrated higher RMSE values when compared to the PD LAS group but not the PD MAS group (33.49 vs. 14.62 and 22.00 mm, respectively; p = .016, p = .138). There were no significant differences between the PD MAS and PD LAS groups in any of the measures.

CONCLUSIONS: When compared to HOA, persons with PD exhibit higher ML COP velocity when the COP is displaced laterally from the COM during quiet stance. However, we did not observe an effect of leaning toward the MAS on postural control in persons with PD.

1443 Board #224 MAY 30 11:00 AM - 12:30 PM

Static And Dynamic Weight Shifting Ability In Children With Adolescence Idiopathic Scoliosis

Gozde Gur, Songul Aksoy, Fatma Uygur, Yavuz Yakut. Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey.

(No relationships reported)

It is well known that postural control and balance is adversely affected in children with idiopathic scoliosis. Adequate weight shifting is an important element of postural control. Most studies have focused on the evaluation of somatosensorial organisation and these studies have shown that there is an increase in lateral and sagital and postural sway during still standing activities. We have not come across a study measuring the ability to shift weight in these children.

PURPOSE: To investigate static and dynamic weight shifting abilities of children with adolescence idiopathic scoliosis.

METHODS: Twenty six patients (17 girls 9 boys) with adolescence idiopathic scoliosis with a mean age of 14 ± 3,4 years were included in the study. The mean weight mass index of the subjects was 18,59 kg/m2. The demographic characteristics of the subjects and characteristics of the scoliotic curve were recorded. The ability of the patients to bear weight in their right and left lower extremities during weight bearing squat was measured by means of “Neurocom Computerized Dynamic Posturography” at 0, 30, 60, 90 degrees of knee flexion. Also rhythmic weight shifting to the right and left, anterior and posterior directions was used to measure the centre of gravity by means of “Neurocom Computerized Dynamic Posturography”. The results were evaluated according to on-axis velocity and directional control.

RESULTS: The Cobb angle was found to be a mean of 21 degrees for thoracic curves and 24 degrees for lumbar curves. The most common curves were right thoracic left lumbar. In weight bearing squat test, no difference was found between the right and left extremities in the positions of 0, 30, 60 and 90 degrees knee flexion. During rhythmic weight shifting test, there was 30% decrease in on-axis velocity and 27% decrease in directional control ability.

CONCLUSION: While adolescence idiopathic scoliosis did not affect static weight shifting ability, there was a decrease in dynamic weight bearing ability. This result can be interpreted as an adverse effect of scoliosis.

1444 Board #225 MAY 30 11:00 AM - 12:30 PM

Increases in Energy Expenditure and Muscle Activation While Performing Clerical Work in Three Body Postures

Tibor Hortobagyi, FACSM1, Caitlin Pearl2, Olivia Ratcliff2, Jennifer Streeter2, Patrick Rider2, Paul DeVita, FACSM2. 1University of Groningen, Groningen, Netherlands. 2East Carolina University, Greenville, NC.

(No relationships reported)

One cause for weight gain may be due to the increase in sedentary time leading to reduced energy expenditure, especially in the workplace. A preventative measure could be to perform clerical work in different postures that would increase the amount of active muscle such as sitting on a therapy ball or standing and accumulate excess energy expenditure throughout the day.

PURPOSE: We examined the hypotheses that the energy cost while performing clerical work standing or sitting on a therapy ball is higher than when sitting on a chair and this increase in energy cost is associated by an increase in muscle activation.

METHODS: Subjects (n = 10, mean age 21.2) copied printed text into a Word document under three randomized and standardized conditions: sitting on a chair, sitting on a therapy ball, and standing. EMG activation in two upper extremity muscles, four lower extremity muscles, and two trunk muscles, in addition to passive energy expenditure were recorded for 15 minutes during each condition. A basal measurement was taken while lying down for 15 minutes. Quality of typing was calculated by assessing correct word count.

RESULTS: Average VO2 was 3.70 ml/kg/min (SD ±0.23, lying) and lower (p < 0.05) than 4.40 (±0.88, chair) and both lower (p < 0.05) than 4.57 (±1.02, ball) and 4.60 (±0.58, standing). Average EMG in 8 muscles was 0.007 mV (±0.001, lying), lower (p < 0.05) than 0.022 mV (±0.006, chair), both lower (p < 0.05) than 0.034 mV (±0.009, ball) and 0.030 mV (±0.001, standing). Increase in EMG activity explained 52% of variance in increase in oxygen uptake. Average word count per minute was 48.5 (±9.7, ball), 46.5 (±12.4, chair), and 49.6 (±12.5, standing) (p > 0.05).

CONCLUSION: These preliminary data suggest that there is a parallel and correlated increase in energy expenditure and muscle activation while performing clerical work in non-standard postures.

1445 Board #226 MAY 30 11:00 AM - 12:30 PM

Balance Control During Transition From Double To Single-leg Stance In Subjects With Chronic Ankle Instability

Jacques Duysens, Adriaan Van Nevel, Colin Malone, Sara Van Deun, Oron Levin, Filip Staes. KU-Leuven, Heverlee, Belgium.

(No relationships reported)

Subjects with CAI (chronic ankle instability) are slower in activating their leg muscles when shifting weight from double to single leg stance (DLS and SLS, Van Deun et al., 2007).

PURPOSE: Based on these results, the hypotheses tested were: (1) that in CAI the shift of the COP takes longer, (2) that this delay is associated with longer stabilization times when standing on one leg is achieved, and (3) that the largest delays in EMG onset are correlated with the slowest transfer in weight and/or greater instability in the SLS.

METHODS: 20 subjects with CAI and 20 controls were tested. A single force platform was used to monitor the anteroposterior (AP), mediolateral (ML) and vertical components of the foot-ground reaction (FGR) forces before during and after transition (TR) from DLS to SLS, either with the eyes open (EO) or closed (EC). Trajectory of the center of pressure (COP) was calculated to determine TTR (time of TR) and TTS (time to stabilization). TTR is the time from the onset of TR until the second zero crossing of ML COP velocity time series. TTS was estimated with the method of sequential estimation by taking a cumulative average of the ML COP displacement time series (Colby et al, 1999). The quasi-stable (QS) phase started at the end of TR and finished at the point of TTS. Electromyography (EMG) signals were recorded from ankle, knee and hip muscles.

RESULTS: The TTS was longer for the CAI than for controls (3.25 vs. 2.28 s in EO and 3.41 vs. 2.51 s in EC; P < 0.01). Similarly, the TTR was prolonged in CAI (1.48 vs. 1.14 s in EO and 1.53 vs. 1.20 s in EC; P < 0.05). These prolonged periods came in parallel with an increase in the ML sway in the QS period (mean displacement 2.20 vs. 1.75 cm in EO; 3.37 vs. 2.62 cm in EC; significant for EC, P < 0.01). The TTR in CAIs was positively correlated with time onset of the Adductor Longus during transitions with EC (R = 0.51, P = 0.03).

CONCLUSIONS: CAIs made slower transitions as indicated by longer TTR. These slower transitions in CAIs were associated with later onset time in the hip muscles and with larger instability in the ML direction in the period just after weight transfer (QS). The latter could indicate that for CAI the transfer was delayed because of anticipated instability. The present data support the use of a weight-shifting paradigm for the discrimination of stable and unstable ankles.

1446 Board #227 MAY 30 11:00 AM - 12:30 PM

Influence Of Visual Conditions And Leg Dominance On Balance Performance On Unstable Surfaces

Alison B. Regal, Karen Roemer, Erich J. Petushek, Louisa Raisbeck. Michigan Technological University, Houghton, MI.

(No relationships reported)

Maintaining stability on unstable surfaces in a quiet stance depends on the integration of afferent information (Peterka, 2002). It has been well documented how dynamic balance is affected by vision (Day et al., 1993), however the effect of vision impairment on dynamic balance is inconclusive (Houwen et al., 2009). Leg dominance has been reported to have no effect on full vision and no vision conditions (Hoffman et al., 1998). However, the research on impaired vision and balance performance is limited and inconclusive.

PURPOSE: To investigate the influence of vision and leg dominance for balance performance on an unstable surface.

METHODS: Twenty four females (Mean + SD; Age= 19.2 + 1.2; Wt= 72.1 + 13.45 kg; Ht = 166.0 + 6.3 cm) who were considered healthy with no previous injuries performed a dynamic balance task on a balance pad under three different vision conditions; full vision open, no vision, and impaired vision, on the dominant leg (dl) and non-dominant leg (ndl). Leg dominance was assessed using the recovery balance test. Sway velocity was the dependent variable. A 3×2 Repeated Measures ANOVA was used to compare differences between the vision conditions and dominant leg on dynamic balance.

RESULTS: Significance between full vision compared (dl: 9.7± 2.6m/s, ndl: 9.0± 1.6m/s) to no vision (dl: 12.8± 3.1m/s, ndl: 12.5± 2.5m/s) and impaired vision (dl: 10.8± 3.5m/s, ndl: 13.4± 4.5m/s , with p<0.001) were found. Significant differences between no vision and impaired vision (p= 0.925) were not observed. The dominant leg showed significantly reduced sway velocities compared to the non-dominant leg (p=0.012) for impaired vision.

CONCLUSION: Leg dominance influenced balance performance for impaired vision. These findings imply that with impaired vision the non-dominant leg may cause instability, which can lead to fall related injuries.

1447 Board #228 MAY 30 11:00 AM - 12:30 PM

Is the Activities-Specific Balance Confidence Scale Appropriate for Fall Screenings in Active Older Men?

Gregory F. Martel1, John F. Yannessa1, Michael C. Rabel2, George W. Lyerly1, Dennis W. Klima2. 1Coastal Carolina University, Conway, SC. 2University of Maryland Eastern Shore, Princess Anne, MD.

(No relationships reported)

Although frequently used for fall risk screenings, the Activities-Specific Balance Confidence Scale (ABC) lacks data regarding the relationships between the ABC and factors affecting balance confidence in active older men. Previous work from our laboratory, which included a population of 59% women, indicated significant relationships between the ABC and fall history, physical activity status, 1-RM leg strength, and isokinetic peak torque (PT).

PURPOSE: 1) To compare differences in balance confidence among male fallers (F) and non-fallers (NF) and 2) examine relationships between the ABC and age, PT, body mass index (BMI), and medication use.

METHODS: Seventy-one physically active, community dwelling men were recruited (67±7 yr, 84±15 kg, 27.1±4.1 BMI) to complete the ABC, a health history, and testing for concentric PT for knee extensors and knee flexors. Data were then dichotomized based on fall history.

RESULTS: When comparing F (n=14, 69±6 yr, 27.8±3.3 BMI) to NF (n=57, 67±7 yr, 27.0±4.3 BMI), independent t-tests revealed significantly higher ABC scores for NF (94±7 vs. 87±12; p<0.01), but no group differences for age, BMI, or PT. A Spearman nonparametric test revealed that ABC significantly correlated with fall history (rho=-0.264; p<0.05) and left knee extension PT (rho=0.434; p<0.05), but did not significantly correlate with age, BMI, or medication use.

CONCLUSIONS: ABC scores correlated with fall history and left knee extension PT, and were significantly lower among active older men who had recently fallen. However, typical balance confidence correlates (age, BMI, and polypharmacy) were not observed. Clinicians should be cautious when interpreting male balance confidence profiles in gender-mixed studies.

1448 Board #229 MAY 30 11:00 AM - 12:30 PM

Changes in Plantar Loading During the Lower Quarter Y Balance Test

Mary E. Russell1, Boyi Dai2, Robert J. Butler1, Robin M. Queen1. 1Duke University, Durham, NC. 2University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC. (Sponsor: Donald T. Kirkendall, FACSM)

(No relationships reported)

Dynamic balance has previously been established as a risk factor for lower extremity injury during sport. One way to measure dynamic balance is by using the Lower Quarter Y-Balance Test (YBT-LQ), however, there is currently no research on how loading of the foot is altered for the three different reach directions that are part of this test.

PURPOSE: To determine if total foot, rear foot (RF), medial midfoot (MMF), lateral midfoot (LMF), medial forefoot (MFF), middle forefoot (MidFF), lateral forefoot (LFF), hallux, and the lesser toes (LT) loading (defined by maximum force (MF)) were significantly different when performing the different reach directions of the YBT-LQ. The effect of gender on this outcome was also examined.

METHODS: Plantar loading in 40 (20 men, 20 women) healthy, recreational athletes were evaluated using the Pedar-X in-shoe system collecting at 100Hz. Exclusion included any history of lower extremity injuries in the past 6 months. Subjects completed 3 trials bilaterally for each of the 3 reach directions of the YBT-LQ. Subjects were asked to reach as far as possible in the anterior (A), posteriomedial (PM), and posteriolateral (PL) directions. 6 practice trials on each leg in each of the 3 reach directions were executed prior to formal testing. Repeated measures ANOVAs (gender by reach directions) examining the MF were used to determine statistical differences (α=0.05). All MF measures were normalized to body weight.

RESULTS: The total foot MF in the A (1.16 ± 0.10BW) direction was smaller than the PL (1.19 ± 0.09BW) and PM (1.19 ± 0.11BW) directions in males only (P<0.001). The LMF MF was highest in the PL direction, whereas MF in the MFF, MidFF, LFF, hallux and LT were all significantly higher in the A direction (P<0.001). MF in the RF, MidFF, and total foot were significantly higher in females than males overall (P<0.001).

CONCLUSIONS: Overall, the anterior direction had the highest load in the forefoot, hallux and LT while the PL direction was associated with higher loads beneath the lateral midfoot. During testing women exhibited increased loads in the RF and MMF, and LMF for all reach directions. . These results may indicate that the three reach directions of the YBT-LQ load the foot differently and thus may have an application for various types of lower extremity injuries that have specific foot loading patterns.

1449 Board #230 MAY 30 11:00 AM - 12:30 PM

Effects of Ankle Instability on Ground Reaction Forces during a Landing with Sidestep

Matt Denning, Mark Coglianese, Matthew K. Seeley, J. Ty Hopkins, FACSM. Brigham Young University, Provo, UT.

(No relationships reported)

Ankle instability is associated with mechanical and functional deficits. Appropriate foot position during functional, stressful movement is important to avoid dangerous loads on the ankle. Whole-body center of mass motion, which is reflected by the ground reaction force, influences how loads are applied to the foot during movement.

PURPOSE: Compare certain ground reaction force characteristics between individuals who have functional ankle instability (ankle group) and those who do not (control group) during a functional, stressful movement.

METHODS: 20 functionally unstable subjects were matched with 20 control subjects (gender, height, and weight). Subjects jumped forward (1m) and upward (± 5% of their averaged maximal height), landed on one leg on a force platform, and then quickly jumped laterally. Two-sample t-tests (α = 0.05) were used to evaluate the effect of ankle instability on peak vertical ground reaction force and loading rate, peak medial ground reaction force and loading rate, and average center of pressure distance from the midline of the foot while the subject contacted the plate.

RESULTS: No significant between-group differences were detected (p < 0.05). Peak vertical ground reaction force and loading rates for the ankle and control group were 2.86 ± 0.44 BW, 6.83 ± 1.53 BW/s, 2.91 ± 0.45 BW, and 7.2 ± 1.99 BW/s, respectively. Peak medial ground reaction force and loading rates for the ankle and control group were 0.44 ± 0.29 BW, 1.06 ± 0.75 BW/s, 0.31 ± 0.32 BW, and 0.78 ± 0.84 BW/s, respectively. Center of pressure distances from the midline of the foot for the ankle and control groups were 0.007 ± 0.009 m and 0.007 ± 0.004 m, respectively.

CONCLUSIONS: No observed ground reaction force characteristic was different between groups, suggesting that certain characteristics of whole-body center of mass motion are not affected by ankle instability during this dynamic task. This lack of significance may be due to variability of the landing strategies used by the ankle group, or the nature of the jumping and landing task.

1450 Board #231 MAY 30 11:00 AM - 12:30 PM

Is Four Weeks Enough To Improve Balance And Mobility Function Of Older Adults Who Are Already Physically Active?

Kali J. Tupper, Brandi S. Row. Western Washington University, Bellingham, WA.

(No relationships reported)

PURPOSE: To determine the effectiveness of a brief balance-training (BT) program to improve the balance of physically active older adults.

METHODS: A 4-week BT program was conducted with physically active older men and women (Exercise [EX] group, n = 10, mean age [standard deviation, SD]: 77.2 [8.9] yr; waitlist control (EX2) group, n = 9, mean age [SD]: 75.8 [6.0] yr). The BT program focused on the multisensory, motor, and cognitive contributors to dynamic postural control & gait. During the EX2 group’s waitlisted participation phase, fewer seated balance ball multisensory exercises were included, replaced instead by more weight-bearing balance, stepping, & gait exercises.

Outcome measures included a modified Fullerton Advanced Balance Scale (modFAB), including three items from the Community Balance & Mobility Scale. Additionally, gait speed & Gait Stability Ratio (GSR) of cadence to velocity, Trail Making Test, the Activities-Specific Balance Confidence Scale, & Stair Climb power. Acceleration measurements were made & are reported in a separate presentation.

For the initial 4-week intervention phase, repeated measures ANOVA (with factors Time [pre, post], Group [EX, EX2]) were conducted for measures that were suitable for parametric tests, otherwise, the Wilcoxon rank-sum (between groups) or Wilcoxon matched pairs (within group) tests were used. For the EX2 group’s waitlisted intervention analysis, a one-way ANOVA (with factor Time [pre, post, EX2-post]) was used for variables suitable for parametric tests; otherwise, the Friedman’s test was conducted.

RESULTS: Following BT, GSR decreased significantly during maximum gait speed trial for the EX group (EX: pre = 1.41 [SD 0.32], post = 1.32 [0.27]; EX2: pre = 1.18 [0.15], post = 1.21 [0.12]; p = 0.01). The EX2 group did not improve on GSR at EX2-post, but secondary analysis on each item of the modFAB revealed evidence of improvement in reactive postural control in this group at EX2-post. No differences on the other measures resulted.

CONCLUSIONS: Overall scores on the modFAB did not improve, but even in this small sample & brief intervention, there were some indications of a benefit of four weeks of BT regarding dynamic walking pattern (GSR) & reactive postural control. Evidence of improved frontal plane control is presented in an accompanying abstract from our lab.

1451 Board #232 MAY 30 11:00 AM - 12:30 PM

Effects Of Hyperthermia, Hypohydration And Fatigue On Balance

Lindsay J. DiStefano, Megan VanSumeren, Rachel Karslo, Julie K. DeMartini, Rebecca L. Stearns, Robert Huggins, Lawrence Armstrong, FACSM, Carl Maresh, FACSM, Douglas J. Casa, FACSM. University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT.

(No relationships reported)

Poor balance increases lower extremity injury risk. Fatigue, dehydration, and hyperthermia may impair balance, which could increase an individual’s injury risk.

PURPOSE: To evaluate the effects of hyperthermia, dehydration, and fatigue on balance ability.

METHODS: Twelve trained healthy male subjects (age=20±2 yrs, height =182±8 cm, body mass=74.0±8.2 kg, body fat=9±3%, VO2max = 57.0 ± 6.0 mL·kg-1·min-1) completed four randomized test sessions in a climate controlled chamber. Sessions varied based on environmental conditions and hydration status (Euhydrated Temperate (EUT), Euhydrated Hot (EUH), Hypohydrated Temperate (HYT), Hypohydrated Hot (HYH). Temperate and hot conditions were performed in 18±0.2°C, 50±3.5% relative humidity (RH), and 34 ±0.3°C, 45±4.5% RH, respectively. Dynamic balance during a 10-second unilateral landing task was assessed three times per session: before exercise (PRE), after exercise (POST), and after recovery (REC). The 90-minute treadmill exercise protocol required subjects to walk carrying a 20.5 kg backpack (1.34-1.78 m·s-1; 5% grade). Subjects sat quietly in the test environment during a 60-minute recovery period. Mean sway velocity and elliptical sway area were calculated from force plate data (4060-NC Bertec Corporation). A repeated measures analysis of variance with a Tukey HSD post hoc test evaluated differences between time and condition for all dependent variables.

RESULTS: Body mass loss differed across sessions (HYT:-3.80 ± 1.22%, HYH:-5.66 ± 1.57%, EUT:0.10 ± 0.90%, EUH:-1.30 ± 0.85%). Regardless of time, HYH resulted in the highest values for sway velocity (p=.024, 6.62±0.28 vs. 6.06±0.16 (HYT), 6.16±0.25 (EUH), 6.19±0.26 (EUT) m/s) and sway area (p=.048, 3.40±0.35 vs. 2.71±0.19 (HYT), 2.65±0.21 (EUH), 2.72±0.24 (EUT) cm2). POST sway velocity (PRE: 5.89±0.21, POST: 6.53±0.27, REC: 6.35±0.21) was higher than PRE and REC, regardless of condition (p=.003).

CONCLUSION: Regardless of hydration status and environmental conditions, fatigue appears to decrease balance ability. Dehydration in a hot environment also impairs balance ability. These findings suggest that hydration during physical activity in the heat may be critical to alleviate an increased risk of injury.

1452 Board #233 MAY 30 11:00 AM - 12:30 PM

The Relationship Between Dynamic Balance and Isokinetic Ankle Strength in College Female Athletes

Danika Evans, Barbara Warren, FACSM. University of Puget Sound, Tacoma, WA.

(No relationships reported)

Conflicting results have been found between dynamic balance and isokinetic ankle strength as measured by peak torque.

PURPOSE: To investigate the relationship between ankle joint peak torque and dynamic balance. METHOD: Fifteen healthy female Division III varsity athletes (mean (SD) age = 20.53 yrs (.743), height = 170.02 cm (4.962), weight = 67.27 kg (9.183)) were tested on a Cybex NORM isokinetic dynamometer performing maximal ankle plantar and dorsiflexion for both right and left ankles. Dynamic balance was assessed using the Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT). Isokinetic strength was assessed through 8 reciprocal maximal contractions of plantar and dorsiflexion at 60, 120, and 180°/s with a 60 second rest between each velocity set. Pearson’s correlations were used to assess the relationship between the dynamic balance score and peak torque at each velocity for each muscle group (alpha < 0.05).

RESULTS: Moderate correlations were found between right ankle dorsiflexor peak torque and dynamic balance (60°/s: r = .476, 120°/s: r = .608, and 180°/s: r = .667), left dorsiflexor peak torque and dynamic balance at all velocities (60°/s: r = .499, 120°/s: r = .488, 180°/s: r = .445), and between right and left ankle plantarflexor peak torque and dynamic balance (60°/s: r = .520, 60°/s: r = .454 ). Weak correlations were found between right ankle plantarflexor peak torque and dynamic balance at 120°/s and 180°/s (120°s: r = .362, 180°s: r = .274) and left plantarflexor peak torque and dynamic balance at 120°/s and 180°/s (120°/s: r = .237, 180°/s: r = -.037).

CONCLUSION: In this population of female athletes, these results suggest that dynamic balance may be related more to dorsiflexion strength than plantarflexion strength.

1453 Board #234 MAY 30 11:00 AM - 12:30 PM

Heart Rate and Postural Stability Recovery are Similar after Aerobic and Anaerobic Exercise

Katelyn Fleishman Allison, Jonathan S. Akins, Timothy C. Sell, John P. Abt, Mita T. Lovalekar, Kim Crawford, Scott M. Lephart. University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA.

(No relationships reported)

Postural stability (PS) assessment is an important component of sideline concussion testing and fatigue may influence PS independent of neurological insult. While studies found that PS is disrupted after both anaerobic (ANA) and aerobic (AER) exercise, the relationship between heart rate (HR) and PS recovery following exercise has not been determined.

PURPOSE: To compare PS and HR following maximal ANA and AER exercise using a cross-over study design.

METHODS: Physically active subjects (M=8, F=5, 23.5±3.5 yrs, 173.7±9.5 cm, 72.7±15.0 kg) participated in two test sessions, where PS and HR were assessed utilizing a single-leg balance task prior to and following ANA or AER exercise every 2-min for 20 min. Dominant-leg balance was measured with eyes open while standing on a foam pad on top of a force plate. A Wingate cycle power test induced ANA fatigue and a graded treadmill exercise test induced AER fatigue. Separate one-way repeated measures ANOVA with simple contrast compared standard deviations of ground reaction forces in the anterior-posterior (AP), medial-lateral (ML) and vertical (V) directions during post-fatigue time intervals to baseline in order to determine PS recovery for each condition (α=0.05). Paired t-tests compared % of max HR achieved during ANA and AER (%HRmax) between conditions at each post-fatigue time interval; adjustment for multiple comparisons set α=0.0045.

RESULTS: AP was greater than baseline up to 8-min post-fatigue for ANA (7.2±2.9 vs 5.5±2.0 N) and AER (6.8±2.3 vs 5.5±2.1 N); ML and V were greater than baseline at 0-min post-fatigue for ANA (ML: 6.1±2.9 vs 4.0±1.4 N, V: 23.3±22.2 vs 11.0±5.2 N) and AER (ML: 6.8±3.1 vs 3.7±1.2 N, V: 24.3±17.5 vs 12.1±3.4 N) (p<0.05). While max HR achieved during AER was significantly greater than ANA (193.4±10.6 vs 174.8±17.6 bpm, p<0.001), no significant differences in %HRmax were found between ANA and AER at any post-fatigue time interval (p>0.0045).

CONCLUSION: PS and HR recovered similarly following ANA and AER fatigue. Since PS recovered by 10-min post-fatigue with %HRmax at ∼52.7%, future research should investigate the potential of using %HRmax to determine when fatigue may be ruled out as a confounding factor during sideline concussion PS assessment following intense sporting activities.

