Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise:
E-36 Free Communication/Poster - Physical Activity Surveillance: Adults: JUNE 3, 2011 7:30 AM - 12:30 PM: ROOM: Hall B
Vaara, Jani; Fogelholm, Mikael; Vasankari, Tommi; Santtila, Matti; Häkkinen, Keijo; Kyröläinen, Heikki
1National Defence University, Helsinki, Finland. 2Academy of Finland, Helsinki, Finland. 3The UKK Institute for Health Promotion Research, Tampere, Finland. 4Defence Command, Helsinki, Finland. 5University of Jyväskylä, Jyväskylä, Finland.
(No relationships reported)
Physical fitness and obesity are associated with cardiovascular (CV) risk factors. However, it is not clear to what extent good fitness can counteract clustering of risk factors in obese individuals and how the risk is modulated in lean individuals with poor fitness.
PURPOSE: The purpose was to study the clustering of CV risk factors of unfit individuals (low cardiorespiratory (CRF) or muscular fitness (MFI)) in young men with lean waist (waist circumference <94.1 cm) or abdominal obesity (waist circumference ≥94.1 cm).
METHODS: 846 young (25±5 yr.) men with varying fitness and obesity status participated in the study. Waist circumference was measured and CV risk factors, including fasting glucose, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides and blood pressure were determined. CRF (VO2max) was indirectly determined by bicycle ergometer test. MFI consisted of push-ups, sit-ups and repeated squat tests. Odd ratios for clustering of CV risk factors (≥ 3 risk factors) was calculated by using lean and fit individuals as the reference group, and by controlling for age, smoking and self-reported physical activity.
RESULTS: The likelihood for having clustered CV risk was higher in abdominal obese individuals with low CRF (OR=11.01, [95% CI=5.29-22.92]) compared to lean individuals with high CRF. In addition, the risk was higher in abdominal obese individuals with high CRF (OR=6.98, [95% CI=3.12-15.61]), and higher in lean individuals with low CRF (OR=4.94, [95% CI=2.10-11.63]). The likelihood for having clustered CV risk was higher in abdominal obese individuals with low MFI (OR=2.99, [95% CI=1.26-7.11]) and higher in abdominal obese individuals with high MFI (OR=2.33, [95% CI=1.02-5.33]) compared to lean individuals with high MFI. The risk for lean individuals with low MFI was (OR=0.64, [95% CI=0.18-2.30]) compared to lean individuals with high MFI.
CONCLUSIONS: Low cardiorespiratory and abdominal obesity are associated with cardiovascular risk in young men. High level of cardiorespiratory fitness decreased the clustered cardiovascular risk in obese, but did not completely counteract the risk related to abdominal obesity. In lean and obese individuals the association was lower and not linear between muscular fitness and cardiovascular risk.