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Bailey, Bruce1; Sullivan, Debra K.2; Smith, Bryan K.3; Donnelly, Joseph E. FACSM3
1University of Massachusetts Boston, Boston, MA.
2University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS.
3University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS.
A low level of HDL-Cholesterol (HDL-C) is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Dietary fat consumption may influence HDL-C.
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of dietary fat intake on HDL-C.
METHODS: Two hundred and fifty sedentary college students (males n=145, females n=105, age 19.0±1.1 years) with a BMI between 21–30 kg/m2, were recruited to participate in a 12-week feeding study. Participants were randomly placed into one of three conditions differing in the amount of fat consumed. One condition consumed less than 25% (LOW), another between 28–32% (MOD) and the final condition consumed >35% (HIGH) of calories from fat. Diet was assessed by picture plate waste methods and 24-hour recall procedures. Nutrition Data System for Research was used for all dietary analysis. Blood draws were taken after a 12-hour fast and analyzed for total HDL-C.
RESULTS: Baseline fat consumption was 36±5% of total calories for men and 34±6% for women and did not differ between conditions. Baseline HDL-C was 49.5±9.0 for men and 59.5±12.0 for women and did not differ between conditions. Over the 12 week period participants in the LOW condition consumed 21±3% of total calories from fat, the MOD condition consumed 31 ±2% and the HIGH condition consumed 40±3%. Men in the LOW (−3.4±8.0 mg/dl) and MOD (−3.2±7.0 mg/dl) conditions experienced a significant reduction in HDL-C compared to men in the HIGH condition (0.2±5.9 mg/dl) (p < 0.05). HDL-C in women in the HIGH condition increase (2.2±13.3 mg/dl), while women in the MOD (−1.0±9.4 mg/dl) and LOW (−3.2±7.4 mg/dl) conditions decreased. There was no significant difference between conditions for women (p=0.12).
CONCLUSION: These results suggest that reductions in dietary fat consumption may decrease HDL-C in college age men. Although the same conclusions cannot be made for college age women there was a similar trend.
Supported by NIH Grant DK58385.
©2006The American College of Sports Medicine
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