Supported by the Freddie H. Fu, MD Doctoral Research Award

1454 Board #235 MAY 30 11:00 AM - 12:30 PM

The Effects of Core Strength Training on Static and Dynamic Balance in Female Collegiate Athletes

Kathryn E. Kramer, Sheila K. Kelly, Tina M. Manos, Justus D. Ortega. Humboldt State University, Arcata, CA.

(No relationships reported)

The core muscles of the body are essential components to most kinetic chains in sport activities; therefore, control of core strength should improve controlled motion during dynamic and static balance tasks. Although it is well established that core strength training (CST) improves balance in untrained adults, it is unknown whether CST improves balance in trained athletes.

PURPOSE: To determine if a 6-week core strength-training program improves dynamic and static balance in Division II female athletes with prior core strength training experience.

METHODS: The Experimental (EXP) and Control (CON) groups were comprised of 33 Division II female athletes (19 softball, 2 basketball, 7 crew, and 5 cross- country); age 19±3.5 yrs, mass 72.3±12.3 kg, height 167.6±7.0 cm. Both EXP and CON groups performed baseline core strength tests [60-second max sit up, max time held in side plank (sec), and max number of medicine-ball twists] and balance tests [Functional Reach (FR), Single-Limb Dynamic Balance (SLDB), Single-Limb Eyes Closed (SLEC), and Single-Limb Eyes Open (SLEO) performed on a force platform and Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT)]. For the core strength tests, T-scores were calculated for each test and then summed, resulting in a composite core strength score for each athlete (CS-T). For the four tests on the force platform, average CoP velocity (AveVel in cm/s) and 95% of the total area ellipse (95%TAE in cm2) were calculated in addition to the maximum reach (cm) of the FR test and the combined maximum reach (sum of three directions) for the SEBT (cm). The EXP group completed a training program consisting of ten core strength exercises performed three times per week for 6 weeks. After the training, the EXP and CON groups performed the core strength and balance testing.

RESULTS: Prior to the core strength training there was no difference in strength or balance between the EXP and CON groups. After 6 weeks of core strength training, the EXP group improved in core strength (CS-T: 594.60% increase, p=0.0001) and dynamic balance (SLDB: 95%TAE decreased 30.82%, p=0.049 and AveVel decreased 9.76%, p=0.005; SEBT: combined maximum reach increased 6.94%, p=0.0001). Maximum functional reach and other measures of static balance did not change. Although the CON showed a modest improvement in core strength measures (10.76%, p=0.001), there was no improvement in balance except for a 10% decrease in the average CoP velocity during the SLDB test (p=0.027).

CONCLUSION: Six weeks of supplemental core strength training improves core strength and dynamic balance but does not significantly affect static balance or functional reach in Division II, collegiate female athletes.

1455 Board #236 MAY 30 11:00 AM - 12:30 PM

Effect of a Lower Extremity Fatigue Protocol on the Balance Error Scoring System

Rose L. Smith, Jessica Murphy, Kirk Rhein, Melissa Smith, Emanuel Werner, Daniel L. Carl. University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH.

(No relationships reported)

Concussion is one of the most common sports-related head injuries accounting for approximately 300,000 diagnosed cases yearly and with as many as 15% of those resulting in persistent long term symptoms. Current concussion assessment and return-to-play decisions rely on the athlete’s willingness to share self-reported symptoms. Missed diagnosis due to relying on subjective symptoms from athletes could lead to future complications, such as second impact syndrome. The Balance Error Scoring System (BESS) was developed in order to provide a cost-effective sideline assessment tool for evaluating deficits in postural stability following a concussion. To date the role of the athlete’s level of fatigue and how it may interact with Bess scoring is unclear.

PURPOSE: To determine if lower extremity (LE) exercise induced fatigue will result in elevated BESS scores.

METHODS: 28 subjects (20M, 8F; 18-25 yo) participated in the study. Each subject completed an informed consent and was familiarized with the error measurements of the BESS protocol. Subjects were tested (Pre), LE fatigued, tested immediate post (Post I) and tested 20min post exercise (Post II). The LE fatigue protocol consisted of in order a 1.5 mile run/walk, a Queen’s College step test, and 4 sets of squats based on the DAPRE technique. The BESS protocol consisted of a 20s trial for single leg stance, double leg stance and tandem leg stance. In addition each stance was conducted on a firm surface and a medium density (60 kg.m3) foam block. The BESS performance score was a compilation of the total errors committed. A paired t-test was conducted to determine differences in Pre, Post I and Post II BESS scores.

RESULTS: BESS scores were significantly elevated immediate post fatiguing exercise (Pre 38.4 + 10.2 vs. Post I 54.3 + 12; p<0.01) and returned to statistical baseline by 20 min. post exercise (Pre 38.4 + 10.2 vs. Post II 38.1 + 7.0). No statistical differences were identified between M & F or with regard to subject’s level of conditioning.

CONCLUSIONS: Fatigue adversely affected BESS scoring immediately post exercise. Although a return to statistical baseline was observed at 20 min post exercise, as many as 21% of the participants had not fully recovered. Additional studies are warranted to further elucidate the role of BESS in return-to-play decision making.

1456 Board #237 MAY 30 11:00 AM - 12:30 PM

Integrative Training Of Strength And Sensorimotor Control Enhances Vestibular And Proprioceptive Activation During Postural Challenges

Henrike Fischer, Hans Martin Sommer, Olaf Hoos, Ralph Beneke, FACSM. Philipps University of Marburg, Marburg, Germany.

(No relationships reported)

Postural control depends on visual (VI), vestibular (VE) and proprioceptive (PR) feedback. Corresponding treatment effects usually do not discriminate between underlying sensory mechanisms.

PURPOSE: To discriminate between different adaptations of somatosensory control of a combined strength and sensorimotor intervention (EG) and a classical back school training (CG) in physically active subjects.

METHODS: EG (n=17, 25.9 yrs, 61.8kg, 1.70m)joined a specifically designed integrative strength and coordination program to promote joint extensions in supine and upright position (1h weekly for three months). CG (n=13, 26.5 yrs, 63.9kg, 1.75m) performed an identical volume of trunk muscle strength training and balance exercises on stable and unstable surfaces. Postural sway was assessed in barefooted single-leg stance with eyes open on a force platform (1 kHz). Center of pressure sway area (COPA) and spectral powers of Fast Fourier transformation distinguishing between VI (0.1-0.3 Hz), VE (0.3-1 Hz) and PR (1-3Hz) frequency bands were computed for anterior-posterior (AP) and medio-lateral (ML) directions.

RESULTS: COPA were unchanged in EG (pre: 1.02±0.37cm2, post 0.89±0.24cm2; ns) and in CG (pre 1.17±0.48cm2, post 1.32±0.86cm2; ns). In CG the distribution of spectral powers remained constant in ML (VI: pre 86.4±12.4%, post 88.9±15.6%; ns; VE: pre 10.0±8.8%, post 8.5±11.7%; ns; PR: pre 3.6±3.7%, post 2.6±3.9%; ns) and AP (VI: pre 95.4±1.2%, post 95.3±0.9%; ns; VE: pre 3.5±0.9%, post 3.6±0.7%; ns; PR: pre 1.1±0.3%, post 1.1±0.3%; ns). In EG the COP-powers shifted in terms of a reduction in VI (ML: pre 86.6±8.9%, post 77.8±13.7%; p≤0.05; AP: pre 96.0±0.6%, post 93.8±1.8%; p≤0.001) and an increase in VE (ML: pre 10.4±7.4%, post 16.6±10.6%, p≤0.01; AP: pre 3.1±0.5%, post 4.8±1.4%; p≤0.001) and AP component of PR (ML: pre 3.0±2.0%, post 5,6±4.5%; ns; AP: pre 0.9±0.2%, post 1.4±0.4%, p≤0.001).

CONCLUSIONS: Both interventions had no effect on COPA. However, the integrative strength and coordination program to promote joint extensions in supine and upright position reduced dependency of the VI system in favour of increased VE and PR control during postural challenges.

1457 Board #238 MAY 30 11:00 AM - 12:30 PM

Association of Dynamic Postural Stability Index Scores and Clinical Impairments: A Preliminary Analysis

Timothy J. Gilleran, Anthony Luke, FACSM, Richard B. Souza. UCSF, San Francisco, CA.

(No relationships reported)

Recurrent lateral ankle sprains (RLAS) are common injuries which may lead to impairments in postural control. A measure of dynamic postural stability was recently developed by Wikstrom. The relationships between the Dynamic Postural Stability Index (DPSI) and physical/functional impairments are currently unknown.

PURPOSE: To examine the relationships between the DPSI and selected clinical measurements.

METHODS: DPSI and clinical tests (questionnaires, ankle ROM and joint stability/mobility, hip and ankle strength, Y Balance and Lateral Hop tests) were performed on 15 subjects (3 male, 14 female, age: 28 ± 4.5) with RLAS. Forward, diagonal and lateral jumps were examined using GRF data acquired by a force platform (1000 Hz). Three successful trials averaged for DPSI calculations (described by Wikstrom) and clinical measures were entered into a correlation matrix (p<0.05).

RESULTS: Moderate correlations were observed between all DPSI scores and the FADI Sports questionnaire and ankle dorsiflexion ROM scores (Table 1); whereas, ankle mobility/stability and inversion ROM, ankle and hip strength, Lateral Hop tests and DPSI scores were non-significant and weakly correlated.

CONCLUSION: These data suggest DPSI scores are related to self-reported activity limitations and physical/functional impairments. The moderate association between FDPSI and Y Balance scores may provide insight into dynamic postural stability in clinical situations where force plate data is not available. Supported by NIH/NCRR/OD UCSF-CTSI Grant Number TL1 RR024129.

1458 Board #239 MAY 30 11:00 AM - 12:30 PM

Table 1: FADI - Foot...
Table 1: FADI - Foot...
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Impaired Standing Balance Performance After Maximal And Submaximal Endurance Exercise In Healthy Seniors

Oliver Faude, Lars Donath, Mareike Cordes, Livia Fricker, Ralf Roth, Henner Hanssen, Arno Schmidt-Trucksäss, Lukas Zahner. University of Basel, Institute of Exercise and Health Sciences, Basel, Switzerland.

(No relationships reported)

Impaired standing balance performance (SBP) is a relevant intrinsic fall risk factor in seniors. Acute effects of endurance exercise (maximal and submaximal) on SBP have not yet been studied in elderly.

PURPOSE: To evaluate the acute effects of an exhaustive maximal exercise test and 2 km walking at moderate intensity on single and double limb SBP.

METHODS: 19 healthy seniors (10 women, 9 men, age = 64.6 (SD 3.2) yrs, height = 1.70 (0.10) m, weight = 69.6 (11.2) kg) completed 3 experimental conditions on separate days one week apart. After a maximal ramp-like treadmill test (duration = 23.1 (3.1) min, maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) = 32.3 (4.8) mL/min/kg, maximal heart rate = 165 (9) /min) participants randomly completed a 2 km walking test on a treadmill at moderate intensity (27.5 (3.6) min at CR-10 Borg level 4 corresponding to 76 (8)% VO2max) and a resting control condition. During exercise tests heart rate and gas exchange data were continuously recorded. Ratings of perceived exertion (CR-10 scale) were assessed every minute (ramp test) as well as every 5 minutes (2 km walking test). Directly before and after maximal and submaximal exercise and the control condition, SBP was assessed by double leg stance with closed eyes (DLEC) and single leg stance with open eyes (SLEO) on a force platform. Total path length of center of pressure (COP) displacement was determined over 30 s (DLEC) and 10 s (SLEO).

RESULTS: : A significant condition x time interaction in COP path length data for both standing balance tests was observed (p < 0.001). Whereas COP path length during DLEC slightly decreased from pre to post test on the control day (-8%, effect size (d) = 0.21, p = 0.60), a small (+18%, d = 0.42, p = 0.05) and large (+52%, d = 1.04, p < 0.001) increase was observed after the 2 km and the ramp test, respectively. Similarly, COP path length during SLEO was reduced on the control day (-22%, d = 0.47, p = 0.04), whereas it was slightly increased (+15%, d = 0.29, p = 0.65) after the 2 km test. A large significant increase was observed after the maximal exercise test (+88%, d = 1.24, p < 0.001).

CONCLUSIONS: SBP was considerably deteriorated after maximal exhaustive treadmill exercise in healthy seniors. The small changes after walking 2 km at moderate intensity (typical endurance tasks of everyday life or health-oriented cardiovascular training) were of minor relevance.

1459 Board #240 MAY 30 11:00 AM - 12:30 PM

Progression Of Ankle Muscle Activation Performing Exercises With Different Types Of Body Stability

Victor Tella, Julio Martin, Sebastien Borreani, Juan Carlos Colado, Fernando Martin, Joao Alves. University of Valencia, Valencia, Spain.

(No relationships reported)

Ankle injury is one of the most prevalent in athletics. Rehabilitation protocol must include proprioception to improve the ankle stability and thus to the return to the functional status. Proprioception and balance training equipments are used despite the insufficient knowledge about a proper progression with these devices.

PURPOSE: To compare ankle muscular activity performing 4 exercises performed in stable and unstable conditions using Thera-Band® devices.

METHODS: 18 physically fit and healthy male subjects took part in a randomized, within-subject design assessment. The maximum isometric voluntary contraction (MIVC) was evaluated for the normalization. Peroneus longus (PL), tibialis anterior (TA) and soleus (S) muscular activities were recorded, and then the average root mean square values of all of them were calculated. Surface electromyography activity was analyzed during the central 16 seconds of 20 of 4 isometric unipodal postures: Sitting on swissball and foot over the floor (SF), standing up on the floor (UF), standing up on a Rocker Board (UR) and standing up on a Stability Soft (US). All values, expressed as the mean of the 5 muscles %MIVC, were compared using a mixed-model MANOVA with a post-hoc analysis of Bonferroni. Significance level was set at p≤0.05.

RESULTS:

CONCLUSION: Unipodal exercise performed sitting on the swissball generates the lower ankle muscles activation. Rocker Board and Soft Stability are unstable surfaces which increase significantly ankle muscle activity in comparison with stable surface. US provokes greater but not significant activation of all ankle muscles in comparison with the UR probably due to the direction of the unbalance which is multidirectional and unidirectional respectively.

Table 1
Table 1
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1460 Board #241 MAY 30 11:00 AM - 12:30 PM

Changes In Functional Balance Among Firefighters Following Live Fire Training

Deanna Colburn, Serina J. McEntire, Joe Suyama, Steven E. Reis, Riana R. Pryor, Priya Khorana, Jennifer Erin, Francis X. Guyette, David Hostler. University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA. (Sponsor: Fredric Goss, FACSM)

(No relationships reported)

Slips, trips, and falls are a common cause of injury and disability among firefighters. Little is known about the relative contribution of protective clothing, physical fitness, and body composition on functional balance following fire suppression.

PURPOSE: Determine if the time to complete a test of functional balance or the number of errors committed during the test changes after fire suppression and if these variables are related to maximal oxygen consumption or body composition.

METHODS: 31 firefighters (90% male) had maximal oxygen consumption and body fat (18.4±5.3% male, 17.5±4.4% female) measured prior to participating in a 20-minute live fire exercise at a county fire academy. Subjects completed a test of functional balance at a baseline assessment in shorts and athletic shoes and immediately before and after fire suppression while wearing thermal protective clothing and breathing apparatus. Subjects completed three trials of the task at each assessment. Time to complete the task and the number of errors committed were recorded. Repeated measures ANOVA was performed to identify changes in time and errors. Correlations were calculated between VO2max and body fat against the change in time to complete the task and change in errors committed.

RESULTS: Body core temperature following fire suppression was 38.5±0.5°C and heart rate after exiting the fire was 152±28 bpm. Time to complete the task did not differ between baseline in normal clothing (12.3±4.4 sec), compared to pre- (12.1±4.0), and post- (12.2±3.9) fire in protective clothing (p=0.84). There was a trend (p=0.056) towards more errors committed after fire suppression (1.4) when compared to baseline (0.9). A correlation was identified (r = -0.41, p=0.04) between VO2max and time to complete the task with high VO2max associated with faster completion times. No significant correlations were identified between VO2max and errors or between body fat (%) and either time to complete or errors committed.

CONCLUSIONS: Time to complete a test of functional balance and the number of errors committed during the task did not differ either between normal clothing and protective clothing conditions or after a single 20-minute bout of fire suppression. Maximal oxygen consumption, but not percent body fat, was correlated with time to complete the task.

1461 Board #242 MAY 30 11:00 AM - 12:30 PM

The Role of Foot Type in Dynamic Balance Performance

Anat Lubetzky-Vilnai, Patricia Ann Kramer. University of Washington, Seattle, WA.

(No relationships reported)

The Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT) is a simple clinical test designed to measure dynamic balance. Determining which parameters are associated with SEBT performance can help therapists understand potential underlying impairments that lead to decreased or enhanced dynamic balance performance. Specifically, the association between SEBT performance and foot type is yet to be determined. The Arch Index (defined as the ratio between midfoot and total foot area) is a simple and reliable measure used to quantify foot type.

PURPOSE: Our primary purpose was to investigate the association between foot morphology and Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT) performance in recreational runners. The secondary purposes were to explore the association between the severity of past injuries and SEBT performance and to test the hypothesis that increased severity of past injuries will be correlated with flatter feet among recreational runners.

METHODS: 20 healthy recreational runners (15 women, 5 men, aged 23 -58 years) participated in this cross-sectional study. We interviewed the participants about their running habits and history of injuries. A pressure sensitive mat and associated software (Footscan USB plate, RSScan International, Olen, Belgium) was used to obtain the static footprints of all participants. Arch indexes were calculated from the footprints. Participants performed the SEBT.

RESULTS: Participants with lower medial longitudinal foot arch reached significantly farther on all SEBT directions except for anterolateral. The Spearman correlation coefficient between arch index and the SEBT composite score was 0.55 and the R2 was 0.31 (p = 0.02) indicating that arch index explained 31% of the variance in SEBT performance. Severity of injuries in the past was not associated with SEBT performance (p > 0.1) and was significantly associated with arch index (Rs = 0.54, p = 0.02).

CONCLUSION: When using the SEBT to measure dynamic balance, researchers and clinicians need to be aware of potential differences in performance with different foot types. In the clinic,

asymmetry in arch index may affect symmetry in SEBT performance. In the research setting, arch index may need to be adjusted for when comparing SEBT performance between groups.

1462 Board #243 MAY 30 11:00 AM - 12:30 PM

Reliability Investigation of A Novel Custom-made Body Posture and Spinal Curve Measurement System

Shih-Ting Wang1, Yu-Chi Hsu1, Yi-Hsuan Yeh1, Yu-Lin Yu1, Chich-Haung Yang2, Lan-Yuen Guo1. 1Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan. 2TzuChi University, Hualien, Taiwan.

(No relationships reported)

Poor posture may not only induce musculoskeletal pain, but also related to dysfunction in cardiopulmonary system. Measuring posture and spinal curve can be as a reference for clinical decision. Few instruments can assess both posture and spinal curve simultaneously.

PURPOSE: This study was to develop a custom-made body posture and spinal curve measurement system and to examine its with-day and between-days reliability while measuring both in sagittal and frontal planes.

METHODS: Five healthy subjects (two male and three female, mean age 20.2 years old) were recruited. The measurement system included three encoders for measuring the distance of moved and representing the relative positions of the subjects’ anatomic makers in the three dimensional space. For measuring the spinal curve, those makers included the spinal process of the 1st and 12th thoracic (T1, T12) and of the 1st and 5th lumbar (L1, L5). Thoracic kyphosis was defined as the angle projected in sagittal plane between the intersections of the tangents at the T1 and the T12, meanwhile the lumbar lordosis was defined by using the tangents at the L1 and the L5. For measuring the body posture in sagittal plane, the craniovertebral (CVA) angle was determined by the measured positions of the ear canal and the spinal process of the 7th cervical and trunk forward lean (TFL) angle was determined by the measured positions of acromioclaviclavicular joint and greater trochanter of femur. For measuring the body posture in coronal plane, back symmetry variables was calculated through measuring the positions of the following markers (shoulder, axilla and trunk) bilaterally. With-day and between-days reliability were determined using statistical analysis by intraclass correlation coefficience (ICC).

RESULTS: For both with-day and between-days measurements, the ICC values of the thoracic kyphosis and lumbar lordosis were between 0.77-0.98. For measuring the body posture in sagittal plane, ICC values of the CVA and TFL were between 0.90-0.95. For measuring the body posture in coronal plane, ICC values of the back symmetry variables were between 0.78-0.93.

CONCLUSION: Body posture and spinal curves measurement using this custom-made system demonstrated a good reliability. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS: This study was supported by NSC 99-2410-H-037-009-MY2

1463 Board #244 MAY 30 11:00 AM - 12:30 PM

A History of Multiple Concussions Does Not Alter Dual Task Gait Stepping Characteristics

Thomas A. Buckley1, David A. Krazeise2, Barry A. Munkasy1. 1Georgia Southern University, Statesboro, GA. 2Webber International University, Babson Park, FL. (Sponsor: Chris Hass, FACSM)

(No relationships reported)

Recent investigations have suggested that multiple concussions, typically identified as three or more, may have serious long term consequences including multiple cognitive and neurological pathologies resulting in impaired quality of life. A recent investigation identified alterations in gait performance in individuals with a concussion history; however, the specific threshold of three or more concussions has not been assessed.

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to identify changes in gait spatial and temporal characteristics in individuals with a history of at least 3 concussions.

METHODS: Ten individuals (age: 20.6 ± 1.2 years, ht: 1.76 ± 0.12m, wt: 83.8 ± 24.8kg) with a history of at least three concussions (3.5 ± 0.9), CONC group, were matched to ten individuals with no history of concussions (age: 20.5 ± 1.6 years, ht: 1.75 ± 0.11m, wt: 83.6 ± 22.9kg), No CONC group. All participants performed 5 trials of self-selected single task gait (ST) and dual task gait (DT) on a 4.9m instrumented walkway, previously identified as valid and reliable. The dual task group answered working memory challenges while walking. Stepping characteristics were compared using a 2 (group) x 2 (task) repeated measures ANOVA.

RESULTS: There were no interaction (p=0.243) or group effect (p=0.495) for gait velocity (CONC: ST; 1.30 ± 0.12m/s, DT; 1.18 ± 0.11m/s and No CONC: ST; 1.31 ± 0.08, DT: 1.27 ± 0.26m/s). Similarly, there was no interaction (p=0.230) or group effect (p=0.967) for stride length (CONC: ST; 1.36 ± 0.07m, DT; 1.31 ± 0.09m and No CONC: ST; 1.34 ± 0.7m, DT: 1.34 ± 0.15m). Further, there was no interaction (p=0.838) or group effect (p=0.986) in double support phase (CONC: ST; 23.8 ± 1.9%, DT; 24.7 ± 1.9% and No CONC: ST; 23.8 ± 2.0%, DT: 24.6 ± 2.6%). Finally, there was no difference between groups for the number of dual task challenges successfully completed.

CONCLUSION: The results of this study suggest there are no differences in gait spatial and temporal characteristics between individuals with a history of multiple concussions and those with no history of concussion when performing working memory dual task challenges during normal overground walking. This population of otherwise young healthy adults appeared to possess sufficient supraspinal compensatory resources to accomplish both a cognitive and postural task simultaneously.

1464 Board #245 MAY 30 11:00 AM - 12:30 PM

Accelerometry Reveals Improvements In Frontal Plane Control After Only Four-weeks Of Balance And Mobility Training

Brandi S. Row, Kali J. Tupper. Western Washington University, Bellingham, WA.

(No relationships reported)

PURPOSE: To study the effects of balance-training (BT) on frontal plane control during gait.

METHODS: A 4-week BT program was conducted with physically active older men & women (Exercise group [EX], n = 10, mean age [standard deviation, SD]: 77.2 [8.9] yr; waitlist control group (EX2), n = 9, 75.8 [6.0] yr). The BT program focused on multisensory, motor, & cognitive contributors to postural control & gait. EX2’s training had less seated training & more weight-bearing exercise.

Four gait trials included: Normal (NORM) & Maximal (MAX) speed, and NORM & MAX speed with a cognitive distraction (COG). Average per-step peak medial-lateral (M-L) trunk acceleration (ACC) magnitude & variability (SD) were calculated.

For the initial 4-week intervention phase, repeated measures ANOVA (with factors Time [pre, post], Group [EX, EX2]) were conducted for measures appropriate for parametric tests, otherwise, the Wilcoxon rank-sum (between groups) or Wilcoxon matched pairs (within group) tests were used. For EX2’s waitlisted intervention analysis, a one-way ANOVA (with factor Time [pre, post, EX2-post]) was used for variables suitable for parametric tests; otherwise, the Friedman’s test was used.

RESULTS: No M-L trunk ACC changes occurred for EX or EX2 from pre to post. Though no changes occurred in gait speed, the waitlisted EX2 group had significant reductions in M-L ACC variables following their BT phase between post- & EX2-post (Table 1).

CONCLUSIONS: Reduced magnitude & variability of per-step M-L ACC following BT indicate improved frontal plane control during NORM & MAX walking & MAX COG gait. The latter result may also represent an improved ability to switch attention between walking & the cognitive task.

Table 1: Mean SD of ...
Table 1: Mean SD of ...
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1465 Board #246 MAY 30 11:00 AM - 12:30 PM

Differential Effects Of Foot Sole Sensory Impairment On Balance And Gait

Shuqi Zhang, Li Li, FACSM. Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA.

