Skip Navigation LinksHome > January 1998 - Volume 30 - Issue 1 > Quantification of anaerobic energy production during intense...
Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise:
Basic Sciences: Symposium: New insights into the control of human muscle blood flow and metabolism in vivo Recent Advances

Quantification of anaerobic energy production during intense exercise

BANGSBO, JENS

Section Editor(s): Richardson, Russell S. Chair

Free Access
Article Outline
Collapse Box

Author Information

Copenhagen Muscle Research Centre, August Krogh Institute, University of Copenhagen, DENMARK

Submitted for publication March 1997.

Accepted for publication April 1997.

Collapse Box

Abstract

Anaerobic energy production during supramaximal exercise has been estimated from muscle metabolic changes. Based on such measurements the anaerobic energy production was determined to be 63 and 189 mmol ATP·kg-1 d.w. for 60 and 142 s of exhaustive cycling exercise, respectively. These estimations do not, however, include release of lactate from the exercising muscles. Furthermore, the anaerobic production cannot be related to the work performed since the muscle biopsy sample may not be representative for the muscles involved in the exercise, and the total anaerobic energy production during whole body exercise cannot be determined because the mass of the muscles used is unknown. When a single muscle is exercised, the problems are minimized. With a one-legged knee-extensor exercise model, which uses a defined muscle mass, the anaerobic energy production has been estimated to be 370 mmol ATP·kg-1 d.w. for a 192-s exhaustive exercise period. Estimated pulmonary oxygen deficit based on an energy demand extrapolated from a linear relationship between exercise intensity and oxygen uptake at submaximal exercise does not appear to represent the anaerobic energy production during whole body exercise.

Since Berzelius in 1841 (5) wrote to Lehman,“Dass ein muskel desto mehr Milchsaure enthalt, je mehr er vorher angestrengt worden is,” there has been great interest in the anaerobic energy system of the muscle. In the early 20th century, several researchers were dealing with the quantification of the anaerobic energy production. The terms “alactacid” and “lactacid anaerobic energy output” were coined (18). The energy of the alactacid was derived from the fast splitting of ATP (adenosine triphosphate) and creatine phosphate (CP) stored in the muscle and the lactacid part from glycolysis ending up with lactate formation. On the basis of these concepts and blood lactate determinations, anaerobic energy production during exercise was estimated in man (8,19). However, in 1937 Sacks and Sacks (23) were aware that it was difficult to conclude anything about muscle lactate formation from blood lactate data. The introduction of the needle biopsy technique (4) made it possible to determine local changes in the concentrations of certain metabolites such as lactate, ATP, and CP. This methodology has been used frequently, and in this brief review it will be considered to what extent such determinations of metabolites can be used to determine the anaerobic energy production. Since the oxygen deficit methodology is frequently used, how well the oxygen deficit expresses the anaerobic energy turnover will also be discussed. The review will deal with only human studies and will focus on the anaerobic energy turnover during supramaximally exercise intensities.

Back to Top | Article Outline

DIRECT DETERMINATIONS OF ANAEROBIC ENERGY PRODUCTION

To quantify the anaerobic energy production during intense dynamic exercise, muscle biopsies have been obtained before and after muscle contractions. Based on the decrease in muscle CP and ATP, as well as accumulation of metabolites like pyruvate and lactate, the anaerobic energy production of the biopsied muscle has been determined. Boobis(6) found that the anaerobic energy production during 6 and 30 s of maximal cycling was 63 and 189 mmol ATP·kg-1 d.w., respectively, of which glycolysis was estimated to contribute 53 and 64%, respectively. For exhaustive exercise bouts lasting 2-3 min Karlsson and Saltin (15) and Medbø and Tabata(21) estimated the anaerobic energy production to be 172 and 234 mmol ATP·kg-1 d.w., respectively. Similar values have been obtained in studies involving running and maximal isokinetic muscle contractions (Table 1).

Table 1
Table 1
Image Tools

From measurements on a muscle biopsy it is difficult to determine the total anaerobic energy turnover during whole body exercise such as cycling, since the mass and the activity of the muscles involved are unknown and the metabolic response of the biopsied muscle may not be representative of all of the muscles included in the exercise.

