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Garrido, G1; Chamorro, M1; Rivera, C1; Serratosa, L1; Morate, F1
1National Institute of Physical Education (INEF), Madrid, Spain and Real Madrid Medical Center, Madrid, Spain
Assessment of food intake (macro and micronutrients) of highly skilled soccer players (S) following a buffet (S1) or a fixed school menu (S2).
A five day food intake double weighing method was carried out in two occasions. Thirty three players (age 16.9 ± 1.5 y; weight 73.8 ± 4.9 kg; height 178.4 ± 4.9 cm) were enrolled in 2000 (S1), and twenty nine (age 16.1 ± 1.4 y; weight 70.7 ± 8.2 kg; height 178.9 ± 7.0 cm) in 2002 (S2). Six players took part in both studies. A control group (C) with 18 subjects (age 17.4 ± 2.1 y; weight 69.8 ± 9.3 kg; height 173.3 ± 9.3 cm) was also evaluated through a 5-day food recall questionnaire. A software package was used to calculate macro and micronutrient content of these diets.
Energy intake for S1, S2 and C were respectively 11.5 ± 2.2; 13.2 ± 2.6 and 11.9 ± 2.6 MJ, p < 0.05 S2 vs. S1. Percentage of energy intake at different meals were: breakfast (22 ± 5.4; 25 ± 5.7 and 17 ± 5.4; p < 0.001 S1-2 vs. C, and p <0.05 S1 vs. S2); lunch (35 ± 7.0; 28 ± 5.8 and 40 ± 7.6; p < 0.001 S2 vs. C, and p <0.05 S2 vs. S1); dinner (27 ± 7.9; 23 ± 5.7 and 31 ± 6.3; p < 0.001 S2 vs. C, and p <0.05 S2 vs. S1 and S1 vs. C) and snacks (15 ± 8.0; 24 ± 9.4 and 13 ± 7.6; p < 0.001 S1 vs. S2 and S2 vs.C). Percentage of energy from macronutrients in S were (S1-S2): carbohydrates (46%–50%, p < 0.05); protein (16%–15%); fat (37%–36%). Micronutrient intake was suboptimal (according to DRI's) for folate, vitamin D and magnesium in all groups; and for vitamin A in S.
Energy intake is similar (S1) or slightly higher (S2) than current recommendations (RDA 89). Carbohydrate intake is suboptimal (less than 6 g/kg bw) for successful performance. Lower caloric values found in S1 might be related to underreporting of snack consumption (mainly at night), although no differences were found in the 6 S evaluated twice. Moreover, S2 higher energy intake values did not correct for micronutrient deficiencies, partly attributed to a low vegetable intake (less than one serving per day).
©2003The American College of Sports Medicine
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