(No relationships reported)

Foot somatosensation provides valuable feedback information to central nervous system to maintain balance. Acute reduced foot sensation would change the plantar pressure distribution during standing and gaits. However, the effect of long-term foot sole sensory impairment on plantar pressure distribution is unclear.

PURPOSE: this study was to examine the effects of chronic sensory loss due to peripheral neuropathy (PN) on plantar pressure distribution during walking and standing.

METHODS: Twenty-four elderly PN suffers (7 male, 17 female) participated the study (average age/standard deviation = 73.0/6.9). The foot sole sensitivity was tested at big toe (BT), 1st and 5th metatarsal (M1 and M5), mid-foot (MF) and med-heel (MH) with a 5.07 monofilament and sties was divided into sensitive and insensitive groups based on test score. Relative peak pressure (RPP) of the five tested sites collected according to sensitivity of each of the five sites via an in-shoe pressure system during walking and standing. Walking was conducted on a treadmill at 0.45 m/s (1 mile / hour) for 20 seconds, while standing data was collected during a 30 seconds quiet standing with eyes open. Five-way MANOVA examined the association between dependent variables as a group, RPP of BT, M1, M5, MF and HL, and the sensitivity (sensitive versus insensitive groups) of BT, M1, M5, MF and HL as independent variables during standing and walking separately. Significant associations were examined further using Tukey’s test.

RESULTS: during standing, the sensitivity of BT affected average RPP at BT significantly (P < .05), where RPP associated with insensitive BT (8.1% ± 5.7%) was greater than with sensitive BT (4.5% ± 4.9%). Furthermore, the RPP at HL was greater for insensitive MF (36.1% ± 17.9%) than sensitive MF (23.6% ± 7.4%) (P < .05). No pressure distribution change observed due to insensitivity of other sites during standing. No pressure distribution changes observed during walking.

CONCLUSION: These results indicate feedback from foot sole sensation in gait is not as important as in standing. It suggests maintaining standing balance is more reliance on the feedback control mechanism, while gait control is more reliance on the feedforward control mechanism.

1466 Board #247 MAY 30 11:00 AM - 12:30 PM

Relationships Between Presynaptic Inhibition and Static Postural Sway in Subjects With and Without Diabetic Neuropathy

Kevin G. Burfeind, Junggi Hong. Willamette University, Salem, OR.

(No relationships reported)

Nearly 50% of diabetic patients also suffer from neuropathy, the most common form being diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN). DPN affects men and women with equal frequency, and symmetrically damages nerves of the limbs, especially the foot, leading to balance impairment. One mechanism that has been reported to be important for balance, yet has not been investigated in DPN patients, is the spinal reflex. The inhibitory or facilitatory behavior of the spinal reflex plays an important role in controlling static postural sway by filtering afferent nerve signals.

PURPOSE: To compare the differences in spinal reflex and balance in subjects with and without DPN to determine the influence of the spinal reflex on balance in DPN patients.

METHODS: Eight DPN patients (58+6 yrs) and eight normal subjects (59+7 yrs) participated in this study. Presynaptic inhibition (PI) and static postural sway were tested for each subject. The mean percent difference of the conditioned relative to the unconditioned spinal reflex amplitude was assessed to calculate PI. To quantify static postural sway, a balance index was determined for each subject from a single-leg balance assessment on a computerized balance-measuring device.

RESULTS: DPN patients showed less PI than the normal group (47+30% vs. 87+17%, p<0.05), as well as increased balance index (0.65+0.24 vs. 0.38+0.06, p<0.05) indicating increased postural sway. No significant correlation was found between PI and balance index (R=0.37, p=0.15).

CONCLUSION: DPN patients demonstrated decreased spinal reflex inhibition accompanied by a decrease in static balance compared to normal age-matched controls. Further research is necessary to explore the role of PI in the decreased balance seen in DPN patients.

1467 Board #248 MAY 30 11:00 AM - 12:30 PM

Human Motion Differerntion Based on Inertial Parameters

Chao-Ping Chi1, Kuo-Wei Tseng1, Wen-Ting Tei2, Yi-Pin Wang3. 1Taipei Physical Education College, Taipei City, Taiwan. 2Cheng Hsin General Hospital, Taipei City, Taiwan. 3Power & Health Rehabilitation Clinic, Taipei City, Taiwan.

(No relationships reported)

PURPOSE: This project plans to develop an alert system based on inertial parameters with human motion differentiation, high-risk movement detection, and fall detection.

METHODS: 90 subjects volunteered to participate in this study. The Xbus Master (Xsens Technologies B.V., The Netherlands) inertial parameter detector were carried by the subjects during various movements, including standing, sitting, supine, prone, lying, up/down stairs, sit-to-stand, stand-to-sit, running, jumping and walking.

RESULTS: An algorithm was developed for each decision node with hierarchy structure as binary tree method. A human motion classifier was constructed with best basis feature extraction, maximal likelihood classifier and the accuracy tested. Half of the sample data were used as the released-set and applied in constructing individual classifiers. The other half will be used as the withhold-set and employed in testing reliability of the individual classifiers. The results have shown that the level 3 static and transfer action have high sensitivity (95.6%-100%) and level 4 static and transfer action have well sensitivity (84.4%-93.3%). (Tab. 1)

CONCLUSION: The method has potential applications to apply in telemedicine and fall-risk analysis for the elderly, and long-distance monitoring and behavioral pattern analysis for daily activities modern of elderly people. There are clear limits in the calculation time on what can be achieved in a free-living monitoring environment.

1468 Board #249 MAY 30 11:00 AM - 12:30 PM

Postural Control, Knee Alignment, And Self-reported Function In Patients With Symptomatic Knee Osteoarthritis And Normal Control Subjects

Carrie L. Silkman, Jennifer M. Medina McKeon. University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY.

(No relationships reported)

PURPOSE: Declining levels of function are associated with osteoarthritis (OA); however it is unknown to what degree balance deficits occur. The purpose was to evaluate differences between healthy individuals and those with OA on subjective measures of pain and disability, and objective measures of structure, balance, and clinical measures of function.

METHODS: Ten subjects (1 male, 9 females, age = 40.4 ± 11.7 yrs, ht = 166 ± 9 cm, mass = 82.6 ±14 kg) with OA were matched by sex, height and mass with 10 healthy subjects (1 male, 9 female, age = 41.6 ± 11.9 yrs, ht=166 ± 9 cm, mass = 81.9 ± 15 kg). The subjects completed the Knee injury Osteoarthritis Outcome Survey (KOOS), which consists of 5 subscales (Pain, Symptom, Activities of Daily Living (ADL), Sports and Recreation (Sport/Rec), and Quality of Life (QOL). Subjects underwent functional testing including the 15m Timed Up and Go (TUG), 15.24m walk test, timed stair ascent, and stair descent. Balance was measured using the step test as a dynamic balance task, and force plate static balance as measured by time to boundary (TTB). Additionally, knee varus alignment was measured bilaterally. Hedge’s g effect sizes [95% confidence intervals] were calculated to assess the difference between the affected limb of the OA group compared to the matched limb of the control group for each outcome.

RESULTS: The OA group demonstrated worse scores for all subscales of the KOOS (pain 5.2 [1.8]; KOOS symptom 5.7 [2.0]; KOOS ADL 2.1 [1.1]; KOOS sport/rec 3.8 [1.5]; KOOS QOL 3.9 [1.5]), increased knee varus (1.0 [0.9]), and slower stair ascent (1.0 [0.9]) than the healthy group. For other functional tests (TUG 0.5 [0.9]; Walk test 0.5 [0.9]; Stair descent 0.8 [0.9]), confidence intervals encompassed zero, indicating a need for caution when interpreting results. Lastly, there was no difference in balance between groups for either measure (Step Test 0.2 [0.9]; TTB mean of minima in the medial-lateral direction 0.6 [0.9]; TTB mean of minima in the anterior-posterior direction 0.1 [0.9])

CONCLUSION: Patient reports of functional deficits as a result of OA were not substantiated by laboratory testing of balance, and not well-associated with functional, clinical tests. Other objective methods for determining the extent in OA, which are also highly correlated with patient reports, are needed.

1469 Board #250 MAY 30 11:00 AM - 12:30 PM

Post Nuchal Icing Effect On Neck Fitness And Balance Performance Between Boxers And Non-boxers

Shih-Wei Chou1, Cheng-Hsiu Lai2, Yu-Tsai Tu1, Yin-Chou Lin1, Yi-Liang Cheng2, Ching-Ya Huang2. 1Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taoyuan, Taiwan. 2Taipei Physical Education College, Taipei City, Taiwan. (Sponsor: Chia-Hua Kuo, FACSM)

(No relationships reported)

Boxing involves impacts to the head, potentially resulting in acute or chronic head and neck injuries. Objective: To evaluate post nuchal icing effect on the neck fitness and balance performance between the boxer and the age-matched non-boxers who had not been specialized in any specific sport.

METHODS: A 2 x 2 factorial design between the boxing and the icing pre-post factors was conducted. Twenty five boxers from the Taipei Physical Education College (20.92 ± 1.35 years of age; 169.32 ± 9.86 cm; 64.84 ± 13.24 kg) and 11 students of non-sport majors (21.55 ± 1.51 years of age; 169.55 ± 6.15 cm; 65.10 ±8.41 kg) were enrolled as the boxer group and the non-boxer group, respectively. Their balance performance were assessed by the sensory organization test (SOT) with the Smart Balance Master (Neurocom International Inc., USA) and then the microFET3 (Hoggan Health Industries, USA) was used to measure neck maximal isometric strength and active range of motion (ROM) in six directions. After icing intervention, the boxers and the control group were measured again for their balance performance and neck fitness.

RESULTS: Statistic significance was shown in the more challenging conditions, i.e., conditions 5 and 6 of the SOT for the main icing pre-post effect, and condition 5 for the interaction effect. In sensory analysis, statistic significance was shown in the visual and vestibular ratios only for the main icing pre-post effect. In neck fitness with respect to maximal isometric strength and active ROM, the main effects of boxing and icing pre-post factors and their interaction effect were almost all statistically significant.

CONCLUSION: In balance, icing may be effective of both the boxer and non-boxer groups, but more in the boxers. In general, maximal isometric strength scored higher but active ROM scored lower in the boxers than in the non-boxers. Icing may be also effective in both strength and flexibility of both groups, but more in the boxers. As a result, the detrimental effect in boxing and the beneficial effect of icing were demonstrated in terms of neck fitness and balance performance.

1470 Board #251 MAY 30 11:00 AM - 12:30 PM

Relationship Between Anthropometric And Postural Balance In Semi-static Upright Posture

Angelica Castilho Alonso, Luciana Baltazar Dias, Emmanuel Gomes Ciolac, Fábio Brabieri, Júlia MD’Andréa Greve. faculdade de medicina da universidade de são paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.

(No relationships reported)

INTRODUCTION: The maintenance of posture is a constant contest for the human body, because it demands a system capable of responding quickly and efficiently, even in unstable situations, avoiding falls and maintaining balance. Objectives: to assess the influence of anthropometric characteristics and gender on postural balance of irregularly active adults in the upright, bipedal and semi-static posture, with eyes open and closed.

METHODS: 100 individuals of both genders were assessed, with age between 20 and 40 years, through an anthropometric measurements, bone densitometry (lean and fat mass, composition and bone mineral density), BMI, height, body mass, lower and head length limb and upper torso lenght, waist and hip, support base and postural balance test performed on a force platform.

RESULTS: The correlation analysis showed weak correlations between the postural balance and anthropometric measure. The multiple linear regression analysis demonstrated that in the whole group (female and male) height explained 12% of the medial-lateral displacement, 10% of the speed of oscillation and 11% of the scroll area. The torso circumference length explained 6% of the shift from anterior to posterior. In the eyes closed condition, height and base of support explained 18% of the medial lateral displacement, height explained 10% of the speed displacement and 5% of the scroll area.

CONCLUSION: Postural balance measured by posturography is little influenced by anthropometric variables with eyes open and closed. Postural balance is more influenced by anthropometric factors in the men than those of women. Height is the anthropometric variable that most influenced the postural balance among the three groups, with eyes open and closed. The balance between men and women measured by posturography is equal, except for the lateral displacement and average speed of oscillation, which are larger in women.

A-41 Free Communication/Poster - Pregnancy Postpartum

MAY 30, 2012 7:30 AM - 12:30 PM

ROOM: Exhibit Hall

1471 Board #252 MAY 30 9:30 AM - 11:00 AM

The Effect Of Exercise During Early Lactation On Bone Mineral Density At 1 Year Postpartum

Andrea Sorvillo, Heather Colleran, Laurie Wideman, Cheryl Lovelady. The University of NC at Greensboro, Greensboro, NC. (Sponsor: Allan Goldfarb, FACSM)

(No relationships reported)

PURPOSE: Hyperprolactemia, which results in increased bone turnover, causes breastfeeding women to lose 1 to 10% of bone mineral density (BMD) by 6 mo postpartum (PP). BMD usually returns to prepregnancy levels with weaning; however, not in all women. Exercise, particularly resistance training, prevents the loss of BMD. We hypothesized that exercise may slow bone loss during early lactation, resulting in higher BMD at 1 yr PP. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the effects of a 16 wk exercise program, beginning 4 wks PP, on BMD at 20 wks and 1 yr PP.

METHODS: At 4 wks PP, fully breastfeeding women were randomized to either exercise group [EG, n=18, aerobic and resistance exercise (3d/wk)] or control group [CG, n=18] for 16 wks. Exercises included bench press, bent over row, deadlift, military press, pushups, squats and walking 30-40 min/d, 4d/wk or 10,000 steps/d. Measurements were made at baseline (4 wks PP), end of intervention (20 wks PP), and 1 yr PP. Maximal strength and predicted maximal oxygen consumption (VO2 max) were determined by 1-rep max and submax treadmill test. BMD was measured by DXA at lumbar spine (LS), hip and total body. Prolactin levels (analyzed by ELISA) and calcium intake (24-hr diet recalls) were measured in a subsample of 20 women. Repeated measures ANOVA was used to test for time and group differences.

RESULTS: At 20 wks PP, strength increased significantly more in EG compared to CG; with no differences in VO2 max. LS BMD decreased in both groups; however, EG decreased less (EG = 3.59 ± 2.12% vs. CG = 5.17 ± 3.28%, p = 0.10). Results were similar for hip and total body. At 1 yr PP, LS, hip, and total body BMD changed significantly over time (p <0.001) but not by group. When controlling for calcium intake and prolactin levels, EG lost less LS BMD from 4 to 20 wks PP and gained slightly more from 20 wks to 1 yr PP (EG 1.114 ± 0.128 to 1.070 ± 0.130 to 1.107 ± 0.127 vs. CG 1.105 ± 0.139 to 1.031 ± 0.135 to 1.065 ± 0.137, p = .02). The overall change in the EG group was -0.67 ± 2.23%, while the change in the CG was -3.65 ± 2.41%; a 5.4 fold difference in LS BMD change. Hip and total body BMD did not change significantly over time or by group.

CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that resistance exercise slows LS BMD losses during early lactation, resulting in higher BMD levels at 1 yr PP. This may result in a decreased risk for fracture as women age.

1472 Board #253 MAY 30 9:30 AM - 11:00 AM

Fat Tissue Inflammation, Sedentary Time, and Light Daily Activity among Postpartum Latinas

Paska Permana1, Barbara Ainsworth, FACSM2, Michael Belyea2, Kathie Records2, Sonia Vega- López2, Allison Nagle-Williams2, Dean V. Coonrod3, Colleen Keller2. 1Phoenix Veterans Affairs Health Care System, Phoenix, AZ. 2Arizona State University, Phoenix, AZ. 3Maricopa Integrated Health System, Phoenix, AZ.

(No relationships reported)

Postpartum Latinas have high rates of obesity and are at risk for obesity-related metabolic disorders, yet their physical activity (PA) rates are often quite low. Chronic sub-clinical inflammation associated with obesity may exacerbate risk for metabolic disorders and pro-inflammatory cytokines released by fat tissue contribute to systemic inflammation.

PURPOSE: To determine if fat tissue inflammation correlates with daily PA in postpartum Latinas.

METHODS: Madres para la Salud is a prospective, randomized trial exploring the effectiveness of a culturally specific social support intervention using moderate-intensity PA to reduce body fat, systemic and fat tissue inflammation, and depression symptoms in postpartum Latinas. PA was assessed at baseline with the ActiGraph GT3X accelerometer, worn for 7 days. PA intensities were determined from sedentary to vigorous using Freedson’s and Matthews’ cut-points. A subcutaneous abdominal fat biopsy and a blood draw were performed on a subset (n=15) of participants. We determined mRNA expression levels of inflammatory markers Interleukin-6 (IL-6), Interleukin-8 (IL-8), and Tumor Necrosis Factor α (TNF-α) in fat tissue using Real Time PCR. Plasma concentrations of IL-6 and IL-8 were measured using Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay. Data are presented as Mean±SD.

RESULTS: Daily proportion of light PA (39±9%) correlated negatively (r=-0.98, p<0.001) with sedentary time (58±10%). Fat tissue mRNA expression levels, but not plasma concentrations, of IL-6 (3.8±6.8 Relative Units), IL-8 (1.7±1.6), and TNF-α (0.9±0.2) correlated with sedentary time (r=0.47, p=0.08; r=0.7, p=0.004; r=0.55, p=0.04, respectively) and inversely with light PA (r=-0.51, p=0.05; r=-0.75, p<0.001; r=-0.59, p=0.02, respectively).

CONCLUSION: The correlation between the mRNA expression levels of inflammatory markers in fat tissue with sedentary time and, inversely, with light PA is strengthened by the inverse correlation between the two types of activity. These results indicate that even light PA incorporated in daily routine, independent of more intense PA, may already reduce inflammation in fat tissue in postpartum Latinas. Moderate-intensity intervention will likely further reduce fat tissue and systemic inflammation, thus minimize risk for obesity-related diseases.

1473 Board #254 MAY 30 9:30 AM - 11:00 AM

Healthcare Providers’ Beliefs And Practices Related To Antenatal Physical Activity For Sedentary And Overweight Women

Margaret J. Gutilla, Jenn A. Leiferman. University of Colorado, Aurora, CO. (Sponsor: John B. Bartholomew, FACSM)

(No relationships reported)

Despite the fact that the American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists recommends pregnant women who are free of obstetrical complications engage in regular leisure physical activity, women who are pregnant engage in less physical activity than their nonpregnant counterparts. Pregnant women often report a lack of knowledge concerning the safety of exercising during pregnancy and believe that if they received information related to how to safely and effectively exercise during pregnancy it would facilitate their engagement in physical activity.

PURPOSE: To explore the relationship between healthcare providers’ beliefs that sedentary and/or overweight pregnant women should begin exercise and their current practices regarding exercise counseling.

METHODS: Obstetricians and certified nurse midwives who provide obstetric care for women residing in Denver-Aurora completed a cross-sectional survey, containing a total of 48 items, assessing their current beliefs and practices pertaining to antenatal physical activity.

RESULTS: The sample included 102 healthcare providers (HCPs) with the majority of respondents being obstetricians (70.6%), female (79.4%), non-Hispanic white (87%) and reporting an average of 18.7 years of healthcare experience (SD=10.2 years, range=3-41 years). Overall, HCPs reported that they discuss exercise with approximately 73% (SD=26.8%) of their patients. The majority of HCPs (92%) also believe that sedentary patients should begin an exercise program during pregnancy; however only 47% reported that they always or often discuss physical activity with their sedentary patients. Further, HCPs more strongly believed that overweight and sedentary patients should begin an exercise program, compared to only sedentary patients (p= 0.0042).

CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that, in general, HCPs believe that women who are free of obstetric complications should engage in regular physical activity during pregnancy. However, many HCPs are not currently providing antenatal physical activity anticipatory guidance. Further analysis is warranted to determine other factors (e.g. perceived provider, practice, and patient level barriers) that may be influencing providers’ ability or decision to deliver physical activity counseling. Supported by AHRQ #1R03HS018595-01A1.

1474 Board #255 MAY 30 9:30 AM - 11:00 AM

The Effects of Supervised Exercise and Telehealth Support on Postpartum Health-Related Physical Fitness

Katie L. Chapman, Darren ER Warburton, Shannon SD Bredin. University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada.

(No relationships reported)

Excessive gestational weight gain and failure to return to a healthy body weight within one year postpartum heightens a woman’s risk for obesity and related co-morbidities. Moreover, the transition to motherhood (including various barriers to physical activity participation) often leads to a decline in health-related physical fitness. Therefore, physical activity interventions tailored to the unique needs of postpartum women are needed.

PURPOSE: This prospective randomized intervention study examined changes in health-related physical fitness after participation in either supervised mom-and-baby fitness classes (Fit 4 Two) or telehealth physical activity support (the Physical Activity Line) versus control.

METHODS: Thirty-three women (6 wks to 11 mo postpartum) were assigned randomly to one of three conditions for 10 wks: 1) the Fit 4 Two group (twice/wk, n = 11), 2) the Physical Activity Line group (twice/wk, n = 11), or 3) a usual activity control group (n =11). Health-related physical fitness (BMI, grip strength, push-ups, flexibility, and aerobic fitness) was measured pre- and post-intervention.

RESULTS: In both the Fit 4 Two and the Physical Activity Line group, key changes included a similar reduction in BMI (-2.1 ± 2.4% and 1.6 ± 2.2%, respectively), greater change in flexibility (8 ± 9% and 9 ± 9%, respectively), significant increases in aerobic capacity (4 ± 5% and 3 ± 5%, respectively), and an increase in number of push-ups completed in comparison to the control group. There was no significant change in grip strength in the three conditions.

CONCLUSION: Fit 4 Two and telehealth physical activity support are effective at improving health-related physical fitness in postpartum women. A novel telehealth program can lead to similar changes in various indicators of health-related physical fitness versus supervised exercise.

1475 Board #256 MAY 30 9:30 AM - 11:00 AM

Exercise During Pregnancy Decreases Cesarean Rate In Nulliparous Women

Katrine M. Owe1, Wenche Nystad2, Hein Stigum2, Siri Vangen3, Kari Bø1. 1Norwegian School of Sport Sciences, Oslo, Norway. 2Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway. 3Norwegian Resource Center for Women’s Health, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway.

(No relationships reported)

Exercise during pregnancy may influence the course of labor and mode of delivery by affecting metabolic and hormonal changes, uterine contractility, endurance, and muscle strength. Given the worldwide rising cesarean delivery (CD) rates over the past decades, the search for modifiable factors associated with CD is needed.

PURPOSE: To investigate the association between exercise during pregnancy and CD, both acute and elective, in nulliparous women.

METHODS: We used data from a population based pregnancy cohort study, involving 25,160 nulliparous women with a singleton pregnancy who were enrolled in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa) between 2000 and 2006. Acute and elective Cesarean deliveries obtained from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway were the main outcome variables. Information on exercise frequency and type was assessed by two questionnaires in pregnancy weeks 17 and 30. From the generalized linear model, adjusted risk differences (RD) with 95% CI for different frequencies and types of exercise during pregnancy were reported.

RESULTS: The total CD rate was 15.6% (n=3928), in which 67.8% (n=2663) was acute CD. CD rates, both acute and elective type, were reduced in women exercising during pregnancy compared to non-exercisers. The greatest risk reduction was observed for acute CD among women reporting a high weekly frequency of exercise (≥6 times per week) during pregnancy weeks 17 and 30 (-3.8%, 95% CI -5.7; -2, and -4.5%, 95% CI -6.5; -2.4, respectively). Participation in high impact exercises such as jogging, running, ballgames orienteering or high-impact aerobics in weeks 17 and 30, was associated with the largest reductions in risk (-5.1%, 95% CI -6.9; -3.3, and -6.2 %, -9.4; -3.0, respectively) compared to non-exercisers. For elective CD, exercising 1-2 per week in week 17 showed the greatest RD (-2.2%, -3.0; -1.4), whereas women had to exercise at least 6 times a week in week 30 to reach comparable risk reductions (-2.1%, -3.3; -0.9).

CONCLUSIONS: Nulliparous women exercising during pregnancy had a substantially reduced risk of having a CD, in particular acute CD. A “can do“ attitude towards labor and self-efficacy may also play a role her.

1476 Board #257 MAY 30 9:30 AM - 11:00 AM

Comparison of Two BodyMedia Algorithms for Estimating Energy Expenditure During Mid-Pregnancy.

Katie M. Smith, Lorraine M. Lanningham-Foster, Gregory J. Welk, FACSM, Christina G. Campbell. Iowa State University, Ames, IA.

(No relationships reported)

Excessive gestational weight gain (GWG) is an independent risk factor for future maternal chronic disease. Accurate assessment of physical activity (PA) is required to appropriately control for energy expenditure (EE) when evaluating GWG. Metabolic alterations during pregnancy complicate the assessment of PA and EE in pregnant women. The BodyMedia SenseWear® Mini armband monitor has been shown to provide accurate estimates of EE in adults but has not been tested in pregnancy.

PURPOSE: The purpose of the study was to evaluate the accuracy of the SenseWear® Mini physical activity armband (SWA) in predicting EE in pregnant women performing activities of daily living (ADLs). A secondary aim was to assess how a new proprietary algorithm (v5.2) performed relative to an older algorithm (v2.2).

METHODS: Twenty-three women completed a series of ADLs between 22-24 weeks of pregnancy. Activities included typing, folding laundry while standing, sweeping, and treadmill walking at speeds of 2.0, 2.5, 3.0 mph, 0% incline and 3.0 mph, 3% incline. Participants wore the SWA on their left arm and had oxygen consumption measured by indirect calorimetry (IC). Data from both IC and SWA were processed on a minute-by-minute basis. Correlation analyses and a mixed model analysis of variance were used to examine agreement between the measures.