Another problem in the aforementioned studies is that the energy turnover related to the release of lactate to the blood from the exercising muscles is not taken into account. Therefore, the anaerobic energy production of the biopsied muscle is underestimated. The question is how much. It is difficult to estimate the release of lactate based on accumulation of lactate in the blood during intense exercise since it is unclear how large the dilution volume of lactate is. It may be as low as 80 mL·kg-1 body mass corresponding to blood volume or as high as 400 mL·kg-1 body mass corresponding to the total body fluid (7).Table 2 shows calculations of the total release of lactate based on lactate accumulation in the blood for various exercise durations in the study by Medbø and Tabata (21) with a minimal and maximal dilution volume of 6 and 30 L (body mass of subjects: 75 kg). The estimated energy release related to lactate release ranged between 5 and 38% of the total anaerobic energy production. It should be noted that these calculations underestimate the true release from the active muscles since the metabolization of lactate in various tissues, such as the heart and inactive muscles, during the exercise is not taken into account. Thus, these calculations suggest that the lactate release may represent a substantial anaerobic energy production and cannot be ignored, as is often done.

Table 2
Table 2
Image Tools

One way to determine the release of lactate is to measure the a-vdiff lactate over, and blood flow to, the exercising muscles. From measurements of arterial and femoral venous blood lactate, Katz et al.(16) estimated the mean lactate release to be 7 mmol·min-1 at the end of an intense cycle exercise bout, which can be compared with 15 mmol·min-1 during knee-extensor exercise(14). The difference is partly related to the higher arterial lactate concentrations during whole body exercise compared with knee-extensor exercise (2). In both studies an almost linear relationship between the muscle lactate gradient and lactate release has been observed (Fig. 1). However, the a-vdiff lactate for a given muscle lactate gradient appeared to be lower during cycling than during knee-extensor exercise (Fig. 2). One explanation is that lactate to a significant extent is taken up by inactive and low intensity exercising muscles/muscle fibers in the legs during cycling. Thus, the estimated lactate release, based on measurements of femoral a-vdiff lactate, will markedly underestimate the release from the active muscles during cycling. This problem also exists in the knee-extensor exercise model (see example in Fig. 3), but it is minimized as blood flow from the lower leg is occluded. To evaluate the magnitude of the lactate uptake by the inactive hamstrings and adductor muscles during knee-extensor exercise, femoral venous blood from the contralateral resting leg was collected during intense knee-extensor exercise. At the end of exercise the mean uptake of lactate, in the approximately 7.8 kg of inactive muscles, was 1.0 mmol·min-1 corresponding to an uptake of lactate by the hamstrings and adductor muscles of about 0.4 mmol·min-1 at the end of the knee-extensor exercise. This represents an underestimation of lactate release from the quadriceps muscle of about 3%.

Figure 1-Relationshi...
Figure 1-Relationshi...
Image Tools
Figure 2-Relationshi...
Figure 2-Relationshi...
Image Tools
Figure 3-The figure ...
Figure 3-The figure ...
Image Tools

It appears that it is difficult to quantify the anaerobic energy production during whole body dynamic exercise such as cycling and running. Therefore, we used the knee-extensor model in which the exercise is confined to an isolated muscle, namely, the quadriceps muscle. Subjects performed exhaustive exercise(approximately 3 min) at a work rate corresponding to an energy production of about 130% of peak ˙VO2 for the exercising muscles(1). Leg blood flow was measured and arterial and femoral venous blood samples were collected frequently during the exercise. In addition, a muscle biopsy was taken before and immediately after the exercise. Lactate efflux was estimated to contribute with as much as one-third of the lactate production. The net lactate production by the quadriceps muscle, determined as the total lactate release from the quadriceps muscles (taken into account that lactate is taken up by the hamstrings/adductor muscles) and lactate accumulation, corresponded to an energy production of 280 mmol·kg-1 d.w. With the addition of the energy released from muscle CP breakdown, changes in nucleotides, and accumulation of glycolytic intermediates, the total anaerobic energy production was estimated to be 370 mmol·kg-1 d.w. (Fig. 4). This was slightly higher than the anaerobic ATP provision of about 305 mmol·kg-1 d.w. by a quadriceps muscle after 200 s of intermittent electrical stimulation(24). The difference was probably caused by the occlusion of the circulation in the latter study. The finding that the lactate released to the blood during the one-legged dynamic exercise corresponded to an anaerobic energy production of 90 mmol·kg-1 d.w.(1) supports this concept.