RESULTS: Average individual correlations between IC and SWA were 0.857 and 0.865 for the old and new algorithm respectively. The model analysis showed significant main effects for the algorithm (F-Value 6.98, P < 0.01) and activity (F-Value 21.5, P < 0.0001). Both algorithms significantly overestimated EE for all activities except walking at 3.0 mph, 3% incline; however, follow-up tests showed that the new algorithm had significantly less error than the old algorithm (0.594 kcal/min vs 0.804 kcal/min, respectively). Post-hoc analysis for the activities showed non-significant differences between algorithms for all activities except sweeping (P = 0.0304).

CONCLUSION: Both algorithms significantly overestimated EE compared to IC but the newer algorithm had less error. Additional training of the algorithms with pregnancy-specific data could minimize the overestimation of EE for this population.

1477 Board #258 MAY 30 9:30 AM - 11:00 AM

Measurement of Energy Expenditure During Pregnancy and Postpartum

Rebecca A. Schlaff, Alaina K. Vince, Karin A. Pfeiffer, FACSM, Kimberly Maier, James M. Pivarnik, FACSM. Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI.

(No relationships reported)

Recall questionnaires use MET values from the Compendium of Physical Activities (Compendium: Ainsworth, et al. 2011) to assess energy expenditure (EE) for pregnant women, but the validity of this practice has not been well-established.

PURPOSE: The purposes of this study were 1) to compare actual EE in pregnant women to MET values listed in the Compendium, and 2) to evaluate EE longitudinally across pregnancy and postpartum periods.

METHODS: Fifteen pregnant women were tested at 20 and 32 weeks gestation, seven of whom were also evaluated at 12 weeks postpartum. Participants were 18-35 years old, nonsmokers, and considered low-risk by their health care providers. Each participant was tested in our laboratory, and equipped with a portable gas analyzer to measure EE via indirect calorimetry. Resting EE was determined during ten minutes of left lateral/supine rest. Women performed a series of five-minute activities ranging from light to vigorous. MET values were calculated for each activity by dividing steady state relative VO2 by actual resting EE measured at each time point. MET values for each activity at 20 and 32 weeks gestation were compared to MET values listed in the Compendium using a one sample t-test. For the seven women with postpartum data, EE across the three time points were evaluated using repeated measures ANOVA.

RESULTS: Compared to the Compendium, observed MET values for laundry, dusting, sweeping, and aerobics were lower (range= -0.2 to -2.8 METS, effect sizes (ES)= 0.6 to 4.1; p<0.05) at both pregnancy time points, while child care and walking were higher (range=0.4 to 1.1 METS: ES=0.6 to 1.9; p<0.05). Longitudinal analysis revealed that resting EE was significantly higher (0.2 METS; ES=0.55) and dusting was significantly lower (-0.5 METS; ES=0.75) at 32 weeks gestation compared to 12 weeks postpartum (p<0.05). Average MET values for all other activities were lower at 32 weeks gestation than at 12 weeks postpartum, however these differences were not statistically significant.

CONCLUSION: Compendium MET values may not be accurate during pregnancy, and the direction of measurement errors do not appear consistent. Future research with larger samples is needed to corroborate these results.

1478 Board #259 MAY 30 9:30 AM - 11:00 AM

Physical Activity And Lipid Levels During Pregnancy: Results For 1999-2006 NHANES Data

Lanay M. Mudd1, Rebecca A. Battista1, Jean Kerver2. 1Appalachian State University, Boone, NC. 2Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI. (Sponsor: Alan Utter, FACSM)

(No relationships reported)

Physical activity (PA) is related to higher high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLc) and modestly lower total cholesterol (TC) among non-pregnant adults. One study found similar relations among pregnant women in the 1st trimester; however, PA and lipid relations later in pregnancy, when lipids rise dramatically, have not been studied.

PURPOSE: To determine trimester-specific relations between PA and lipids among pregnant women in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES).

METHODS: In this cross-sectional study design, we analyzed self-reported demographics, PA, trimester of gestation, diet, and measured serum TC and HDLc, for pregnant women in NHANES 1999-2006 (n=995 with complete PA and lipid values: 193 in 1st, 418 in 2nd, and 384 in 3rd trimester). PA was categorized as none (referent), less than recommended (LT Recs: 1-<150 min/wk), meets U.S. recommendations (Meets Recs: 150-<300 min/wk), and far exceeds recommended (FE Recs: 300+ min/wk). SAS v9.2 used weighted analyses to account for the complex sampling frame of NHANES. Linear regression analyses assessed relations among mean lipids and PA within trimesters.

RESULTS: Mean ± standard error for 1st, 2nd, and 3rdtrimester, TC (171.5±2.9, 218.7±3.8, and 247.6±4.6 mg/dl) and HDLc (59.3± 1.7, 68.5± 1.6, and 67.6± 1.9 mg/dl) differed (p<0.05). PA participation was higher in the 1st (36.1% Meets/FE Recs) vs. the 3rd trimester (24.3%, p>0.05). All regression models adjusted for body mass index, total caloric intake, race, and marital status. In the 1st trimester, compared to no PA, LT Recs was significantly related (adjusted beta, 95% confidence interval: -15.0, -28.5 to -1.4 mg/dl) and Meets Recs was borderline (p=0.06) related (-15.4, -32.7 to 2.0 mg/dl) to reduced mean TC, but FE Recs was not (6.3, -17.3 to 29.9). FE Recs was related to significantly higher HDLc in the 1st trimester (10.9, 1.8 to 20.0 mg/dl) compared to no PA, but lower amounts of PA were not significant. PA was not related to lipids in either the 2nd or 3rd trimesters.

CONCLUSIONS: Relations among PA and lipids within the 1st trimester are similar to, if not stronger than, those seen in non-pregnant adults. Physiological changes to lipids in later gestation may overpower effects of PA. More work is needed to examine these relations prospectively throughout pregnancy.

A-42 Free Communication/Poster - Renal

MAY 30, 2012 7:30 AM - 12:30 PM

ROOM: Exhibit Hall

1479 Board #260 MAY 30 11:00 AM - 12:30 PM

Arterial Stiffness in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease: Correlations at Different Level of Physical Function

Pei-Tzu Wu1, Emily J. Tomayko1, Hae Ryong Chung1, Brandon M. Kistler1, Jin Hee Jeong1, Peter J. Fitchen1, Bo Fernhall, FACSM2, Kenneth R. Wilund1. 1University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign, Urbana, IL. 2University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL.

(No relationships reported)

Studies have shown that exercise training improves arterial stiffness in healthy populations, but there is little research investigating the relationship between physical function and arterial health in hemodialysis patients. The few studies that have assessed this relationship have used indirect measures of arterial stiffness, such as central pulse wave velocity and augmentation index, and the results from these studies have been equivocal.

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between physical function and arterial stiffness in hemodialysis patients using β-stiffness via ultrasound, which is a direct measure of arterial stiffness.

METHODS: Forty-nine hemodialysis patients were recruited (29 men, 20 women; 54.7±1.9 years). Arterial stiffness index (β) was measured by applanation tonometry and ultrasound. Physical function was measured by a validated shuttle walk test and a battery of objective physical performance tests. Patients were divided into high function (HF; n=26) and low function (LF; n=23) groups according to the scores of the physical function tests. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to evaluate the difference between groups. Bivariate analyses were performed to assess the associations between β-stiffness and physical function tests.

RESULTS: Among 49 subjects, β-stiffness was significantly correlated with physical function tests, including gait speed, shuttle walk distance, and time on 8-foot up-and-go test (r=0.33, -0.30, and 0.34, respectively; p<.05), but not with repetitions of arm-curl and chair-stand. Β-stiffness was greater in the LF group (13.9±1.2) compared to the HF group (10.1±0.9; p<.05).

CONCLUSION: In contrast to previous studies showing equivocal evidence that exercise training improves arterial stiffness, we found a close relationship between reduced physical function and increased arterial stiffness in hemodialysis patients. The increased arterial stiffness observed in the LF group suggests that the patients with lower fitness level may have increased cardiovascular disease risk. We have an ongoing longitudinal clinical trial to confirm these findings, and assess if exercise training improves β-stiffness in hemodialysis patients.

1480 Board #261 MAY 30 11:00 AM - 12:30 PM

Body Composition is Associated with Arterial Stiffness and Physical Function in Chronic Kidney Disease Patients

Jin H. Jeong1, Pei-Tzu Wu1, Emily J. Tomayko1, Hae R. Chung1, Brandon M. Kistler1, Peter M. Fitchen1, Bo Fernhall, FACSM2, Kenneth R. Wilund1. 1University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, urbana, IL. 2University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL.

(No relationships reported)

Patients with renal failure requiring hemodialysis experience a reversal in the relative risk of death from many traditional risk factors including the Body Mass Index (BMI). This phenomenon is often referred to as a reverse epidemiology. While many studies have demonstrated survival benefits with increasing BMI, few studies have differentiated between the components of BMI, fat mass and lean mass.

PURPOSE: To determine the association of fat mass and lean mass with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors and physical function in a cross-sectional analysis of patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis.

METHODS: Sixty-five hemodialysis patients were recruited (men=41, women=24; 54.2±11.8). Whole body lean mass (LM) and fat mass (FM) were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Augmentation index (AIx), a measure of arterial stiffness, was assessed by applanation tonometry. Physical function was measured by a validated shuttle walk test and a battery of objective physical performance tests. Linear regression was used to determine predictors of arterial stiffness.

RESULTS: Among 65 subjects, AIx was significantly correlated with BMI (r=-.25, p<.05); however, this was primarily due to a correlation between AIx and LM (r=-.34, p<.01), while there was no correlation between AIx and FM. AIx decreased 3% for each 10g increase of LM (F(2, 62)=5.1; p<.01). Percent body fat was associated with worse performance on several metrics of physical function, including gait speed, shuttle walk distance, time on 8-foot up-and-go, and repetitions of chair-stand (r=.32, -.45, .34, and -.36 respectively; p<.05). By contrast, percent lean mass was associated with better performance in gait speed, shuttle walk distance, time on 8-foot up-and-go, and repetitions of chair-stand (r=-.32, .46, -.32, and .32, respectively, p<.05).

CONCLUSION: Although higher BMI is associated with lower mortality in patients undergoing hemodialysis, this study differentiated the contributions of BMI, LM and FM to CVD risk in this population. We found that increased LM is a predictor of reduced arterial stiffness, and higher percent body fat is associated with declined physical function in hemodialysis patients. However, longitudinal studies are needed to confirm these findings.

1481 Board #262 MAY 30 11:00 AM - 12:30 PM

Exercise Capacity Is Associated With Myocardial And Vascular Function In Patients With Chronic Kidney Disease

Erin J. Howden1, Nicole M. Isbel2, Thomas H. Marwick3, Jeff S. Coombes, FACSM1. 1University of Queensland, St Lucia, Australia. 2Princess Alexandra Hospital, Woollongabba, Australia. 3Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH.

(No relationships reported)

BACKGROUND: Understanding the correlates of exercise capacity may help to explain the poor prognosis observed in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD).

PURPOSE: To determine the relationship between exercise capacity (VO2 peak), clinical factors and myocardial and vascular parameters in patients with CKD.

METHODS: 115 patients with stage 3 and 4 CKD performed a graded exercise test to exhaustion for determination of VO2 peak. Myocardial function was assessed using two dimensional echocardiography and tissue Doppler imaging. Vascular function and structure were assessed using ultrasound to measure brachial artery reactivity and carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT). Central arterial stiffness was assessed by aortic pulse wave velocity (aPWV) and systemic arterial stiffness by augmentation index (AIx). Demographics were recorded and standard biochemistry performed. Patients were categorized by tertiles of fitness.

RESULTS: The lowest fitness group (VO2 peak 19.4±4.6) had worse diastolic function (E/e’ 16.0±10.0 vs. 11.5±5.2), central (aPWV 11.1±3.5 vs. 8.5±1.8) and systemic arterial stiffness (AIx 22.2±7.8 vs. 17.2±8.2) than the highest fitness group (VO2 peak 28.2±7.7) (p<0.05). Whilst the middle fitness group (VO2 21.7±4.2) had significantly worse central (aPWV 10.2±2.5) and systemic arterial stiffness (AIx 23.6±7.8) compared to the highest fitness group (p<0.05). Patients who achieved age predicted VO2 peak had significantly lower cIMT, reduced aPWV and were less likely to have myocardial ischaemia (p<0.05). Clinical associates of VO2 peak were BMI (r -.343, p<0.001), diabetes (r-.380, p<0.001), phosphate (r -.343, p<0.001), HbA1c (r -.306, p<0.001), physical activity (r .219, p=0.026) and LDL cholesterol (r .239, p=0.016). VO2 peak was negatively associated with outcome; atheroma (cIMT, r -.219, p=0.028), diastolic function (E/e’, r -.283, p=0.004), arterial stiffness (aPWV, r -.373, p<0.001) and (AIx, r-.373, p<0.001).

CONCLUSION: Low exercise capacity is associated with poor myocardial and vascular function in patients with CKD.

1482 Board #263 MAY 30 11:00 AM - 12:30 PM

Effects of Intradialyse Resistance Exercise in Chronic Kidney Disease Patients

Bruna S. Lourenço, Marcos A. Nascimento, Thiago S. Rosa, Anderson S. Haro, Vicente N. Siqueira, Sergio Tufik, Marco T. Mello, Maria E. Canziani, Elisa S. Higa. Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.

(No relationships reported)

The loss of body mass is common in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients, and it is a great predictor of mortality in this population. Around 91% of the patients with CKD need hemodialysis as substitutive renal therapy (SRT). In Brazil the number of patients utilizing this treatment in 2009 was 77,589. The decrease of life quality in this population can also be attribute to other factors as psychological alterations, comorbidities, biological aging, malnutrition, oxidative stress, use of corticosteroids and the hemodialysis process itself. Studies show that resistance training (RT) can be efficient on power gain and improve to life quality in CKD patients, analyzed by questionnaires and functional capacity tests.

PURPOSE: Evaluate the strength values before and after RT, made intradialysis in CKD patients.

METHODS: There were recruited 11 patients in hemodialysis clinic Oswaldo Ramos (UNIFESP), we included both male and female patients with age between 20 and 76 yrs and dialysis treatment > 3 months. The body mass index (BMI) was 25.2± 5.2 characterizing overweight. Previous RT, the patients were submitted to exercise test, echocardiography and physical evaluation. Then, it was realized the 1 maximum repetition test (1MR), during the hemodialysis, before and after the training, in order to obtain strength values and exercise load estimative for each exercise. The RT was constituted of seven exercises, being: 3 to upper limb and 4 to lower limb realized on 6 weeks period, with exercise intensity of 40% of 1MR on the first 3 weeks and 60% of 1MR in the other weeks. Each session was composed of 3 series of 12 repetitions with two minutes resting intervals between the exercises. For data analysis (mean± standard error) it was utilized the t student test with value of P<0,05.

RESULTS: On the 1MR tests we found strength increase (kg) after training, on the following exercises: shoulder press 8± 0.55 vs 7± 0.51; biceps 8±0.47 vs 7±0.61, triceps 5±0.56 vs 4±0.82 and leg extension 10± 1.32 vs 7± 0.70.

CONCLUSIONS: Intradialysis resistance exercise promotes power increase in CKD patients which may improve their life quality.

1483 Board #264 MAY 30 11:00 AM - 12:30 PM

Intradialytic Protein Supplementation Reduces Inflammation and Improves Physical Function

Brandon M. Kistler1, Emily J. Tomayko1, Pei-Tzu Wu1, Peter J. Fitschen1, Hae Ryong Chung1, Jin Hee Jeong1, Barbara Yudell1, Elizabeth Jeanes2, Shane A. Phillips2, Bo Fernhall, FACSM2, Kenneth R. Wilund1. 1University of Illinois, Urbana, IL. 2University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL.

(No relationships reported)

In maintenance hemodialysis patients (MHD), high inflammation contributes to muscle wasting, cardiovascular disease, and bone-mineral disorders. Inflammation and poor nutrition status often occur in unison and therefore improving nutrition status may reduce inflammation and improve dialysis comorbidities.

PURPOSE: To determine the effects of intradialytic protein supplementation on markers of inflammation and physical function in MHD patients.

METHODS: Sixty MHD patients were randomly assigned to receive whey protein, soy protein, or placebo. On days separated by one week, blood was drawn both immediately after initiation of dialysis and again three hours later and analyzed for serum Interleukin-6 (IL-6). For the first day, subjects received no study beverage to measure baseline response to a single dialysis session. One week later, the subject consumed their study beverage immediately prior to the start of dialysis and blood was again collected as described. A subset of subjects (n=29) continued to receive their respective study beverage during dialysis sessions for six months. Standard clinical laboratories were drawn monthly and High Sensitivity C - reactive protein (CRP), IL-6, and measures of physical function were measured at baseline and six months.

RESULTS: When no study beverage was provided, IL-6 increased during a single dialysis session in all groups. The rise in IL-6 was attenuated by intradialytic protein supplementation (p<0.05). At six months, repeated measures ANOVA revealed a time by treatment effect for reduced IL-6 with protein supplementation in relation to the control group (p<0.05). A similar but non-significant trend was observed for CRP (p>0.089). For functional measures, there was an interaction effect for shuttle walk with the whey group improving over six months (p<0.05).

CONCLUSION: Intradialytic protein supplementation attenuates the rise in inflammation during an individual dialysis session. Chronic supplementation reduces inflammation and improves physical function, suggesting intradialytic protein supplementation may represent a low-cost intervention to reduce inflammation and improve function in MHD patients.

1484 Board #265 MAY 30 11:00 AM - 12:30 PM

Physical Inactivity Causes Differential Changes in Vascular Gene Expression in Rat Iliac and Renal Arteries

Jaume Padilla, Nathan T. Jenkins, Michael D. Roberts, M Harold Laughlin, FACSM, Frank W. Booth, FACSM. University of Missouri, Columbia, MO.

(No relationships reported)

It is now well established that local factors such as hemodynamic forces (e.g. shear stress) can modulate the susceptibility of the vasculature to dysfunction. In vivo, conduit arteries are constantly exposed to alterations in wall shear stress as a result of changes in blood flow demands in downstream tissues and/or changes in vasoconstriction tone. During running, blood flow is prominently increased in skeletal muscles of the rat hindlimb, but decreased in organs that are metabolically less active (e.g. kidney).

PURPOSE: Using our “rodent wheel lock (WL) model”, we tested the hypothesis that the influence of short-term physical inactivity on vascular gene expression in the iliac and renal arteries would be divergent as a result of removal of episodic bouts of increased iliac artery blood flow and decreased renal artery blood flow associated with exercise.

METHODS: We used generation 4-5 female Wistar rats selectively bred to voluntarily run long distances. Following 23 days of access to voluntary running wheels (average distance of ∼16 km/night), rats were rapidly transitioned to a sedentary state by locking the wheels for 7 days (WL 7 days; n=9) or remained active (WL 0 days; n=9) for 7 days. Real-time PCR was conducted on total RNA isolated from iliac and renal arteries to evaluate expression of 22 genes selected for their involvement in preservation of vascular health.

RESULTS: Compared to iliac arteries of WL 0-day rats, iliac arteries of WL 7-day rats exhibited increased expression of TNFR1 (1.2-fold), ET1 (1.6-fold), and LOX-1 (1.3-fold) (all p<0.05). Moreover, compared to renal arteries of WL 0-day rats, renal arteries of WL 7-day rats exhibited decreased expression of ETb (0.77-fold), p47phox (0.68-fold), and p67phox (0.81-fold) (all p<0.05).

CONCLUSIONS: These data provide evidence that changes in the expression of vascular cell genes with cessation of physical activity are artery-specific, and suggest that differential alterations in exercise-induced blood flow signals between the iliac and renal arteries may contribute to the heterogeneous influence of short-term physical inactivity on vascular gene expression. Support: NIH RO1HL036088, AHA 11POST5080002

A-43 Free Communication/Poster - Skeletal Muscle Cellular and Molecular Physiology

MAY 30, 2012 7:30 AM - 12:30 PM

ROOM: Exhibit Hall

1485 Board #266 MAY 30 11:00 AM - 12:30 PM

Focal Adhesion Kinase Expression in Heat-shocked Rat Soleus Muscle Following Eccentric Exercise

Zachary A. Graham1, Chad Touchberry2, Paige Geiger3, Anishe Gupte3, Gregory Bumhoff3, Phil Gallagher1. 1University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS. 2University of Missouri, Kansas City, Kansas City, MO. 3University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS.

(No relationships reported)

Integrins are heterodimeric proteins that span the cell surface. They also detect stretch and coordinate intracellular protein signaling. One of these principal proteins, focal adhesion kinase (FAK), has been shown to coordinate hypertrophic and protective signaling in skeletal muscle. It has also been demonstrated that inducing heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) prevents caspase-mediated degradation of FAK, possibly allowing it to maintain pro-survival signaling and providing an overall protective mechanism for the cell.

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to compare total and phosphorylated FAK in the soleus (SOL) muscle of rats following exercise-induced muscle damage.

METHODS: Male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to either a control group (CON), an eccentric exercise group (EE) (downhill running), or a heat shock (core temp 41°C for 20 min) + EE group (HS). SOL muscles were removed at 2h and 48h following exercise. Protein expression of FAK was determined using western immunoblotting and spot densiometry. A multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) was used to determine significance. Follow-up tests were conducted using one way ANOVAs and a Bonferroni test was used to adjust the level of significance.

RESULTS: Total FAK was significantly lower in the EE and HS groups when compared to CON 2h post-exercise. There were no significant differences in total FAK in the 48hr group. There were also no differences in phosphorylated FAK at either 2hr or 48hr post-exercise.

CONCLUSION: Eccentric exercise, regardless of heat treatment, causes a decrease in total FAK expression in rat soleus muscle two hours post-exercise.

Research supported, in part, by a University of Kansas General Research Fund grant (P. Gallagher).

1486 Board #267 MAY 30 11:00 AM - 12:30 PM

Strain-Dependent Protein Metabolism and Muscle Hypertrophy under Chronic Isometric Training of Rat Gastrocnemius Muscle

Koji Kobayashi1, Riki Ogasawara2, Arata Tsutaki1, Kihyuk Lee1, Eisuke Ochi3, Koichi Nakazato1. 1Nippon Sport Science University, Tokyo, Japan. 2The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan. 3Meiji Gakuin University, Kanagawa, Japan.

(No relationships reported)

Skeletal muscle size is regulated by both protein synthesis and degradation. Appropriate mechanical stimulation of skeletal muscles induces muscle hypertrophy characterized by enhanced protein synthesis. Conversely, muscle unloading induces atrophy characterized by increased protein degradation. Because several studies have shown the presence of strain-dependent differences in rat skeletal muscles (i.e., myosin heavy chain [MHC] composition), we hypothesized that muscle responses to resistance training (RT) might be strain dependent.

PURPOSE: We examined the levels of molecules related to protein synthesis/degradation to elucidate strain-dependent responses to isometric RT in 2 rat strains.

METHODS: Isometric resistance exercise involving only the right legs of male Sprague-Dawley (SD) (n = 5) and Wistar rats (n = 6) was performed for 2 days (2 sessions) followed by rest for 1 day (Total 12 sessions). Twenty-four hours after the last session, the gastrocnemius (GST) muscles were harvested. The levels of target proteins were analyzed by western blotting. Paired t-test was used to evaluate differences between the trained leg (TRN) and control leg (CON). GST mass, GST mass relative to body mass, MHC isoform, and the levels of proteins involved in protein synthesis/degradation (Akt, mTOR, p70S6k, FOXO1, FOXO3a, MuRF1, and MAFbx/atrogin-1) were measured.

RESULTS: After RT, fast (IIb) to slow (IIx) MHC isoform transition was observed in the 2 strains. In the case of the SD rats, muscle mass and muscle mass relative to body mass in the TRN group were significantly higher than those in the CON group (8.5% and 8.6%, respectively, p < 0.05). In the case of the Wistar rats, the 2 groups did not differ significantly. In the case of the SD rats, the level of p70s6k (2.9-fold, p < 0.05) and FOXO3a (2.2-fold, p < 0.05) phosphorylation increased in the TRN group, compared to the CON group. Further, decreased expressions of MuRF-1 (0.6-fold, p < 0.05) and MAFbx/atrogin-1 (0.7-fold, p < 0.05) were observed in the TRN group of SD rats. In the case of the Wistar rats, the 2 groups did not differ significantly with regard to protein levels.

CONCLUSIONS: Strain-dependent protein metabolism and hypertrophy exists in rat skeletal muscles. This phenomenon may be useful for studying individual differences in response to RT.

1487 Board #268 MAY 30 11:00 AM - 12:30 PM

The Effect Of High Intensive Physical Exercise In Expression Of Myostatin And Smad7 In Skeletal Muscle

Hakan C. Rundqvist, Mona Esbjörnsson, Ted Österlund, Eva Jansson. Clinical Physiology, Laboratory Medicin, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.

(No relationships reported)

Myostatin is a negative regulator of muscle growth and a member of the transforming growth factor-β family partly by being a negative regulator of satellite cells proliferation and differentiation and plays thereby a critical role in development, repair and regeneration of ‘adult’ muscle. It is produced within the muscle cell thereafter transported out of the cell and binds to the activin receptor 2b, which is located in the cell membrane. The binding to act2b receptor activates the type 1 receptor enhancing SMAD-signaling. Myostatin gene expression has been shown, by others, to increase following periods of muscle inactivity and decrease following acute resistance training. We have found that myostatin also decreases after sprint exercise (unpublished observation). How the myostatin gene expression is regulated in these situations is not known. From cell studies, it has been shown that myostatin auto-regulates its own expression through a SMAD7-dependent negative feedback loop.

PURPOSE: To test the hypothesis that SMAD7 is involved in the regulation of the gene expression of myostatin in human skeletal muscle after sprint exercise.

METHODS: Healthy, physically active and young men and women (n=17) performed three bouts of sprint exercise with 20 minutes rest in between. Muscle biopsies were obtained from quadriceps femoris vastus lateralis at rest and 140 minutes after third bout of exercise. The gene expression of myostatin and SMAD7 was related to rps18 (housekeeping gene) and analyzed by real time-PCR technique. The myostatin at the protein level was analyzed by Western blot technique.

RESULTS: Gene expression of SMAD7 increased by 53 % (p<0.0006) and gene expression of myostatin decreased by 52 % (p<0.013). Myostatin at the protein level, did not change by sprint exercise.

CONCLUSION: This is, to out knowledge, the first study analyzing SMAD7 in human skeletal muscle after exercise. The increased SMAD7 together with the decreased myostatin gene expression in skeletal muscle after sprint exercise support earlier cell studies showing that SMAD7 is involved in the auto regulation (feed-back regulation) of myostatin gene expression.

1488 Board #269 MAY 30 11:00 AM - 12:30 PM

Temporal Resolution of PGC-1αSplice Variants in Human Skeletal Muscle After One Bout of Exercise

Eva-karin Sällstedt, Mia Ydfors, Jessica Norrbom. Karolinska Institutet, Department of Physiology & Pharmacology, Stockholm, Sweden.

(No relationships reported)

Increased mitochondrial and capillary densities are central components of skeletal muscle remodeling in response to exercise. The transcription co-activator peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) has been shown to be important for this coordination of multiple processes in training-induced skeletal muscle remodeling. Recently, our lab showed for the first time that at least two splice variants of PGC-1α (PGC-1α-a and PGC-1α-b) exist in human skeletal muscle and that they are highly regulated with exercise.

PURPOSE: To investigate the temporal resolution of PGC-1α and its splice variants after one acute bout of cycle exercise. Also, to study transcription factors important for mitochondrial biogenesis regulated by PGC-1α, namely NRF-1, Tfam and TFB1M.

METHODS: Healthy men (n=4) and women (n=3) performed one hour of cycling exercise at 70 % of their VO2max. Skeletal muscle biopsies were obtained before and after exercise (pre, 30’, 2h, 6h and 24h).

RESULTS: PGC-1α-b mRNA increased significantly at 2h and 6 h after exercise compared to pre-values (p<0,01), and had returned to baseline levels at 24 h after the exercise bout. Neither PGC-1α-a nor total PGC-1α showed a significant change in mRNA levels in response to exercise. There was no significant change in NRF-1, Tfam or TFB1M mRNA levels after one bout of cycle exercise.

CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that an upstream promoter of PGC-1α (PGC-1α-b) is massively induced up to 6 h after exercise by a single exercise bout, and that the levels were back to baseline at 24 h after exercise. This implies that the exercise-induced PGC-1α response is more complex than previously suggested. The lack of significant change in PGC-1α-a and total PGC-1α levels is likely due to the low number of subjects.

1489 Board #270 MAY 30 11:00 AM - 12:30 PM

mTORC2 Is Activated In Muscle During Exercise And Regulates Contraction Induced Glucose Uptake

Maximilian Kleinert, Lykke Sylow, Erik A. Richter. University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.

(No relationships reported)

PURPOSE: Two distinct mTOR complexes (mTORCs) have been defined. While mTORC1 serves as a regulator of protein synthesis, mTORC2 has been found to be downstream of PI3K and to phosphorylate Akt on Ser 473. However, little is known about the physiological importance of mTORC2 in skeletal muscle during muscle contractions. Here we test the hypothesis that mTORC2 is activated during exercise and might be involved in contraction-induced glucose uptake in skeletal muscle.

METHODS: mTORC2 activity was judged by phosphorylation of its downstream target N-myc downregulated gene 1 (NDRG1) on the Thr346 residue. Mice ran for 30 min on a treadmill at 70% of their individual maximal running capacity, or EDL and soleus muscles were incubated in vitro and stimulated with insulin or contracted in the presence or absence of pharmaceutical inhibitors. Radioactive tracers were used to estimate glucose uptake.

RESULTS: In vivo running increased NDRG1 Thr346 phosphorylation by 60% (p < 0.05) compared to resting controls in gastrocnemius muscle. To test whether the running induced increase in mTORC2 activity was dependent upon AMPK activity, NDRG1 Thr346 phosphorylation was measured in mice that overexpress a kinase-dead alpha 2 subunit of the AMPK protein in skeletal muscle (AMPK-KD). In these mice NDRG1 Thr346 phosphorylation increased significantly to the same extent as in WT mice. Treatment of mouse soleus muscles with the total mTOR inhibitor, AZD8055, blocked basal and insulin stimulated NDRG1 Thr346 phosphorylation (p < 0.001) and inhibited Akt phosphorylation and glucose uptake, while rapamycin (a mTORC1 specific blocker) treatment had no effect. In EDL muscle AZD8055 had no effect on insulin stimulated glucose uptake despite ablation of Akt and NDRG1 phosphorylation. During in vitro contractions AZD8055 reduced contraction induced glucose uptake by 23% (p < 0.05) in EDL. In soleus the inhibitor had no effect on contraction induced glucose uptake. While AZD8055 reduced NDRG1 Thr346 phosphorylation to almost undetectable levels, AMPK Thr172 phosphorylation was unaffected by the blocker and increased about 2-fold with contractions in both EDL and soleus (p < 0.05).

CONCLUSIONS: It is concluded that mTORC2 is activated in muscle during exercise and has muscle specific effects on insulin and contraction induced glucose uptake.

1490 Board #271 MAY 30 11:00 AM - 12:30 PM

Enhanced As160 Phosphorylation In Response To Sprint Exercise In Severe Acute Hypoxia

David Morales-Alamo, Amelia Guadalupe-Grau, Jesús Gustavo Ponce-González, Ismael Pérez-Suárez, David Feijoo-Díez, Jaime Calle-Herrero, Alfredo Santana, Cecilia Dorado, Jose A L Calbet, Borja Guerra. Universidad De Las Palmas De Gran Canaria, Las Palmas, Spain.

(No relationships reported)

Muscle glucose uptake is increased during exercise in hypoxia. Akt is activated through phosphorylation on Ser473 and Thr308. Although Akt phosphorylation in these residues could be regulated independently, a higher Akt activity has been reported when both sites are phosphorylated. Acute sprint exercise elicits Ser473 Akt phosphorylation that subsequently induces AS160 phosphorylation, which may facilitate muscle glucose uptake.

PURPOSE: To determine if sever acute hypoxia enhances the skeletal muscle Akt/AS160 phosphorylation response to sprint exercise.

METHODS: Ten healthy physical males (age: 25±5 yrs; VO2max: 51±6 ml.kg-1.min-1; means ± SD) performed on separate days and random order two 30s-isokinetic Wingate test at 100 rpm in normoxia and hypoxia (FIO2=0.10). Blood samples and muscle biopsies were obtained before, at the end of the test, and at 30 and 120 min into the recovery period. Akt, p38-MAPK, ERK1/2, and AS160 phosphorylation levels and the protein expression of the total form of these kinases was determined by western blot.

RESULTS: Peak power output and peak blood lactate were similar, but mean power output was 6% and VO2 37% lower in hypoxia than in normoxia (P<0.05). At the end, and thirty minutes after the Wingate test, insulin and glucose serum concentrations were increased by a 10-24% (P<0.05). Compared to rest, thirty and 120 minutes after the Wingate tests, Ser473-Akt phosphorylation was increased by 117% and a 14%, respectively, (P<0.05). Thr308-Akt phosphorylation was elevated 1.4-fold just after the Wingate test and remained elevated during the first 2 hours after the test (P<0.05). p38-MAPK and ERK1/2 phosphorylations did not change significantly after the sprints. Compared to rest, AS160 phosphorylation was 50% greater 30 minutes after Wingate performed in hypoxia (P<0.05).

CONCLUSIONS: Isokinetic sprint exercise in severe acute hypoxia elicits an essentially similar signaling response to that observed in normoxia, with the exception of a slightly higher AS160 phosphorylation.

Granted by Ministerio de Educación y Ciencia of Spain DEP2010/21866

1491 Board #272 MAY 30 11:00 AM - 12:30 PM

Molecular Responses in Skeletal Muscle to Resistance Training in Older Men

Juha P. Ahtiainen1, Juha J. Hulmi1, Maarit Lehti2, William J. Kraemer3, Kai Nyman4, Harri Selänne2, Markku Alen5, Jyrki Komulainen2, Vuokko Kovanen1, Antti A. Mero1, Keijo Häkkinen1. 1University of Jyväskylä, Jyväskylä, Finland. 2LIKES Research Center for Sport and Health Sciences, Jyväskylä, Finland. 3University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT. 4Jyväskylä Central Hospital, Jyväskylä, Finland. 5University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland.

(No relationships reported)

IGF-I and its splice variant mechano growth factor (MGF) has been suggested to be involved in skeletal muscle regeneration via Erk and/or Akt pathways. Both of these pathways can control protein translation by p70S6K1. Effects of heavy resistance training (RT) on these regulating proteins are still, however, mostly unknown.

PURPOSE: To determinate changes in skeletal muscle MGF, Erk, Akt and p70S6K1 protein concentrations and IGF-IEa and MGF mRNA expression following RT, and their associations with RT-induced changes in muscle strength and mass.

METHODS: Healthy untrained older men (61 ± 5 yrs, 177 ± 3 cm, 80 ± 5 kg, 24 ± 3 fat%) were recruited for the study. RT comprised whole body resistance exercises twice a week with a progressively increased training load for 21 weeks. Maximal concentric strength of leg extensors (1RM), fat free mass (FFM; by bioimpedance) and m.vastus lateralis (VL) thickness (by ultrasound) were measured pre- and post-RT. Experimental heavy resistance exercises (RE; 5 x 10RM leg presses with 2-minute recovery periods) were performed pre- and post-RT. Muscle biopsies were obtained before and 48h after the REs from VL to determinate molecular responses during the regeneration phase after RE.

RESULTS: RT led to increases in 1RM (20.8 ± 8.7 %, p < 0.001), FFM (1.6 ± 2.0 %, p < 0.05) and VL thickness (13.6 ± 5.0 %, p < 0.001). Present muscle proteins or mRNAs were not systematically influenced by the REs or RT, except MGF mRNA expression was increased (p < 0.01) after RE before the RT. Changes in 1RM correlated with changes in VL thickness (r = 0.74, p < 0.05). When RE-induced changes at pre- and post-RT were averaged, MGF protein (r = 0.70, p < 0.05) and Erk (r = 0.67, p < 0.05) were related to changes in 1RM. Changes in pre- to post-RE responses in p70S6K1 were related to changes in FFM (r = 0.71, p < 0.05). Changes in Akt from pre- to post-RT were related to changes in FFM (r = 0.72, p < 0.05).

CONCLUSIONS: Present study demonstrated that the basal levels or RE-induced responses in skeletal muscle MGF, Erk, Akt and p70S6K1 protein concentrations or IGF-IEa and MGF mRNA expression did not change systematically due to RT in older men. However, individual changes in MGF and Erk protein concentrations may be related to RT-induced changes in muscle strength, and changes in Akt and p70S6K1 may be associated with RT-induced changes in lean body mass.

1492 Board #273 MAY 30 11:00 AM - 12:30 PM

Contraction-Induced rpS6 Phosphorylation Is Attenuated After Chronic Resistance Training But Recovered After Short-Term Detraining

Riki Ogasawara1, Koji Kobayashi2, Arata Tsutaki2, Kihyuk Lee2, Takashi Abe3, Satoshi Fujita4, Koichi Nakazato2, Naokata Ishii1. 1University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan. 2Nippon Sport Science University, Tokyo, Japan. 3University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK. 4Ritsumeikan University, Shiga, Japan.

(No relationships reported)

Resistance training-induced muscle anabolism and subsequent hypertrophy is most rapid during early phase of training, and it becomes progressively slower with time. However, little is known about the intracellular signaling mechanisms underlying such changes in sensitivity of muscle to training stimulus.

PURPOSE: To investigate the changes in exercise-induced activation (phosphorylation) of signaling proteins associated with muscle protein anabolism during chronic resistance training and subsequent detraining.

METHODS: Twenty male SD rats were divided into 4 groups: one bout group (1B), 12 bouts group (12B), 18 bouts group (18B), and detraining group (DT). In the DT group, rats were detrained for 12 days after completion of 12 exercise sessions and then completed one exercise session before sacrificed. The right gastrocnemius muscle was isometrically trained (maximum isometric contraction was produced via percutaneous electrical stimulation) every other day, whereas the left gastrocnemius muscle served as an internal control (CON). Muscles were removed 24 h after the last exercise session. Phosphorylation and total protein levels of p70S6K, 4E-BP1, rpS6, and p90RSK were determined by Western blotting.

RESULTS: The wet weight of exercised muscle increased by 8.6% in 12B and 10.7% in 18B group (P<0.05 vs CON). Twelve days of detraining did not decrease muscle wet weight (8.8% above the weight of CON; P<0.05 vs CON, P>0.1 vs 12B) in DT group. Acute exercise increased p70S6K (1.3-fold), 4E-BP1 (1.8-fold), rpS6 (3.1-fold), and p90RSK (1.8-fold) phosphorylation 24 h after exercise in 1B group (all P<0.05 vs CON). However, repeated bouts of exercise blunted the phosphorylation of rpS6 and p90RSK in 12B or 18B groups (rpS6: 0.9- and 1.8-fold, p90RSK: 1.0- and 1.0-fold, all P>0.1 vs CON). Interestingly, the phosphorylation of rpS6 and p90RSK were restored following 12 days of detraining in DT group (rpS6: 2.6-fold, p90RSK: 2.0-fold, both P<0.05 vs CON). Phosphorylation of p70S6K and 4E-BP1 were not altered with chronic training and detraining.

CONCLUSION: These results suggest that with chronic resistance training, specific signaling become less sensitive to resistance exercise stimulus even muscle is contracted maximally but those are restored after a short detraining period without attenuation of muscle mass.

1493 Board #274 MAY 30 11:00 AM - 12:30 PM

Botanical Supplement Effects On Nuclear Factor Kappa B (NF-κB) DNA-binding Activity Following Eccentric Exercise

Ling Xin1, Shyam Ramakrishnan2, Robert D. Hyldahl1, Karen L. Riska1, Stuart Chipkin1, Monica J. Hubal, FACSM3, Mary A. Murray2, Valerie Greger4, Prakash Prabhakar4, Karen Shaver4, Priscilla M. Clarkson, FACSM1. 1UMASS at Amherst, Amherst, MA. 2Nutrilite Health Institute, Buena Park, CA. 3Children’s National Medical Center, Washington, DC. 4Interleukin Genetics, Inc., Waltham, MA.

(No relationships reported)

Inflammation and oxidative stress contribute to exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD). NF-κB is an important redox-sensitive molecule that increases gene expression of many pro-inflammatory mediators. Because evidence has shown that NF-κB signaling pathway is activated after exercise, antioxidant supplements may exert beneficial effects against EIMD via inhibiting NF-κB activation.

PURPOSE: To examine the effects of two novel botanical supplements containing mixtures of plant extracts with anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties on NF-κB DNA-binding activity following eccentric exercise.

METHODS: 26 healthy men (18-30yrs) were randomly assigned to receive the placebo (N=8), Supplement 1(N=10), or Supplement 2 (N=8) for 35d. Stage 1 - subjects exercised one leg (knee extensors) and a muscle biopsy of both legs (vastus lateralis) was taken at ∼3.5h post-exercise; Stage 2 - subjects took supplements or placebo for 28d; Stage 3 - subjects repeated the exercise and tests with the contralateral leg. NF-κB DNA-binding activity of biopsy samples was measured using ELISA-based TransAM NF-κB p65 assay kit (Active Motif, Carlsbad, CA). Data were expressed as either absorbance at 450 nm or the percentage of p65 DNA-binding activity of eccentric exercised (ECC) leg relative to control (CON) leg. Paired t-test and repeated measures ANOVA were performed to analyze the data.

RESULTS: p65 DNA-binding activity was increased following eccentric exercise in both Stage 1 (ECC 0.24 ± 0.01 vs. CON 0.20 ± 0.01(Mean± SE); p<0.001) and Stage 3 (EC 0.22 ± 0.01 vs. CON 0.21 ± 0.01; p<0.05). Compared with Stage 1(122.9% ± 2.6%), NF-κB DNA-binding activity was significantly decreased in Stage 3 (109.1% ± 3.0%; p=0.002). There was no significant Treatment effect or Treatment X Stage interaction.

CONCLUSION: The botanical supplements had no effect on changes in NF-κB DNA-binding activity following eccentric exercise. However, the increased response of NF-κB DNA-binding activity post-exercise was attenuated in Stage 3. This attenuation effect may be due to a blunted systemic inflammatory response following a repeated bout of eccentric exercise with the contralateral leg.

Supported by Interleukin Genetics, Inc, Waltham, MA and Nutrilite Health Institute, Buena Park, CA.

1494 Board #275 MAY 30 11:00 AM - 12:30 PM

Rapid Ryanodine Receptor-1 Phosphorylation In Response To High Intense Resistance Exercise In Human Skeletal Muscle

Frank Suhr1, Sebastian Gehlert1, Lena Willkomm1, Yüksel Korkmaz2, Kurt Pfannkuche3, Wilhelm Bloch1. 1German Sport University Cologne, Cologne, Germany. 2Heinrich Heine University Duesseldorf, Duesseldorf, Germany. 3University of Cologne, Cologne, Germany.

(No relationships reported)

BACKGROUND: Resistance exercise is a common mode to increase muscle strength. However, severe resistance exercise leads to rapid and enduring muscle fatiguing which functional mechanisms have not been fully resolved, yet. One candidate involved in the regulation of myocellular fatigue is calcium (Ca2+) which is vital for electromechanical coupling of myofilaments. Rapid Ca2+ modulation is mediated by ryanodine receptor-1 (RyR1), which, when phosporylated at serine2844 (pRyR1Ser2844) results in leaky ryanodine calcium channels, impaired calcium homeostasis and thus decreased abilities to sustain the molecular basis of electromechanical coupling. However, little is known about the time course and magnitude of acute exercise on pRyR1Ser2844 phosphorylation in human skeletal muscle.

PURPOSE: It was aimed to investigate the effect of acute resistance exercise (EX) on pRyR1Ser2844 phosphorylation (phosph.) in human type I and II myofibers.

METHODS: Six healthy male subjects (age: 23 ± 2 years, height: 185 ± 7 cm, and weight: 82 ± 5 kg) performed 3 sets with 8 repetitions of maximum eccentric knee extensions. Muscle biopsies were taken PRE exercise, 15 min, 30 min, and 60 min post EX. Immunohistochemistry, western blots and confocal microscopy were used to determine pRyRSer2844 and pAMPKThr172 phosph. levels at the respective time points.

Results: pRyR1Ser2844 phosph. increased rapidly at 15 min in both type I and II myofibers (p<0.01) and further showing a sustained phosph. pattern up to 30 min (p<0.01) post EX. Compared to baseline levels, type I fibers showed higher increases in phosph. levels of RyR1 up to 60 min post EX (p<0.05) than type II myofibers. pAMPKThr172 phosph. showed significant increases 15 to 30 min post EX (p<0.01) in type I and II myofibers with a higher increase in phosph. levels in Type I myofibers.

CONCLUSION: Severe resistance exercise contributes to temporarily increased phosph. of RyR1 and AMPK due to active recruitment of myofibers. This result supports the hypothesis that RyR1 can be rapidly phosphorylated by resistance exercise and very likely contributes to muscle fatiguing by a decline in calcium handling properties. Enhanced phosph. of RYR1 is sustained up to 60 min post EX in both myofibers what may contribute up to this time point to impaired skeletal muscle contraction abilities.

1495 Board #276 MAY 30 11:00 AM - 12:30 PM

Ryr-1 Phosphorylation Responds Differently Between Concentric And Eccentric Workload In Rat Skeletal Muscle

Kristina Braun, Sebastian Gehlert, Wilhelm Bloch, Lena Willkomm, Frank Suhr. German Sport University Cologne, Cologne, Germany.

(No relationships reported)

BACKGROUND: Calcium (Ca2+) handling in skeletal muscle regulates to diverse pathologies and performance capacities as Ca2+ is involved in muscle contraction machinery. Ca2+ homeostasis is mainly regulated by transmembrane channel complexes of sarcoplasmic reticule, called ryanodine receptor-1 (RyR1). RyR1 associates to many regulatory proteins, of which calstabin-1 plays a key role. It was described that long-lasting exercise models hyperphosphorylate RyR1 at Ser2843 and thus induce a leaky channel leading to impaired muscle function by dissociating calstabin-1 from RyR1. However, time patterns of RyR1 hyperphosphorylation (pRyR1) is unknown wherefore short-term exercise stimuli and their effects on pRyR1 were investigated.

PURPOSE: It was aimed to investigate whether concentric and eccentric exercise offers a different impact on ryanodine receptor phosphorylation in loaded rat skeletal muscle.

METHODS: 32 Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to one of following groups: age-matched control (AC, sedentary), concentric (Conc, 0° decline) or eccentric (Ecc, -20° decline) exercise (each exercise lasted 15 min). pRyR1 was investigated by immunohistochemistry in both medial gastrocnemius and vastus lateralis.

RESULTS: In lateralis muscle 15 min of either concentric or eccentric led to markedly increased levels of pRyR1 compared to AC. Furthermore, concentric led to significantly higher amounts of pRyR1 compared to eccentric exercise. In gastrocnemius muscle a similar pattern was observed. However, there was no difference between concentric and eccentric stimuli. Discussion: The present results demonstrate that RyR1 is hyperphosporylated very fast, which is an additional finding compared to data from the literature. Importantly, different muscle types react in a comparable manner. Interestingly, concentric exercise seems to exert a more severe effect on RyR1 hyperphosphorylation, at least in lateralis. These findings give new insights into RyR1 regulation by exercise.

1496 Board #277 MAY 30 11:00 AM - 12:30 PM

Igf-1 Downstream Signaling Response To Protein Rich Supplementation During Hindlimb Suspension

Taejeong Song. University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX.

(No relationships reported)

It was known that anabolic signals were suppressed and catabolic signals were activated during prolonged muscle disuse, but the exact underlying molecular mechanisms are unclear. High protein supplementation has been recognized to increase the rate of muscle protein synthesis and activate anabolic signaling pathways (ex. IGF-1) and was employed in this study.

PURPOSE: To examine whether high protein supplementation would elevate phosphorylation of Akt and downstream pathways and maintain muscle function during hindlimb suspension (HS).

METHODS: Lower limbs of female rats were subjected to be unloaded by tail suspension for 28 days. During this period, one group (HS-PRO) was provided high protein supplementation (5ml/kg body weight), but others (HS) was received water via gavage twice per day, and ambulatory rats were served as control group (CON). After 28 days, contractile function of lateral gastrocnemius (LGAS) was evaluated, and both LGAS were excised and stored at -80°C. Total and phosphorylated levels of Akt, mTOR, p70S6K, and FOXO3a were measured from the sampled muscle by Western blot analysis.

RESULTS: LGAS weight was significantly decreased in HS and HS-PRO compared to that of CON at 28 days after HS, -19 and -22.5% respectively (P <0.01). However, in-situ peak tetanic force (Po) of HS-PRO was significantly higher than HS by 12% (P<0.05) but lower than CON by 25% (P<0.01). Phosphorylation of Akt in HS-PRO was significantly increased to CON, and pFOXO3a was also elevated in HS-PRO compared to CON and HS (P<0.05 and P<0.01 respectively). In addition, the supplementation prevented the reduction of mTOR phosphorylation during HS, -31 and -34% compared to CON and HS-PRO respectively (P <0.05), but there was no difference in p70S6K phosphorylation between groups. Total protein contents of all detected signals were not changed.

CONCLUSION: Although protein rich supplementation was not able to prevent the loss of muscle mass during prolonged HS, it reduced the decrease of contractile function, and elevated pAkt and pFOXO3a while maintained pmTOR .

1497 Board #278 MAY 30 11:00 AM - 12:30 PM

Influence Of Age On Leptin Induced Skeletal Muscle Signalling

Amelia Guadalupe-Grau1, Steen Larsen2, Borja Guerra1, Flemming Dela3, Jørn W Helge3. 1University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Spain. 2Copenhagen University, Copenhagen, Denmark. 3University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.

(No relationships reported)

Aging is a multifactorial process that is characterized by decreased physical activity, low fat-free mass and reduced ability to mobilize fat. Leptin is an adipocyte-derived hormone where systemic levels increases in proportion with adiposity. Chronic hyperleptinemia leads to leptin resistance, as indicated by a lower abundance of leptin receptors (OBRb), and reduced phosphorylation of STAT3 and AMPK in human skeletal muscle. The potential contribution of leptin resistance to the increase of fat mass with aging has not yet been elucidated.

PURPOSE: To determine if there is indication of increased skeletal muscle leptin resistance with aging, the basal amount of leptin receptors and the phosphorylation levels of STAT3 and AMPK, as well as an the protein amount of SOCS3 and PTP1B (the last two leptin signalling inhibitors) was assessed in healthy young and aged non-obese adults.

METHODS. Muscle biopsies were obtained in fourteen young (YG), seventeen middle-aged (MG), and eight aged (AG) healthy lean men (age: 25 ± 2, 46 ± 1, 62 ± 2 yrs, and BMI: 24.3 ± 0.5, 25.5 ± 0.3, 25.0 ± 0.7 kg/m2, respectively). Protein expression of OBRb, STAT3, AMPK, PTP1B and SOCS3 was measured by Western Blot. Plasma leptin, glucose, insulin and FFA were measured by conventional assays. Insulin sensitivity was estimated by HOMA. Body composition was measured by DXA.

RESULTS. Fat mass, FFA and leptin plasma concentrations were higher in MG and AG group than YG (P < 0.05), whereas HOMA values did not differ between the groups. OBRb protein abundance was similar among groups; however, Thy705STAT3 phosphorylation was lower in AG and MG compared to YG (0.29 ± 0.05; 0.32 ± 0.11 and 0.63 ± 0.20 a.u., respectively, P < 0.05). Surprisingly, Thr172AMPKα phosphorylation was 2-fold higher in AG than in MA and YG groups (2.94 ± 0.05; 1.32 ± 0.29 and 1.74 ± 0.17 a.u., respectively, P < 0.05). SOCS3 expression remained unchanged, whereas PTP1B expression was higher in the AG compared with MG and YG (P < 0.05).

CONCLUSION. Skeletal muscle 170 KDa OBRb protein amount is not affected by aging. However, a lower basal phosphorylation of Thy705STAT3 and a higher abundance of PTP1B suggest that leptin resistance is increased with aging in healthy lean males. It is possible that increased phosphorylation of Thr172AMPKα is a compensatory mechanism to attenuate this.<br

1498 Board #279 MAY 30 11:00 AM - 12:30 PM

Short-Term Unloading and Exercise Effects on Mechanical Stress-Sensitive Structural and Sensor Proteins in Human Soleus

Clay E. Pandorf, Fadia Haddad, Joshua A. Cotter, Kenneth M. Baldwin, FACSM, Vincent J. Caiozzo, FACSM, Gegory R. Adams. University of California, Irvine, Irvine, CA.

(No relationships reported)

Loading forces are critical to maintaining homeostasis in the muscle cell. Perturbations, such as unloading/disuse, upset the normal gene expression of structural and signaling proteins. Exercise countermeasures can offset these alterations.

PURPOSE: To examine gene expression of several large sarcomeric proteins that provide structural support to the myofilament (titin, nebulin and α-actin) and converge at the Z-disc. Since evidence suggests that loading forces in the muscle may be transmitted by structural support proteins that integrate mechanical stress at the Z-disc, we also examined several signaling proteins that reside in this region (STARS, atrogin-1, and calcineurin via its modulator MCIP1) and can in-turn regulate the expression of sarcomeric genes.

METHODS: Two groups of healthy inactive human subjects participated in unilateral lower limb suspension (ULLS; male N=5; female N=4) for 10 days alone or with a combination of aerobic and resistance exercise training (ULLS+T; male N=5; female N=5). Soleus biopsies were obtained before and after ULLS; ULLS+T biopsies were obtained ∼24 hrs after the last training session. RT-PCR was used to quantify pre-mRNA and mRNA levels of select genes (arbitrary units/mg).

RESULTS: Nebulin, titin and α-actin RNA levels changed pre to post by -11%, +26% and +7% with ULLS, and by +25%*, +56%* and +16% with ULLS+T, respectively (*p<0.05 pre to post). STARS, atrogin1 and MCIP1 mRNA levels changed pre to post by -75%*, +77%* and -40%* with ULLS, and by -63%*, +30%* and -26%* with ULLS+T, respectively (*p<0.05 pre to post).

CONCLUSIONS: While changes in transcription of the Z-disc associated structural proteins nebulin and titin following10d unloading was not statistically significant, there was significant upregulation with unloading + training stimuli. The unfavorable unloading-induced signaling response was ameliorated when combined with training as suggested by differential mRNA levels of mechano-sensitive Z-disc factors that can promote atrophy (atrogin) and fiber-type shifts (calcineurin/MCIP1). These data suggest that exercise countermeasures to short-term unloading of the loading-sensitive slow soleus muscle can promote favorable transcriptional responses of proteins associated with the stress-sensitive Z-disc. (Supported by NSBRI-NASA NCC 9-58)

1499 Board #280 MAY 30 11:00 AM - 12:30 PM

Sumo-1 Rapidly Translocates In Human Skeletal Muscle Myonuclei In Response To High Intense Resistance Exercise

Sebastian Gehlert1, Suhr Frank1, Lena Willkomm1, Franz-Josef Klinz2, Wilhelm Bloch1. 1German Sport University Cologne, Cologne, Germany. 2University of Cologne, Cologne, Germany.

(No relationships reported)

INTRODUCTION: The small ubiquitin-like modifier “SUMO” regulates target protein functions via post-translational modification and regulates cellular integrity. Sumoylation is triggered in vivo by stressors like oxidative stress but also acute hypoxia. Exercise induced myocellular adaptation requires a complex network of nuclear protein shuttling as well as post-translational modification of proteins and thus may include also the SUMO system as acute modulator of loaded skeletal muscle.

PURPOSE: It was aimed to investigate whether SUMO-1 is involved in the early response towards exercise in sarcoplasmatic and myonuclear compartments of loaded skeletal muscle myofibers.

METHODS: 6 healthy male subjects (age: 23±4 years; height: 180±8 cm; weight: 79±10 kg) performed 1 single set of 20 maximum eccentric and concentric isokinetic knee extensions. PRE, 15, 30, 60, 240 min and 24h after exercise (EX) muscle biopsies were taken from vastus lateralis muscle. DAB and Fluorescence staining was performed on 7μm cross-sections of skeletal muscle. The density and sub-cellular localization of SUMO-1 in sarcoplasmatic and nuclear compartments of type I and II myofibers were determined via optical densitometry and confocal laser microscopy as well as in whole skeletal muscle lysates by western blotting.

RESULTS: Sarcoplasmatic SUMO-1 density was higher in type I than in type II myofibers (p<0.05) PRE exercise, increased 15 to 30 min POST EX significantly (p<0.01) in both fiber types but returning to PRE levels within 60 min. SUMO-1 positive nuclear areas increased significant (p<0.01) from PRE values within 15 min up to 60 min post EX but returning below PRE levels within 24 hours. Confocal microscopy offered a predominant sub cellular localization of SUMO-1 towards the nuclear envelope at baseline and 24h post EX. Western blotting offered substantial changes in the pattern of SUMO-1 positive bands within the first hour POST EX.

CONCLUSION: The present investigation reveals time dependent changes in SUMO-1 density in nuclear and sarcoplasmatic compartments of human skeletal muscle fibers as early response towards high intense resistance exercise. This modulation offers a potential role of the SUMO system in myocellular adaptation towards acute exercise induced stress but also in recurring homeostasis.

1500 Board #281 MAY 30 11:00 AM - 12:30 PM

Novel Transcriptional Changes Associated with Age-related Muscle Insulin Resistance

Dongmei Liu1, Maureen Sartor1, Heidi IglayReger1, Emidio Pistilli2, Laurie Gutmann3, Gustavo Nader4, Eric Hoffman5, Paul Gordon, FACSM1. 1University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI. 2University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA. 3West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV. 4Karolinski Institute, Stockholm, Sweden. 5Children’s National Medical Center, Washington, DC.

(No relationships reported)

Skeletal muscle insulin resistance is a characteristic feature of the normal aging process and plays a key role in the pathogenesis of age-related type II diabetes mellitus and Alzheimer’s disease. However the mechanisms associated with age-related muscle insulin resistance are not completely understood.

PURPOSE: Through a global view of transcriptional changes in young and older skeletal muscle, we sought to identify the molecular mechanisms underlying age-associated insulin resistance.

METHODS: Muscle biopsies were obtained basally from young (19∼28yrs) and older (65∼76 yrs) men (7 young, 4 older) and women (8 young, 4 older). Gene expression profiling was performed using the Affymetrix Human Genome U133 Plus 2 chip. Differential gene expression between older and young muscle was analyzed, separately for men and women, using an intensity-based Bayesian moderated t-test (IBMT). A logistic regression-based method (LRpath) was used to test for significant (FDR<0.01) enrichment of biological functions based on Gene Ontology (GO) terms and KEGG pathways.

RESULTS: LRpath analysis in combination with IBMT revealed different patterns of transcriptional changes with aging in men and women. A much greater number of GO and KEGG were found to be significantly enriched with differentially expressed genes in older women than in older men (259 vs. 57). Transcriptional changes in older women presented a coordinated up-regulation of immune activation (e.g., FABP4, LOX, C1R), extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling (e.g.,COL6A2, COL8A2), lipids storage (e.g.,CD36, SCD); and down-regulation of mitochondrial biogenesis and function (e.g.PPARGC1, CS ), muscle regeneration (e.g., MYF6, AKT2). In contrast, no consistent biological themes can be inferred based on the limited number of significant GO/KEGG in older men.

CONCLUSION: Sex-based differences exist in skeletal muscle transcriptional regulation that may play a major role in the muscle’s aging process in women but not in men. Moreover, given that immune activation, ECM remodeling, lipids storage, mitochondrial dysfunction, and muscle atrophy have all been implicated in muscle insulin resistance, altered transcriptional regulation in these biological pathways may represent novel mechanisms for age-associated insulin resistance, especially in women.

1501 Board #282 MAY 30 11:00 AM - 12:30 PM

Erk and p38 Phosphorylation Following Three Different Maximal Velocity Squat Protocols

Rebecca Kudrna1, Nicole Moodie2, Michael Prewitt3, Andrew Fry3, Phillip Gallagher3. 1DeSales University, Center Valley, PA. 2Rockhurst University, Kansas City, MO. 3University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS.

(No relationships reported)

Changes in the cellular signaling molecules within skeletal muscle are believed to account for the specific adaptations that occur following various types of exercise. Mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKinases) including extracellular regulated kinase1/2 (ERK1/2) and stress-activated kinase (p38) that likely play a role in muscle adaptation. While it has been shown that these kinases are affected by aerobic and anaerobic exercise, less is known about how these molecules are affected by different resistance training protocols.

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of low, moderate, and high intensity exercise protocols as are commonly used by athletes on the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and p38 MAPKinases.

METHODS: Nine recreationally trained males (21.4 ± 1.67 yrs, 92.23 ± 9.72 kg), completed each of three speed squat (emphasizing speed of the concentric phase) protocols in randomized order and on non-consecutive days. The three testing protocols consisted of a low relative intensity (LI; 5 sets of 10 repetitions at 30% 1RM); moderate intensity (MI; 5 sets of 5 repetitions at 70% 1RM); and high Intensity (HI; 5 sets of 3 repetitions at 90% 1RM. Muscle biopsies were taken before and after each exercise bout and examined by western blot analysis. Separate 3×2 repeated measures ANOVAs compared differences between the ratio of phophorylation among the three protocols and at the pre- and post- exercise time points for ERK1/2 and p38 respectively.

RESULTS: For ERK1/2, there was a significant main effect for time(F(1,8) = 6.86, p =0.031). Ratio of phosphorylated to total ERK1/2 increased by 33%, 56%, and 43% for the HI, MI, and LI respectively but was not significantly different between protocols (F(2,16) = 0.186, p>0.05). There was no interaction between protocol and timepoint for ERK1/2. There were no significant main effects or interactions for p38 phosophrylation (p>0.05).

CONCLUSIONS: ERK1/2 phosphorylation was equally elevated following each of the three lower body resistance training protocols examined. Though not measured in this study, force production under these three different circumstances may have been more similar than the external exercise load indicates due to the maximal velocity contraction. p38 phosphorylation did not change following the short bouts of exercise in this study.

1502 Board #283 MAY 30 11:00 AM - 12:30 PM

A Polymorphism Of Angiotensin-converting Enzyme Gene Does Not Affect Exercise-induced Muscle Damage Following Eccentric Muscle Contractions

Jooyoung Kim1, Kyu-Wan Lee1, Changsun Kim2, Joohyung Lee1. 1Kookmin University, Seoul, Korea, Republic of. 2Dongduk Women’s University, Seoul, Korea, Republic of.

(No relationships reported)

It is well demonstrated that angiotensin-converting enzyme(ACE) is one of the critical factors for renin-angiotensin system leading to vasoconstriction. It is also known to be related to exercise metabolism and performance including muscle strength and endurance. A recent study showed that ACE genotype may be related to creatine kinase activity following eccentric exercise but other muscle damage markers were not compared.

PURPOSE: To investigate whether ACE genotype can affect exercise-induced muscle damage to explain a large inter-subject variability shown after eccentric muscle contractions.

METHODS: Total 80 male subjects who had not participated in any exercise program in the past six months were recruited. A polymorphism of ACE gene was determined using real-time polymerase chain reaction. Each subject performed 2 sets of 25 eccentric contractions of the elbow flexors in the non-dominant arm. Maximal isometric force(MVC), muscle soreness(SOR), and blood markers including creatine kinase(CK) activity and myoglobin(Mb) were measured at pre, immediately after, 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours after exercise.

RESULTS: The frequency distribution of I allele and D allele was 62(78%) and 18(23%) respectively corresponding to Hardy Weinberg’s equilibrium(p=0.887). There were no significant group by time effects in MVC(p=0.399), SOR(p=0.644), CK activity(p=0.199) and Mb levels(p=0.399) following eccentric muscle contractions.

CONCLUSIONS: Our data showed that there is no effect of ACE gene polymorphism on exercise-induced muscle damage suggesting that ACE may not be the factor to explain inter-subject variability of muscle damage markers.

1503 Board #284 MAY 30 11:00 AM - 12:30 PM

Small Differences in Exercise Intensity May Impact Muscle Glycogen Without Concurrent Changes in Metabolic Gene Expression.

Matt Heesch1, Dustin Slivka1, Charles Dumke, FACSM2, John Cuddy2, Walter Hailes2, Brent Ruby, FACSM2. 1University of Nebraska at Omaha, Omaha, NE. 2University of Montana, Missoula, MT.

(No relationships reported)

Intensity in exercise studies is often established relative to VO2 peak. However, when there is an experimental manipulation of altitude, the intensity may be different depending on the altitude at which VO2 peak is measured.

PURPOSE: To determine the impact of different absolute intensities associated with 60% VO2 peak, when VO2 peak is measured at 975 m or at a simulated altitude of 3000 m on metabolic gene expression.

METHODS: Twelve recreationally trained males (age 23.8 ± 3.8 y, mass 81.6 ± 11.6 kg, body fat 14.6 ± 7%) had their VO2 peak measured on a cycle ergometer at 975 m and 3000 m. Participants then completed two trials consisting of cycling at 965 m elevation for 60 min at 60% VO2 peak as measured at (A) 975 m and (B) 3000 m. Skeletal muscle biopsies were obtained from the vastus lateralis before exercise (PRE) and after 4 hours of recovery (POST4). Gene expression was measured using real-time RT PCR and expressed using the ΔΔ CT method.

RESULTS: VO2 peak was statistically similar when measured at 975 m and 3000 m (p=0.139; 4.24 ± 0.89 L·min-1 and 4.03 ± 0.60 L·min-1). The absolute intensities were 174 ± 33 watts for trial A and 158 ± 23 watts for trial B (p>0.05). The VO2 during trial A (2.48 ± 0.40 L·min-1) was not significantly different than during trial B (2.43 ± 0.56 L·min-1). Skeletal muscle glycogen was similar between trials at PRE but at was 37.6% higher in trial B at POST4 (p<0.05). There were no differences between trials for COX, HIF, PGC1, FIS, MFN, OPA, HK or PFK (p>0.05) gene expression. However, COX, HIF, PGC1, FIS, MFN, HK and PFK increased as a result of exercise regardless of trial (p<0.05) while OPA did not.

CONCLUSION: These data indicate that small differences in exercise intensity created by completing initial VO2 peak tests at 975 m versus 3000 m environment have an effect on muscle glycogen but not on select metabolic genes.

1504 Board #285 MAY 30 11:00 AM - 12:30 PM

Alterations in the Exercise-Induced Transcriptional Response Following Short-Term Aerobic Exercise Training

J. Matthew Hinkley, Adam R. Konopka, Miranda K. Undem, Bozena Jemiolo, Todd A. Trappe, Scott W. Trappe, FACSM, Matthew P. Harber. Human Performance Laboratory, Ball State University, Muncie, IN.

(No relationships reported)

An acute bout of exercise induces transient changes in mRNA expression that, with training, lead to specific adaptations. Interestingly, little is known about the effects of short-term training on the exercise-induced transcriptional response of markers associated with skeletal muscle adaptation.

PURPOSE: To examine the effects of short-term training on whole body performance and associated exercise-induced molecular adaptations in skeletal muscle.

METHODS: Ten recreationally active subjects (25 ± 2 yr, 79 ± 3 kg) were studied before and after a ten day cycling protocol consisting of both steady state and interval days. Prior to training and 24 hours after the last exercise bout, subjects completed a 20 km cycle time trial. Skeletal muscle biopsies were taken from the vastus lateralis at rest and 3h following the time trial in both conditions to measure mRNA expression.

RESULTS: Time trial performance improved (P<0.05) by 5 ± 1% following training, which was associated with an enhanced power output (P<0.05). MuRF-1 and PGC-1αmRNA were elevated (P<0.05) after exercise before and after training, with an attenuated response (P<0.05) following training (11-fold vs. 3-fold and 33-fold vs. 12-fold for MuRF-1 and PGC-1α, respectively). NFKB was elevated (P<0.05) 2-fold following the pre-training time trial, and unaltered after the post-training time trial. A significant interaction (P<0.05) was found for the exercise-induced mRNA expression of myostatin and TNF-α, suggesting a greater reduction in myostatin after training and a greater response in TNF-αprior to training.

CONCLUSION: These data suggest that short-term high-intensity aerobic exercise training alters the exercise-induced transcriptional response of genes involved in the regulation of skeletal muscle. Specifically, markers of myofibrillar degradation were attenuated, suggesting less susceptibility to post-exercise protein breakdown after training.

Supported by NIH Grant AG032127

1505 Board #286 MAY 30 11:00 AM - 12:30 PM

DNA Methylation is Altered in Human Skeletal Muscle in Response to Exercise Training

Shlomit Radom-Aizik*1, Fadia Haddad*1, Tomasz Owerkowicz2, Joseph M. Devaney3, Eric P. Hoffman3, Per A. Tesch4, Gregory R. Adams1*These 2 individuals are joint first authors1. 1University of California Irvine, Irvine, CA. 2California State University, San Bernardino, CA. 3Children National Medical Center, George Washington University, Washington, DC. 4Mid Sweden University, Ostersund, Sweden. (Sponsor: Kenneth M. Baldwin, FACSM)

(No relationships reported)

DNA methylation is an epigenetic modification, which is influenced by environmental stimuli (e.g., exercise), and can play an important role in the adaptive process involving altered gene expression. Currently, little is known on DNA methylation status in muscle undergoing remodeling in response to exercise training.

PURPOSE: To determine if exercise training would induce alteration in DNA methylation in human skeletal muscle.

METHODS: Thirty three subjects, 20-26 y/o, were assigned to one of two 5-week exercise protocols: a) Resistance Exercise (RE), 4×7 squats, 2 days a week, or b) Combined Aerobic and RE (AE+RE), 5 days a week: 3 days of AE: 4, 4-min bouts of rowing at ∼90% VO2max interspersed with 4, 4-min bouts of rowing at ∼50% VO2max, and 2 days of RE. DNA was extracted from the vastus lateralis muscle, treated with sodium bisulfite, and analyzed for methylation using the Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip (Illumina). Statistical analysis was done using Partek Genomics Suite (version 6.6).

RESULTS: Both exercise protocols altered the methylation status in the vastus lateralis muscle, however the AE+RE protocol had a greater effect (6976 CpG sites compared to 970 CpG sites in the RE only (P<0.0005). These altered CpG sites correspond to 3323 and 692 genes respectively. Of these, only 197 genes were common in both paradigms. In the AE+RE group we identified Kegg pathways that were enriched with genes with altered methylation; e.g., insulin signaling, focal adhesion, phosphatidylinositol, MAPK, Notch signaling, and regulation of actin cytoskeleton (EASE<0.05). We scanned for 1000bp regions that were enriched with ≥2 CpG altered methylation sites (P<0.005) and found 47 regions in the AE+RE group and only 3 regions in the RE group.

CONCLUSION: Two different exercise protocols generated differential response in DNA methylation. The altered genes are part of important signaling and structural pathways that are involved in muscle plasticity. This is the first study demonstrating that only five weeks of training can alter DNA methylation in human skeletal muscle. This information can enhance our understanding of complex molecular mechanisms leading to muscle plasticity in response to exercise stimulus. Supported by NSBRI NCC 9-58-7, and by NIH grants #2R24HD050846-06 and UL1RR031985

1506 Board #287 MAY 30 11:00 AM - 12:30 PM

The Effect Of Lactate On Primary Human Myoblasts And Potential Signalling Pathways

Raphael Jung, Lena Willkomm, Sebastian Borosch, Sebastian Gehlert, Frank Suhr, Wilhelm Bloch. Instititute of cardiovascular research and sports medicine, Cologne, Germany.

(No relationships reported)

Satellite cells (SCs) play a crucial role in embryonic myogenesis and skeletal muscle regeneration and adaptation. SCs can be activated by different stimuli and underlie a number of regulatory factors and proteins. In the past decades lactate (La) has been considered as a metabolic waste product, being responsible for the decrease in muscle pH and hence causing muscle fatigue. Nowadays La is better known as an intermediate of glucose metabolism and its ability to stimulate molecular pathways essential for skeletal muscle adaptation.

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to analyse to what extent and how La can influence myoblast behaviour.

METHODS: Human myoblasts (HMB) were isolated from muscle biopsies, cultured and incubated with different La concentrations (0, 10, and 20 mM). Immunostainings and Western Blots were carried out for Ki67 (proliferation), activated Caspase-3 (apoptosis), Myogenin (early differentiation) and Myosin Heavy Chain (MHC; late differentiation). To investigate which signalling pathways are involved, activated beta-catenin, a molecule important in Wnt-mediated signalling, has also been analysed.

RESULTS: The results showed significant changes in proliferation and differentiation behaviour of the La treated cells. Regarding proliferation, La reduced the activity in a dose-dependent manner. Differentiation of primary HMB seemed to be timely delayed by La. Analysis of beta-catenin showed a decrease in its activation if cells were treated with La in a dose-dependent manner.

CONCLUSIONS: La has a negative or time-delaying influence on proliferation and differentiation of HMB. Although the literature suggests a strong involvement of redox signalling pathways, activated by La-dependent reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, beta-catenin could also play an influential role in the observed effects. However, further investigations are necessary to allow for a more precise estimation of La-induced regulation of proliferation, apoptosis, and differentiation in myogenic cell culture.

1507 Board #288 MAY 30 11:00 AM - 12:30 PM

Skeletal Muscle Mitochondrial Respiration And Type 2 Diabetes Duration

T P. Gavin, FACSM, J M. Ernst, S E. Kehe, M A. Reed, A H. Clark, R D. McKernie, M Dar, W E. Pofahl, G L. Dohm, H B. Kwak. East Carolina University, Greenville, NC.

(No relationships reported)

Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) resolution following Roux-en Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery is poorer in patients with longer duration T2DM and lower pre-RYGB insulin sensitivity. Skeletal muscle mitochondrial function is impaired in T2DM.

PURPOSE: It was hypothesized that skeletal muscle mitochondrial respiration (JO2) would be lowest in T2DM patients with long-duration (LD; ≥ 8 y) compared to medium-duration (MD; 4-7) and short-duration (SD; ≤ 3 y).

METHODS: Vastus lateralis biopsies were obtained from T2DM patients (N = 12). Muscle mitochondrial JO2 was measured using the permeabilized fiber technique under basal (State 2) and ADP stimulated (State 3) conditions with glutamate+malate (GM) or palmitoylcarnitine+malate (PM) as substrate. Respiratory control index (RCI), an index of mitochondrial coupling, was calculated as State 3/State 2 JO2.

RESULTS: There was a non-significant (p = 0.10) trend of lower GM State 2 JO2 with longer T2DM duration (LD: 9.7 +/- 1.7; MD: 13.5 +/- 1.0; SD: 17.8 +/- 4.7 pmol/sec/mg dry wt.). GM RCI was greater in LD than MD or SD (LD: 21.3 +/- 1.8; MD: 12.6 +/- 2.4; SD: 13.8 +/- 1.3). There was a significant correlation between T2DM duration and GM RCI (r = 0.59; p ≤ 0.05). There was no difference in JO2 or RCI for PM conditions between groups.

CONCLUSIONS: Skeletal muscle mitochondrial coupling is higher in longer compared to shorter duration T2DM patients. Also, there may be a trend toward lower basal skeletal muscle mitochondrial respiration in patients with longer compared to shorter duration T2DM.

Supported by a Grant from the East Carolina Diabetes and Obesity Institute (ECDOI).

1508 Board #289 MAY 30 11:00 AM - 12:30 PM

Age-associated Declines In Mitochondrial Biogenesis And Protein Quality Control Are Minimized By Exercise Training

Erika Koltai1, Nikolett Hart1, Albert W. Taylor1, Sataro Goto1, Jenny K. Ngo2, Kelvin J A Davies2, Zsolt Radak1. 1Semmelweis University, Budapest, Hungary. 2University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA. (Sponsor: L. L. Ji., FACSM)

(No relationships reported)

Impairments of the mitochondrial reticulum or network, and its function have often been associated with aging. A decline in mitochondrial biogenesis and mitochondrial protein quality control in skeletal muscle, directly contributes to this problem, but exercise training has been suggested as a possible cure.

PURPOSE: In this report, we tested the effects of moderate intensity exercise training on young and old rats, and assessed mitochondrial biogenesis and mitochondrial protein quality control.

METHODS: Twelve young (three mo) and twelve old (26 mo) male Wistar rats were used in the study and grouped into young control (YC), young exercised (YE), old control (OC) and old exercised (OE). The investigation was carried out according to the requirements of The Guiding Principles for Care and Use of Animals, EU. Exercised rats were trained on treadmill for 6 weeks, 5 times per week, where the running speed and duration of the exercise were gradually increased. We examined in this study the gastrocnemius muscle by Western blot and fluorometric assays. Statistical significance was assessed by one-way ANOVA, followed by Tukey’s post hoc test.

RESULTS: Exercise training prevented or attenuated significant age-associated (detrimental) declines in SIRT1 activity (437±174 v. 1166±109 rel. act. p<0.05), AMPK (0.21±0.11 v. 1.05±0.29 rel.dens. p<0.01), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1alpha) (0.35±0.04 v. 0.87±0.08 rel.dens. p<0.01) and the Lon protease, in the gastrocnemius muscle of rats. Exercise training also prevented the age-related (detrimental) increases in NRF1 (1.11±0.17 v. 0.67±0.1 rel.dens. p<0.01), TFAM, Mfn1 (0.98±0.31 v. 0.48±0.16 rel.dens. p<0.01), Fis1 and polynucleotide phosphorylase (PNPase) (1.52±0.42 v. 1.05±0.25 rel.dens. p<0.01) levels.

CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that regular exercise training can help minimize detrimental skeletal muscle aging deficits stimulating mitochondrial biogenesis through the PGC1[[Unsupported Character - Symbol Font α]] system, a rejuvenating the mitochondrial network via fission and fusion, and improving quality control of mitochondrial proteins by the Lon protease. All of these properties, working in conjunction with one another, would improve the overall functionality of mitochondria in aged cells.

1509 Board #290 MAY 30 11:00 AM - 12:30 PM

Interaction Of Mitochondria And Oxygen Binding Protein In L6, Rat Skeletal Muscle Cell Line

Tatsuya Yamada1, Nobumasa Iwanaka1, Yasuro Furuichi1, Yukio Kato1, Takeshi Hashimoto2, Thomas Jue3, Kazumi Masuda1. 1Kanazawa University, Ishikawa, Japan. 2Ritsumeikan University, Shiga, Japan. 3University of California Davis, Davis, CA.

(No relationships reported)

PURPOSE: It has been for a long time believed that myoglobin (Mb), muscle specific oxygen binding protein, is a cytosolic protein. However, our recent immunohistochemical and biochemical analyses showed that Mb located not only in cytosol but also in mitochondria and that the mitochondrial Mb content was positively related to muscle oxidative potential. These results led us the hypothesis that mitochondrial Mb has a pivotal role in the regulation of mitochondrial respiration. In order to assess this idea, we determined protein-protein interaction between Mb and mitochondrial proteins in L6 skeletal myocytes in the present study.

METHODS: The recombinant pcDNA3-Myc tagged Mb was transfected to L6 myoblast. The myoblasts were cultured in the presence of G418 and a single colony was isolated, proliferated and differentiated. The expression of Myc-Mb was screened by Western blotting (WB). Cellular subfractions were separated by serial centrifugation, and WB assessed the presence of Mb protein in each fraction. Co-immunoprecipitation (Co-IP) was performed to confirm protein-protein interactions of Mb with mitochondrial proteins. Silver staining of the Co-IP samples was also performed to assess the existence of putative proteins that interact with mitochondrial Mb.

RESULTS: WB confirmed the presence of Mb protein in mitochondrial fraction in normal and Mb-overexpressed L6 myotube. Both VDAC and COX-IV, mitochondrial outer and inner membrane proteins, respectively, were detected from mitochondrial fraction but not from cytosolic fraction. COX-IV was co-precipitated with Myc-Mb by Co-IP, suggesting a protein-protein interaction between Mb and COX-IV in L6 myotube. On the other hand, VDAC-I was not co-precipitated with Myc-Mb. Thus, Myc-Mb did not have interaction with VDAC-I. Silver staining revealed several proteins might interact with mitochondrial Mb.

CONCLUSIONS: The present results suggested the possibility of the interaction of mitochondrial respiratory chain with Mb in skeletal myocytes. Further study including proteome analysis is necessary to determine the specific mechanism for the interaction between mitochondrial proteins and Mb.

1510 Board #291 MAY 30 11:00 AM - 12:30 PM

Effects Of Endurance Training And Immobilization On The Localization Of Myoglobin In Skeletal Muscle

Hisashi Takakura1, Tatsuya Yamada1, Yasuro Furuichi1, Minoru Ojino1, Nobumasa Iwanaka1, Thomas Jue2, Kazumi Masuda1. 1Kanazawa University, Kanazawa City, Japan. 2University of Calfornia Davis, Davis, CA.

(No relationships reported)

Myoglobin (Mb) supplies O2 to mitochondria immediately at the onset of muscle contraction. The release rate of O2 from Mb increases progressively with the rate of increase in muscle O2 consumption and fluctuates in accordance with the level of physical activity. We recently reported the novel localization of Mb to mitochondria, suggesting a possible mechanism that Mb supplied O2 to mitochondria immediately with the increase in mitochondrial O2 demand, because Mb translational diffusion in the cell appears too low to have a significant role for O2 transport in the basal PO2 (above 10 mmHg). However, it remains unknown whether the localization of Mb to mitochondria is involved in the changed release rate of O2 from Mb to the modulated physical activity level.

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of swimming endurance training (eTR) and hindlimb immobilization (IM) on the localization of Mb to mitochondria.

METHODS: Male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to the eTR, IM, or Control (Con) group. Rats in the eTR group underwent a 4-week swimming eTR (6 days/week, 30 min × 4 sets/day) with a weight of 2% body mass. Rats in the IM group had their left hindlimb immobilized at the full plantar flexion with a thermoplastic cast for 3 weeks. Citrate synthase (CS) activity and Mb concentration ([Mb]) in the hindlimb muscle were measured spectrometrically. Western blotting was performed to evaluate the amount of Mb in mitochondrial fraction of the m. gastrocnemius. Expression of Mb in the mitochondrial fraction was normalized by the amount of the voltage dependent anion channel (VDAC-I), which was mitochondrial protein.

RESULTS: 4-weeks eTR significantly increased [Mb], CS activity and Mb/VDAC-I (p < 0.05), while 3-weeks IM did not show any change in [Mb], CS activity and Mb/VDAC-I.

CONCLUSIONS: The eTR increased the expression of Mb in the mitochondrial fraction in the skeletal muscle, suggesting the formation of more efficient O2 transport mechanism at the onset of muscle contraction. On the contrary, the IM did not change the co-localization of Mb with mitochondria. In order to clarify the interaction of Mb with mitochondria, it is necessary to measure the changes in the mitochondrial respiration in response to changes in physical activity.

1511 Board #292 MAY 30 11:00 AM - 12:30 PM

Effect of Hydrogen Peroxide on Mitochondrial Motility Protein Miro1 in C2C12 Cells

Yong Zhang1, Huijun Liu1, Ning Jiang1, Fei Zhao1, Hu Ding1, Li Li Ji, FACSM2. 1Tianjin University of Sport, Tianjin, China. 2University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN. (Sponsor: Li Li Ji, FACSM)

(No relationships reported)

OBJECTIVE: The dynamic changes of mitochondria morphology and distribution have a profound influence on mitochondrial function. The mitochondria movement and distribution is still unclear. It was studied that mitochondrial motility and its regulation mechanism with moderate oxidative stress caused by exogenous H2O2 in present research.

METHODS: C2C12 myoblast model of mild oxidative stress was induced by exogenous H2O2. Cell survival rate was detected by MTT. The colorimetry was used for measure of MDA. Oxygen consumption rate and ATP content were detected by using Oxytherm liquid oxygen electrode and fluorospectrophotometer. The western blotting and realtime-PCR were used to measure the contents of Miro1 protein and mRNA express in C2C12 myoblast. EGTA was used as chelator for Ca2+. RESULTS:1)Cell survival rate of myoblast stimulated by low concentration (1∼100μM) H2O2 had no obvious change, and showed significantly low level when stimulated by higher concentrations of H2O2(1mM or 10mM).The MDA level showed the same trend. 2) The rates of respiration of myoblast cells were transient reversibly inhibited when stimulated by low concentrations of H2O2(100nM∼1mM). H2O2 of 100μM∼10mM decreased the ATP content, nevertheless there were no significantly effects when myoblasts were treated with 1μM or 10μM H2O2. 3) Miro1 mRNA of C2C12 cells treated with 10μmol / L H2O2 for 0.5h, 1h, 1.5h increased by 44.1%, 49.0%, 54.9% respectively compared with the control group. The Miro1 protein expression increased 26.7% (P<0.05) after the treatment with the 10μmol / L H2O2 for 1h. But the miro1 mRNA and protein expression in the EGTA+H2O2 treated group decreased significantly(P<0.05) compared with the H2O2 treated group.

CONCLUSIONS: H2O2 had bidirectional for mitochondrial motility in myoblast. Lower H2O2 promoted mitochondrial motility, high H2O2 inhibited those. Ca2+ involved in mitochondrial motility induced by H2O2. Supported by NSFC(No. 31071040)

1512 Board #293 MAY 30 11:00 AM - 12:30 PM

Reactive Oxygen Species Markers After Multiple Wingate Bouts in Trained and Untrained Subjects

Jason R. Boynton, Lynn Shetron-Rama, Chris Herman, Andrea D. Workman, TIm Muth, Josh Gordon, Ian Ratz, Zack Maino, Stephen J. McGregor. Eastern Michigan University, Ypsilanti, MI.

(No relationships reported)

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are reactive molecules in the body that contain oxygen and unpaired valence electrons. Previous research has shown that ROS increase with acute exercise, but levels in untrained (UT) vs. trained (T) subjects vary in the literature in cross sectional vs. longitudinal studies.

PURPOSE: To study changes in ROS markers over time following multiple 30 s supra-maximal efforts in UT and T subjects.

METHODS: All procedures were approved by the Eastern Michigan University Human Subjects Review Committee. 11 UT subjects (22 ± 4 yr, weight 83.8 ± 11.8 kg, VO2peak = 40.05 ± 6.96 ml/kg/min) and 9 T cyclists (age 25 ± 4 yr, weight 77.8 ± 9.26 kg, VO2peak = 59.56 ± 5.66) performed three consecutive Wingates with 4 min of rest between each bout (MW). Exercise was performed on an electronically braked ergometer (Velotron, Racermate WA). Blood was collected by antecubital venipuncture: pre, immediate, 1 hr, 24 hr & 48 hr post MW. Samples were quantitatively analyzed for malondialdehyde (MDA) and 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs; Cell Biolabs, inc., CA). Differences between the blood draw timepoints were analyzed using ANOVA. MDA and 4-HNE concentrations for all timepoints were compared using a 2 x 5 analysis of variance (ANOVA) to account for differences by training status as well as time (SPSS, IBM, NY).

RESULTS: Lactate values were higher on average in T vs UT, but increased significantly and similarly between groups immediately post for both the UT and T groups (1.14 ± 0.78 to 12.58 ± 1.75 mmol, 1.34 ± 0.54 to 12.62 ± 0.95 mmol, respectively; p<.05). There was a significant difference in MDA and 4-HNE levels between the UT group (7.45 ± 1.66 μg/mL, 6.73 ± 2.83 μg/mL) and T group (17.32 ± 2.07 μg/mL, 7.88 ± 0.81 μg/mL) at basal and across all the time points (p= .001; p= .015). There was no significant change from basal MDA and 4-HNE levels over the course of the blood draws in either the UT or T group. There was no significant interaction between the groups.

CONCLUSION: MDA and 4-HNE blood serum levels do not change acutely after multiple Wingate efforts, but are higher in T subjects than UT subjects at basal levels and after exercise. This indicates that ROS levels may change with chronic training over longer time frames than were examined in this study.

1513 Board #294 MAY 30 11:00 AM - 12:30 PM

Aged Skeletal Muscle Inflammation Susceptibility

Edward K. Merritt, Anna Thalacker-Mercer, Michael J. Stec, David P. Shelley, Marcas M. Bamman, FACSM. University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL.

(No relationships reported)

BACKGROUND: The regenerative response of skeletal muscle to mechanically induced damage is impaired with age. Previous work in our laboratory indicates that the impairment likely results from a differential inflammatory response in old relative to young, although the specific signaling mechanisms and their magnitudes are unknown.

PURPOSE: To examine the effects of age on the mRNA expression and protein signaling of putative pro-inflammatory and catabolic pathways in skeletal muscle at rest and after mechanically induced damage.

METHODS: Young (40.4 ± 1.1 y), older (61.2 ± 0.6 y), and old (75.5 ± 0.7 y) adults performed nine sets x 10 repetitions of unaccustomed, high-intensity leg extensions to induce modest muscle damage. A blood sample and a biopsy of the vastus lateralis muscle were obtained before and 24 h after the bout. Muscle mRNA expression and protein signaling within the interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF- α) pathways were determined by qPCR and Western blot analysis.

RESULTS: All subjects experienced similar levels of muscle damage as indicated by serum creatine kinase levels. Baseline expression of several analyzed genes was higher in older and old adults relative to young: IL-6 (1.64 - 2.70 fold higher); TNF-α(1.38 - 4.06 fold higher); and TWEAK (1.30 - 1.74 fold higher). TWEAK receptor expression was significantly increased in all groups after muscle damage and tended to be higher in older and old. STAT3 and NFκB protein expression were 17% and 35% higher in the old at baseline. Of all of the markers of inflammation, none were higher in young adults at baseline or after muscle damage.

CONCLUSION: The overall lower inflammatory state of skeletal muscle before and after muscle damage in young adults indicates that a higher sensitivity to inflammation signaling occurs in the muscle with age. Higher muscle inflammation susceptibility likely contributes to the impaired regenerative capacity of skeletal muscle in the older population, and should be considered when designing exercise programs to promote skeletal muscle recovery following damage or surgery.

1514 Board #295 MAY 30 11:00 AM - 12:30 PM

Effects Of H2O2 On Oxidant Generation And NF-κB Pathway Activity In C2C12 Muscle Cells

Kevin S. O’Fallon, Lawrence M. Schwartz, Priscilla M. Clarkson, FACSM. University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA.

(No relationships reported)

Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS) production increases during exercise and following muscle injury. In vitro studies have shown that H2O2 activates the canonical NF-κB pathway involved in transcription of antioxidant defenses in response to exercise. However, the effects of RONS on the alternative NF-κB pathway, which is involved in mitochondrial biogenesis, are currently unknown. Understanding the mechanisms of RONS-induced NF-κB activation will elucidate how NF-κB regulates the responses to exercise and muscle injury.

PURPOSE: To test the hypothesis that elevated RONS by H2O2 induces changes in alternative NF-κB pathway activation in cultured muscle cells.

METHODS: C2C12 myotubes were loaded with a fluorescent probe to quantify intracellular RONS levels. Culture media was supplemented with 100μM H2O2 and fluorescence was measured hourly for 1-4 hrs, then again at 24 hrs. In a separate experiment, myotubes were exposed to H2O2 for 1, 5 and 24 hrs and then harvested for total nuclear protein. Changes in the DNA binding activity of canonical (via the p65 subunit) and alternative (via the Rel B subunit) NF-κB pathways were quantified via ELISA assay.

RESULTS: Myotubes treated with H2O2 showed higher RONS levels at 1 hr (42%), 2 hrs (33%), 3 hrs (30%), 4 hrs (28%), and 24 hrs (14%) relative to untreated controls (p<0.05). Fold changes in DNA binding activity of p65 (1.96 fold at 1 hr) and Rel B (0.71 fold at 1 hr and 0.61 fold at 5 hrs) were observed relative to controls (p<0.05).

CONCLUSIONS: H2O2 stimulates RONS production in cultured muscle cells and alters the DNA binding activities of canonical and alternative NF-κB complexes within 5 hrs of exposure. The decrease in Rel B DNA binding indicates that elevated RONS reduces the transcriptional activity of the alternative NF-κB complex, which may be intended to temporarily restrict processes involved in mitochondrial biogenesis while intracellular redox homeostasis is being restored.

Funding Source: US Army

1515 Board #296 MAY 30 11:00 AM - 12:30 PM

Age- And Load-dependent Variations In Apoptotic Quantification And Localization With Skeletal Muscle Adaptation And Maladaptation

Brent A. Baker1, Melinda S. Hollander2, Robert G. Cutlip2. 1NIOSH, Morgantown, WV. 2West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV. (Sponsor: Stephen E. Alway, Ph.D., FACSM)

(No relationships reported)

Increased skeletal muscle nuclear apoptosis has been suggested to be involved with age-related pathological remodeling that contributes to sarcopenic states.

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to determine if apoptosis plays a role in age-dependent adaptation and maladaptation in young and old skeletal muscle of rats, respectively, following chronic high-intensity mechanical loading via stretch-shortening contractions (SSCs).

METHODS: Left dorsiflexor muscles of young (3 mo, N=6) and old (30 mo, N=6) Fischer 344 x BN rats, were loaded 3 times/week for 4.5-weeks using a protocol of 80 maximal SSCs per exposure in vivo. Twenty-four hours after the last training session, tibialis anterior (TA) muscles were harvested and individual muscle regions were allocated for biochemical or histological analyses. TA muscle was homogenized and prepared for cell death enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), while histomorphology was conducted on transverse sections of the TA muscle mid-belly prepared for terminal dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) and laminin duel immunofluorescence and quantified via standard stereology.

RESULTS: Cell death was increased in both old control (∼50%) and old SSC-loaded (∼105%) skeletal muscle versus young muscle, as quantified by ELISA (p < 0.05). Moreover, ELISA data revealed chronic SSC-loading increased cell death ∼95% in young rats’ skeletal muscle, while old rats’ cell death significantly increased ∼105% (p < 0.05), compared with control muscle. Additionally, aging increased the volume density of TUNEL-positive myonuclei in both control (∼125%) and SSC-loaded (∼200%) TA muscles compared with young rats (p < 0.05). Interestingly, no increase in TUNEL -positive myonuclei was observed following chronic SSC loading in young or old rats.

CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that adaptation and maladaptation following chronic SSC loading is significantly impacted by apoptosis; however apparent differences exist with the individual cell types undergoing apoptosis; specifically, nuclei distinct from skeletal muscle may contribute to these findings. Collectively, these results indicate that apoptotic-related events contribute significantly to age-dependent adaptive and maladaptive remodeling in young and old soft tissue, respectively, following chronic mechanical loading.

1516 Board #297 MAY 30 11:00 AM - 12:30 PM

The Role Of Wound Healing Macrophages In Acute Muscle Injury

Gina M. Many1, Tanya V. Cohen1, Bryan D. Flemming2, Po Zhao1, Terrence Partridge1, David M. Mosser2, Eric P. Hoffman1. 1Children’s National Medical Center, Washington, DC. 2University of Maryland, College Park, MD. (Sponsor: Joseph A. Houmard, FACSM)

(No relationships reported)

Macrophages are recruited to sites of acute skeletal muscle injury and depletion of macrophages has been shown to hinder muscle regeneration. The mechanisms by which macrophages promote muscle regeneration remain to be elucidated.

PURPOSE: To investigate temporal changes in the expression of transcripts indicative of macrophage phenotypic specialization in response to cardiotoxin-induced acute myonecrosis.

METHODS: Cardiotoxin (CTX) was injected into the gastrocnemius of 8-wk old C57BL10 mice on day 0. Bilateral sections of the belly of the gastrocnemius were taken at 27-time points (0-40d) for RNA extraction and profiling using murine U74A Ver. 2 chips. Expression profiling data were analyzed via the dChip differential algorithms. To assess the effects of differential macrophage activation on myogenesis, an in vitro co-culture system was used. Bone marrow-derived macrophages (Mϕ) were stimulated with IL-4 or LPS to promote a wound healing (M2a) or classical activation phenotype (M1), respectively. Mϕ were plated onto transwells on top of myoblasts. Myoblasts were then induced to differentiate and myotube formation was compared between co-culture conditions.

RESULTS: M2a and M1 Mϕ markers were upregulated 1-3 days following CTX-induced injury. The increased expression of M1 Mϕ markers (CD11b: 3.6-fold, 1d; IFNγ: 2.9-fold, 1d; CXCL9: 4.4-fold, 1d; CD68: 13.8-24.2-fold, 1-3d) and M2a Mϕ markers (arginase-1: 4800-fold, 1d; YM-1: 37-fold, 1d; STAT6: 5-6.8-fold, 1-2d; RELMα: 46.9-fold, 2d) was observed. Myogenic markers were upregulated following increases in M2a and M1 Mϕ transcripts (MyoD: 4.9-fold, 3d; myogenin: 12.0-12.5-fold, 3-3.5d; Myf5: 4.0-4.5-fold, 3.5-5d). Co-culture of H2K cells with M2a Mϕ resulted in a myotube fusion index of 13% vs. 5% in M1 co-cultures.

CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that muscle injury by CTX results in the acute upregulation of M1 and M2a Mϕ transcripts. Our in vivo findings suggest a complex interplay of Th1 and Th2 immunological responses promote myogenesis following acute muscle injury. Additionally, our in vitro findings suggest that M2a macrophages are capable of potentiating myotube formation. Further research is needed to elucidate mechanisms by which acute adaptive immune responses promote myogenesis following acute muscle injury.

1517 Board #298 MAY 30 11:00 AM - 12:30 PM

The Effect Of Myosin Light Chain 3f On Inactivity-induced Decline In Contractile Velocity In Type II Single Muscle Fibers

Jong-Hee Kim, Ted G. Graber, Lisa F. Stegall, Haiming Liu, Atsushi Asakura, LaDora V. Thompson. University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN.

(No relationships reported)

A period of inactivity is associated with muscle atrophy and impaired contractility (e.g., power, force, velocity); however, the mechanism that underlies inactivity-induced changes in contractile velocity is unknown. Recent evidence suggests that inactivity-induced decline in contractile velocity is related with a decrease in the relative content of essential myosin light chain 3f (MLC3f) isoform.

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to examine whether 1) inactivity-induced decline in contractile velocity in type II single muscle fibers is associated with a decreased relative MLC3f content, 2) increased MLC3f via recombinant adenovirus gene (rAd) transfer technology can ameliorate inactivity-induced decrease in contractile velocity, 3) MLC3f-induced changes in Vo are dose and time dependant.

METHODS: F344 rats (10 mo. old) were randomly assigned to one of experimental groups: weight-bearing control (CON), hindlimb suspension (HS), and hindlimb suspension plus rAd-MLC3f (HSM). Rats were hindlimb-suspended for 7 days. The rAd-MLC3f (1×1011-1×1012 ifu/ml) was injected into semimembranosus (SM) muscles with different timing (one day before HS, 2nd day of HS, 4th day of HS) and volume (250, 375, 500μl). The fiber size, isometric maximal force (Po), and shortening velocity (Vo) was determined using single fiber physiology test. Myosin heavy chain (MHC) and MLC isoforms were determined by SDS-PAGE gel electrophoresis and silver staining. Densitometry using molecular multi-imaging system (GS-800) was used to determine the relative content of MLC1f, MLC2f, and MLC3f in MHC type II fibers.

RESULTS: HS resulted in a significant decline in fiber size (-17%) and Po (-51%). The rAd-MLC3f injection did not affect fiber size and Po. HS significantly decreased relative MLC3f content [%MLC3f (-4.2%), MLC3f/MLC2f (-27%), and MLC3f/(MLC1f+MLC3f) (-39%)]. The rAd-MLC3f injection significantly increased MLC3f content dependant on injection timing and. HS significantly decreased Vo (-27%). The rAd-MLC3f injection increased Vo and the increase was associated with rAd-MLC3f injection timing and volume.

CONCLUSIONS: Increasing MLC3f content provided significant protection against inactivity-induced decline in Vo of type II single muscle fibers.

1518 Board #299 MAY 30 11:00 AM - 12:30 PM

Fiber Type Conversion in vivo: The Effects of Six1 Gene Expression in Murine Skeletal Muscle

Kimbell L. Hetzler, Matthew C. Kostek. University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC. (Sponsor: James Carson, FACSM)

(No relationships reported)

Six1 is a gene necessary for the development of several tissues, but in adults is expressed solely in skeletal muscle. Six1 gene and protein levels decrease in response to acute exercise in humans and mice. Overexpression of Six1 can cause a slow-to-fast fiber type transition, but the effect of Six1 decrease on fiber type proportion and size is unknown.

PURPOSE: To determine the effect of Six1 overexpression and knockdown on muscle fiber type in mice.

METHODS: The tibialis anterior muscles of 30 mice were transfected with vectors to increase or knockdown Six1 gene expression, or empty vector control. Muscles were collected at 2 and 14 days after transfection (n=4 or 6 mice per group at each time point). Six1 gene expression was quantified by qRT-PCR. Number of fibers and total cross-sectional area are being calculated using fluorescent microscopy for Type I, IIA, and IIB fibers.

RESULTS: Electroporation efficiency was >50% (green fluorescent protein). The Six1 vector increased Six1 mRNA expression 11.2-fold (±±2.7, p<.01) compared to control, and the siRNA vector decreased Six1 mRNA expression 1.37-fold (±.09, p=.04). Preliminary analysis suggests that the proportion and cross-sectional area of IIB fibers decrease in response to decreased Six1.

CONCLUSIONS: A decrease in Six1 expression affects the expression of different muscle fiber types and may be responsible for fiber type conversions after exercise.

1519 Board #300 MAY 30 11:00 AM - 12:30 PM

Fast-To-Slow: Muscle Fiber Type Transformation In Response To Altered Six1 Gene Expression

Brittany C. Collins, Bradley S. Gordon, Matthew C. Kostek. University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC. (Sponsor: James Carson, FACSM)

(No relationships reported)

Muscle activation patterns, like exercise and disuse, can cause alterations in muscle fiber type proportions in skeletal muscle. However, little is known of the molecular events that cause this shift. Six1 is a developmental gene that has been shown to be altered by exercise in humans. Further, Six1 causes a fiber type shift in mice. Yet, little is known of how it functions.

PURPOSE: Examine the effect of Six1 expression on the myosin heavy chain (MyHC) genes during muscle fiber formation.

METHODS: C2C12 mouse myoblasts were grown in standard conditions. When cells reached 80% confluence, they were transfected with Six1 expression vectors, to increase Six1 expression, or empty vector control. 24 hours later, cells were switched to differentiation medium. After four days, cells were harvested. Six1 and MyHC gene expression was analyzed by qRT-PCR.

RESULTS: Six1 expression vector (A) increased Six1 expression 700 ± 243.4 fold (p = 0.02) and Six1 expression vector (B) increased Six1 expression 875 ± 83.7 fold (p < 0.01). MyHC-IIb expression decreased 2 0.12 fold (p = 0.01) and 3 0.02 fold (p < 0.01) by vectors (A) and (B) respectively. MyHC-IIx decreased 1.5 0.09 fold (p = 0.05) and 1.5 0.05 fold (p = 0.02) by vectors (A) and (B) respectively. MyHC-I increased 2 0.24 fold (p = 0.03) and 1.5 0.12 fold (p = 0.05) by vectors (A) and (B) respectively. MyHC-IIa expression was not affected.

CONCLUSION: Six1 overexpression alters the muscle fiber-type gene program during the formation of a muscle fiber. This suggests that altered Six1 expression, in response to exercise, controls muscle fiber-type in humans.

1520 Board #301 MAY 30 11:00 AM - 12:30 PM

Modification Of Skeletal Muscle Fiber Type Induced By Aerobic Exercise. Proposal Of A Peripheral Marker

Paula Tavares. Faculty of Sport Science and Physical Education, University of Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal.

(No relationships reported)

It is known that exercise has the ability to change the skeletal muscle fiber type. In sport these changes may result from the applied training, which brings athletic advantage. However, the only technique available for fiber type monitoring is the muscle biopsy. In addition to the ethical issues, we also believe that this invasive method has a low accuracy in certain types of muscle evaluation.

PURPOSE: The aim of this work is to propose a peripheral marker that can show the skeletal muscle fiber type dominance in a subject. In order to achieve our goal we looked for changes in the nitric oxide synthase (NOS) that is expressed in skeletal muscle fibers and platelets.

METHODS: We used male Wistar adult rats that were trained during 8 weeks with a treadmill aerobic protocol. The animals were divided in two groups: exercise and control. The control group was submitted to a slight exercise just to maintain motor skills and avoid central nervous system interferences. Platelets were isolated from blood collected in the jugular vein (after anaesthesia) before and at the end of the exercise protocol. At the end of the experiments the animals were sacrificed by anaesthetic overdose, and the skeletal muscles (soleus and gastrocnemium) were removed for histological analysis and determination of NOS expression. The histological analysis included a hematoxylin-eosin staining and an ATPase staining to identify and measure the different fiber types. The expression of both NOS isoforms, in skeletal muscle and platelets, was determined by Western-blot with NOS specific antibodies.

RESULTS: The results showed that aerobic exercise changes the muscle fiber type. These changes were more evident in the soleus muscle which is mainly composed by type I muscle fibers. Moreover, our results also suggest that exercise induces muscle fibre necrosis and the consequent formation of new fibers through satellite cells division. This stimulation is induced by exercise, and allows the replacement of the damaged fibres.

CONCLUSIONS: The result stresses the correlation between NOS expression in muscle and platelets, suggesting the usefulness of cNOS in platelets for the study of exercise induced fibre change without the need for muscle biopsy. Other studies are needed to confirm our findings. This project was partially financed by FCT.

1521 Board #302 MAY 30 11:00 AM - 12:30 PM

Satellite Cell And Myonuclear Content In Older Adults Following 7 Days Of Inactivity

Dillon Walker, Micah Drummond, Jared Dickinson, Elena Volpi, Blake Rasmussen. UTMB, Galveston, TX. (Sponsor: Elizabeth Protas, FACSM)

(No relationships reported)

Skeletal muscle atrophy is linked to a number of pathological and physiological conditions and is characterized by a loss of protein and muscle nuclei. However, it is not known if changes in satellite cell and myonuclear content occur as early as 7 days following inactivity in older adults.

PURPOSE: To determine if changes occur in satellite cell (SC) and myonuclear content following 7 days of physical inactivity in older adults.

METHODS: Healthy, older adults participated in a strict best rest model for 7 days. Muscle biopsies were collected from the vastus lateralis before and after best rest. Immunohistochemical analysis was used to assess satellite cell content (anti-Pax7), muscle nuclei (Hoechst 33342), basal lamina (anti-laminin), and slow twitch fibers (anti-MHC type I).

RESULTS: In slow twitch fibers, we observed no change in SC/fiber, % SC, and myonuclear domain after 7 days of inactivity; however, myonuclei/fiber decreased by 18% and the % of fibers with centrally located nuclei decreased by 69%. In fast twitch fibers, SC/fiber increased by 50% and % SC increased by 79% whereas % fibers with centrally located nuclei, myonuclei/fiber, and myonuclear domain were unaffected after 7 days of inactivity.

CONCLUSIONS: Short-term physical inactivity results in the loss of muscle nuclei and appears to impair ongoing regeneration as indicated by a reduction in the % of fibers with centrally located nuclei in slow twitch muscle fibers. On the other hand, in fast twitch muscle fibers, an increase in satellite cell content may play a role in the bed rest induced transition of slow to fast twitch fibers. Future studies are warranted to determine the role of satellite cells in the regulation of physical inactivity induced muscle atrophy.

Supported by NIAMS R01 AR049877, NIA P30 AG024832 and R01 AG018311, NIH AG030070, NCRR 1UL1RR029876 and K01 AG038556

1522 Board #303 MAY 30 11:00 AM - 12:30 PM

Training Effect on Satellite Cell Response after Exhaustive Exercise in Thoroughbred Horses

Minako Kawai1, Atsushi Hiraga2, Hiroko Aida2, Hirofumi Miyata1. 1Yamaguchi Univ., Yamaguchi, Japan. 2Japan Racing Association, Utsunomiya, Japan.

(No relationships reported)

PURPOSE: Satellite cells are muscle stem cells capable of increasing myonuclear number during repair from injury and hypertrophy. The purpose of this study was to investigate the training effect on the short-term response of satellite cell activation in thoroughbred horse muscles.

METHODS: Six horses (3 years old) had acclimatized to exercise on a treadmill before experiments and then were subjected to conventional training for 10 weeks. Before (PRE) and after (POST) training, an incremental exercise test (IET) was performed on a 6% inclined treadmill to measure maximum oxygen consumption (VO2max) and the velocity at a plasma lactate of 4 mmol/ l (VLA4). Biopsy samples from gluteus medius muscle was obtained before and at 1min, 3 (3h), 6 (6h) and 24 hours (24h) after each IET. Total RNA was extracted from each muscle sample and the levels of SDHa, Pax7, MyoD, myogenin, PCNA, IGF-I and HGF mRNA expression were determined using real time RT-PCR.

RESULTS: Ten-week training increased the mean values of VO2max (from 144 to 168 ml/ min/ kg, P<0.05) and VLA4 (from 7.3 to 8.5 m/s). IL-6 mRNA expression increased remarkably at 6h after IET (P<0.05) in both PRE and POST. Unexpectedly, MyoD mRNA was significantly decreased at 6h after IET in both PRE and POST (P<0.05), and myogenin mRNA was also decreased at 3h after IET in POST (P<0.05). PCNA mRNA was increased at 24h (P<0.05) in both PRE and POST. In addition this mRNA in POST was also increased at an earlier point (3h) than that in PRE. When the correlations between performance level (VO2max and VLA4) and mRNA expressions of each horse was investigated in PRE, the horses with higher VO2max had higher expression levels of MyoD and myogenin mRNAs (r = 0.97 and 0.85, P<0.05, respectively). In addition, the horses with higher VLA4 had higher expression level of IGF-I mRNA (r = 0.85, P<0.05). After the 10-week training, interestingly, the horses with a greater VO2max improvement had a greater increase in the expression level of IL-6 mRNA (r = 0.82, P<0.05) at 1d after IET.

CONCLUSIONS: The activation and proliferation of satellite cells in response to exhaustive exercise were slightly different between pre and post training. There were significant correlations between the performance level of each horse and these mRNA expression patterns in response to exhaustive exercise.

1523 Board #304 MAY 30 11:00 AM - 12:30 PM

Transient Satellite Cell Response to Acute ‘Non-Injurious’ Resistance Exercise in MHC I and MHC II Skeletal Muscle Fibers

Nicholas Luden, Lyle Babcock, Matt Escano, Andrew D’Lugos, Kent Todd, FACSM, Kevin Murach. James Madison University, Harrisonburg, VA.

(No relationships reported)

Skeletal muscle satellite cells (SC) have been implicated in the hypertrophic response to resistance training. Satellite cell proliferation is also likely involved in repair processes following skeletal muscle injury. Elevated satellite cell counts have been documented as early as 6 hours and as late as 8 days following acute resistance exercise. However, these studies have exclusively utilized exercise protocols characterized by a high volume of supramaximal eccentric muscle contractions.

PURPOSE: To assess the general and fiber-type specific [Myosin Heavy Chain (MHC) I and II)] SC response to a more conventional, ‘non-injurious’, exercise protocol at 4 and 10 days following exercise.

METHODS: Immediately following one-repetition max (1RM) testing, eight recreationally active college-aged males (23 ± 1 yr, 83 ± 4 kg, 49 ± 2 ml/kg/min) performed 4 sets of unilateral leg- extensions and presses (4 sets of 10 repetitions at 75% 1RM). Skeletal muscle biopsies were obtained from the vastus lateralis immediately before, 4 days, and 10 days following exercise. Muscle samples were cross-sectioned, stained with NCAM, Ki-67, and MHC I antibodies, counterstained with DAPI, and analyzed via immunohistochemistry to determine SC density (SC per muscle fiber), satellite cell activation and muscle fiber type.

RESULTS: SC density (not fiber type specific) was elevated 4 days following exercise but returned to baseline at 10 days post-exercise. MHC I muscle fiber SC density remained unaltered with exercise when compared across all three time points, whereas MHC II muscle fiber SC density tended to be elevated at 4 days (p = 0.09), but not 10 days post-exercise. No alterations in the quantity of activated SC were observed.

CONCLUSIONS: Our data indicate that a single session of one-legged resistance exercise increases the SC population at 4 but not 10 days following exercise. Further, this response seems to be primarily manifested in MHC II muscle fibers. These data have implications for future satellite cell research, as the SC proliferative response to acute exercise is not detectable 10 days following a relatively conventional exercise protocol.

1524 Board #305 MAY 30 11:00 AM - 12:30 PM

Concurrent Aerobic Exercise Interferes With the Satellite Cell Response to Acute Resistance Exercise in MHC I Muscle Fibers

Lyle Babcock, Matt Escano, Andrew D’Lugos, Kent Todd, (FACSM), Kevin Murach, Nicholas Luden. James Madison University, Harrisonburg, VA.

(No relationships reported)

The addition of aerobic exercise (AE) to a resistance exercise program (RE) (concurrent exercise; CON) can interfere with maximum muscle fiber size gains achieved with RE alone. Further, CON appears to interfere with myosin heavy chain (MHC) I, but not MHC IIa muscle fibers. The underlying mechanism responsible for this ‘interference’ is unknown. The magnitude of satellite cell (SC) proliferation following exercise has been shown to influence muscle adaptation, but these dynamics have not been examined following acute concurrent exercise.

PURPOSE: To assess the fiber-type specific SC response to RE, AE, and CON exercise.

METHODS: Eight recreationally active college-aged males completed the following two exercise trials separated by a 10-day washout: RE -unilateral leg- extensions and presses (4 sets of ≥10 repetitions at 75% 1RM); AE/CON - immediately following an identical RE protocol with the opposite leg, subjects completed 90 min of cycling (60% VO2max). Skeletal muscle biopsies were obtained from the exercised vastus lateralis immediately before and 4 days after each session. Muscle samples were cross-sectioned, stained with NCAM, Ki-67, MHC I antibodies, counterstained with DAPI, and analyzed via immunohistochemistry to determine SC density (SC per muscle fiber), satellite cell activation and muscle fiber type.

RESULTS: SC density increased to a greater extent (p<0.05) following RE (38 ± 10%), compared to AE (10 ± 10%) and CON (-9 ± 10%). Similarly, MHC I muscle fiber SC density displayed a greater increase following RE (46 ± 16%), compared to AE (-22 ± 10%) and CON (-7 ± 17%). No exercise mode differences were observed among MHC IIa fibers.

CONCLUSIONS: Our data indicate that CON blunts the SC response to RE, specifically in MHC I muscle fibers. The satellite cell response observed here mimics the fiber type growth response to RE and CON training. This suggests that SC physiology contributes to the interference effect that concurrent AE has on MHC I fiber growth.

1525 Board #306 MAY 30 11:00 AM - 12:30 PM

Therapeutic Ultrasound Affects Muscle Cell Proliferation: Implications For Muscle Rehabilitation

Diana C. Delgado-Diaz1, Matthew C. Kostek2. 1University of South Caroline, Columbia, SC. 2University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC.

(No relationships reported)

Therapeutic ultrasound (TUS) is a common modality in the rehabilitation of muscle injuries. In-vivo models of skeletal muscle have demonstrated that TUS increases satellite cell proliferation, a requirement for skeletal muscle repair. Current studies have attempted to determine the autonomous response of muscle cells to TUS; however their results are controversial due to the diversity of techniques and parameter used to deliver TUS (indirect sonification).

PURPOSE: To examine the dose-response of muscle cell proliferation due to TUS.

METHODS: C2C12 cells were propagated in 10% FBS growth medium and incubated under sterile standard conditions . Equal numbers of cells were seeded in 100-mm culture dishes. Once cells achieved 50% confluence, TUS was delivered for 5 consecutive days. 24-h after the last treatment, cells were collected and counted with a hemocytometer. TUS delivery (continuous; 3MHz) was performed under sterile conditions; the ultrasound probe was positioned perpendicular to the dish and lowered to full contact with the medium (distance between the probe and the bottom of the dish = 4-5 mm). Nine combinations of output intensities and treatment durations were studied. Intensities: 0.2, 0.5 and 1.0W/cm2. Treatment durations: 2, 5, and 10 min. The sham cells was exposed to TUS as described with output intensity of 0W/cm2 for 5min and control cells were untreated. Media temperature was measured immediately before and after each TUS exposure.

RESULTS: Temperature increased only in response to the highest intensity (1.0W/cm2) when delivered for 5 or 10 min. TUS increased cell proliferation when compared to Sham and control in all groups, being greater at lower output intensities (0.2 and 0.5W/cm2).

CONCLUSION: These data demonstrate that the direct delivery of ultrasonic waves to muscle cells in culture is feasible and produces positive effects. TUS enhances muscle cell proliferation in an autonomous manner by a mechanism other than heating. Our results support an evidence-based mechanism for the use of TUS for the treatment of skeletal muscle injuries.

1526 Board #307 MAY 30 11:00 AM - 12:30 PM

Essential Amino Acid Ingestion After Exercise Enhances Amino Acid Transporter Expression In Human Skeletal Muscle

Jared M. Dickinson, Micah J. Drummond, Jennifer R. Coben, Elena Volpi, Blake B. Rasmussen. University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX. (Sponsor: Elizabeth Protas, FACSM)

(No relationships reported)

An increase in amino acid transporter expression is a proposed mechanism contributing to increases in muscle protein synthesis following essential amino acid ingestion (EAA) or resistance exercise (RE).

PURPOSE: To determine whether the expression of amino acid transporters in human skeletal muscle is increased in response to the combination of RE and EAA ingestion, and whether a differential response occurs with aging.

METHODS: Young (n=7, 30±2yr) and older males (n=6, 70±2yr) ingested 20g of EAA 1 h after performing a single bout of leg extension RE (8 sets, 10 reps, ∼70% 1RM). Muscle biopsies (vastus lateralis) were obtained at rest and at 3 and 6h postexercise for examination of amino acid transporter mRNA and protein expression via qPCR and immunoblotting, respectively.

RESULTS: In both young and older males, the combination of RE+EAA elicited an increase in mRNA expression (fold change) of L-type amino acid transporter 1 (LAT1)/solute linked carrier (SLC)7A5 (Y: 3h, 4.0±0.8; 6h, 3.7±0.9; O: 3h, 3.9±1.4; 6h, 5.9±2.3) sodium-coupled neutral amino acid transporter 2 (SNAT2)/SLC38A2 (Y: 3h, 2.0±0.4; O: 3h, 1.79±0.5), and cationic amino acid transporter 1 (CAT1)/SLC7A1 (Y: 6h, 3.9±0.9; O: 3h, 3.5±0.9; 6h, 5.0±1.2) (P<0.05), whereas no changes were observed for proton-assisted amino acid transporter 1 (PAT1)/SLC36A1 or CD98/SLC3A2 in either group (P>0.05). Additionally, SNAT2/SLC38A2 protein was increased only in young adults at 3 and 6h postexercise (P<0.05), whereas older adults maintained higher LAT1/SLC7A5 protein expression compared to young following exercise (P<0.05).

CONCLUSION: These results suggest that both young and older males experience an increase in skeletal muscle amino acid transporter expression following the combination of RE+EAA, however, there appears to be a differential response with aging for SNAT2/SLC38A2 and LAT1/SLC7A5. These data support the hypothesis that amino acid transporters are involved in the regulation of human skeletal muscle protein synthesis in young and older adults.

Funding: NIAMS R01 AR049877, NIA P30 AG024832 and R01 AG018311, NIH T35AG038048, and NCRR 1UL1RR029876

1527 Board #308 MAY 30 11:00 AM - 12:30 PM

Low Magnitude Vibration To Improve Musculoskeletal Health In A Mouse Model Of Muscle Disease

Susan A. Novotny, Brian C. Eby, David J. Nuckley, Jarrod A. Call, Michael D. Eckhoff, Dawn A. Lowe, FACSM. University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN. (Sponsor: Dawn Lowe, FACSM)

(No relationships reported)

Low-magnitude, high-frequency vibration (VIB) can benefit bone and skeletal muscle. These beneficial effects arise from the application of mechanical loads equivalent to those produced during postural muscle contraction. Therefore, VIB is particularly attractive as a therapeutic modality in diseases such as Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) to preserve muscle and bone strength, as patients are often advised to minimize exercise.

PURPOSE: We devised and constructed a vibration platform for mice and using the mdx model of DMD, our initial experiments were aimed to: 1) select the frequency and acceleration of VIB that provoked an osteogenic response, 2) determine if three bouts of VIB are injurious to diseased muscle and 3) assess the myogenic potential of 7d VIB.

METHODS: Mdx mice were exposed to VIB for 15min/d for 7d at either 30, 45, or 90 Hz with an acceleration of either 0.3 or 0.6 g. Tibial bone RNA was extracted and compared to non-vibrated mice for genes along the osteoblast lineage. To assess if VIB was injurious, muscle strength and markers of inflammation (CCL2 and Itgam by RTPCR) were compared between mdx mice that received three bouts of VIB (45 Hz, 0.6 g), non-VIB mice, and eccentrically-injured mdx mice. The myogenic potential of VIB was assessed by RTPCR (MyoD, myogenin, and Pax7) following 7d of VIB (45 Hz, 0.6 g).

RESULTS: VIB at 45 Hz and 0.6 g had the largest effect in stimulating an osteogenic response; collagen type 1 mRNA was upregulated 31%, and alkaline phosphatase mRNA trended toward upregulation (p=0.09). Following three VIB bouts, muscle strength was equivalent to non-VIB mice (p=0.94) and significantly greater than eccentrically-injured mice (p>0.65), indicating that VIB is not injurious to diseased muscle. Following 7d of VIB, MyoD expression was elevated 7% (p<0.05).

CONCLUSIONS: These data highlight that VIB exposure at 45 Hz and 0.6 g in the mdx mouse is not injurious to muscle and has the modest potential to elevate the expression of genes involved in osteogenesis and myogenesis. Chronic studies of VIB in mdx mice are in progress to further determine the therapeutic potential of VIB for musculoskeletal health.

1528 Board #309 MAY 30 11:00 AM - 12:30 PM

Effects Of Pre-habilitative Conditioning On Unloading-induced Remodeling Of Young And Aged Neuromuscular Systems.

Michael R. Deschenes, FACSM, Emily K. Glass, Elizabeth G. Sherman. College of William & Mary, Williamsburg, VA.

(No relationships reported)

PURPOSE: To determine if pre-habilitative conditioning effectively mitigates adaptations to muscle unloading in young and aged neuromuscular systems.

METHODS: Forty young (9 mo), and 40 aged (25 mo) male rats were randomly assigned to one of four treatment groups within each age category (N=10/group).Treatment groups were: 1) hindlimb suspension for 2 wks (HS); 2) pre-habilitative exercise (i.e. treadmill running) for 2 wks prior to 2 wks of hindlimb suspension (PH-HS); 3) 2 wks of treadmill running without hindlimb suspension (PH), or 4) no intervention (CTL). Neuromuscular junctions (NMJs) of soleus muscles were stained with Bungaroxin (postsynaptic acetylcholine receptors) and RT 97 (presynaptic nerve terminals), and fluorescently stained images were captured with confocal microscopy. Myofiber profiles of those same muscles were assessed with histochemical staining for ATPase activity.

RESULTS: In neither age group did NMJ morphology differ (P>0.05) among the 4 treatment groups. However, young and aged rats displayed different patterns of myofiber remodeling as a result of the various experimental treatments. Among young rats, HS resulted in a 22% decline (P<0.05) in myofiber cross-sectional area; this atrophy was significantly exacerbated in the PH-HS group (40% decrease), while PH training alone had no significant effect on myofiber size. But among aged rats, PH training significantly attenuated unloading-induced myofiber atrophy (32% vs. 45%), and average myofiber size of PH rats was 14% larger than the CTL group (P<0.05).

CONCLUSIONS: Two weeks was too brief a period to elicit reconfiguration of the NMJ regardless of age, or treatment. In contrast, myofibers were significantly remodeled following the 2 wk intervention, with age significantly influencing those adaptations. Among young rats, pre-habilitative endurance training exaggerated unloading-induced fiber atrophy, but among aged rats - where sarcopenia was evident - the same pre-habilitative protocol significantly abated unloading-induced atrophy. We conclude that not all components of the neuromuscular system (NMJs and myofibers) are equally sensitive to unloading, and that among myofibers, aging impacts the value of pre-habilitative conditioning prior to muscle unloading.

Supported by NIH Grant R15 AG017440.

1529 Board #310 MAY 30 11:00 AM - 12:30 PM

Nuclear Factor-KappaB Activity in Human Primary Pericytes Affects Proliferation and Differentiation of Co-Cultured Skeletal Muscle Myoblasts

Robert D. Hyldahl1, Lawrence M. Schwartz2, Priscilla M. Clarkson, FACSM2. 1University of Massachusetts Amherst, Sunderland, MA. 2University of Massachusetts Amherst, Amherst, MA.

(No relationships reported)

Skeletal muscle regeneration following damage relies on the activation, proliferation and differentiation of muscle precursor cells. We recently observed altered NF-kB signaling in human skeletal muscle-resident pericyte cells following eccentric contractions, a stimulus known to induce a muscle regenerative response.

PURPOSE: This study determined how alterations in pericyte NF-kB activity affected the proliferation and differentiation response of local muscle precursor cells (myoblasts) in an in vitro co-culture system.

METHODS: Human primary pericytes (HPPs) were transiently induced to express DNA vectors designed to both increase and decrease NF-kB activity. An empty vector was used as a control. HPPs expressing the NF-kB DNA vectors were then co-cultured with C2C12 myoblasts for 4 days in a culture medium designed to promote the differentiation of myoblasts into mature muscle fibers (myotubes). Myoblast proliferation and differentiation were measured using immunocytochemistry and Western blot.

RESULTS: The DNA vectors were effective at both increasing and decreasing NF-kB activity in HPPs. When HPPs with increased NF-kB activity were co-cultured with myoblasts, we observed a 50% increase in myoblast proliferation (p<0.001), and inhibition of myoblast differentiation, evidenced by a 32% reduction in myotube diameter (p<0.001) and a decrease in myotube nuclei. Western blot also showed a decrease in the expression of the muscle specific marker myosin heavy chain when HPPs with increased NF-kB activity were co-cultured with myoblasts.

CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, these data suggest that NF-kB dependent signaling in pericytes may indirectly regulate the regenerative response following damage by promoting proliferation of muscle precursor cells.

1530 Board #311 MAY 30 11:00 AM - 12:30 PM