Figure 4-Anaerobic e...
Figure 4-Anaerobic e...
Image Tools

The one-legged knee extensor model seems to allow for reasonably accurate quantification of the anaerobic energy production during dynamic exercise in an isolated muscle. During knee-extensor exercise muscle blood flow is higher and arterial lactate levels are lower than during whole body exercise. However, conditions that are similar to those occurring during whole body exercise can be obtained in the knee-extensor model by combining the one-legged knee-extensor exercise with contralateral leg and upper body exercise.

Back to Top | Article Outline

INDIRECT DETERMINATION OF ANAEROBIC ENERGY PRODUCTION

Since Krogh and Lindhard (17) introduced the oxygen deficit concept in the early part of this century, the oxygen deficit has frequently been used as a determination of the anaerobic energy production. In the one-legged knee-extensor study, the anaerobic energy production determined from changes in metabolites was close to the anaerobic energy production estimated from the leg O2 deficit, which was determined as the difference between estimated energy demand and total leg oxygen uptake(Fig. 4; 1). The close relationship between the two estimations for a single muscle group speaks in favor of using the oxygen deficit also as a measure of the anaerobic energy production during whole body exercise. However, there appear to be some problems.

First, the finding that 14 well-trained runners had a higher oxygen uptake at high submaximal running speeds than the energy demand estimated from a linear relationship between oxygen uptake and lower speeds indicates that the relationship is not linear from low to high submaximal speeds(Fig. 5; 3). Thus, the energy demand during supramaximal intensities may be underestimated when extrapolated from a linear relationship between oxygen uptake and submaximal speeds. This means that the higher the intensity chosen for the supramaximal exercise the more pronounced the underestimation of the true oxygen deficit.

Figure 5-Relationshi...
Figure 5-Relationshi...
Image Tools

Second, it has been observed that the oxygen uptake progressively increases as exercise at high submaximal speeds is continued. Consequently, the relationship between oxygen uptake and speed is dependent upon when the oxygen uptake measurements are performed during the submaximal exercises. As an example, Figure 6 shows the estimated energy demands during the supramaximal exercise when oxygen uptake was measured after 4-6 min or after 8-10 min of each submaximal running bout. The estimated oxygen deficit was 33% higher when the longer exercise periods were used.

Figure 6-Individual ...
Figure 6-Individual ...
Image Tools

Third, the anaerobic energy production during submaximal exercise is not taken into account in the calculation of the energy demand during supramaximal exercise. It is well known that blood lactate is elevated during high intensity submaximal exercise, reflecting lactate production in the exercising muscles and thus representing an anaerobic energy production. The energy production related to lactate production has been estimated to be at least 10% of the aerobic energy production at high intensity submaximal exercise(1).

These findings seem to suggest that the energy demand during supramaximal exercise cannot be estimated from a linear extrapolation from submaximally measurements. Nevertheless, the oxygen deficit method is frequently used, and it has been claimed that the oxygen deficit provides an accurate measure of the anaerobic energy production.

Medbø and Tabata (21) found a high correlation between the oxygen deficit and the anaerobic energy production determined from muscle metabolic measurements assuming that the mass of active muscle corresponded to 25% of body mass and that the metabolic response in the biopsied muscle was representative for all active muscles(Fig. 7). The high correlation between the two determinations is not surprising since subjects performed both exercise of short (30 s) and long (2-3 min) duration. The short exercise bouts give both a very high rate of anaerobic energy turnover and a high oxygen deficit per time unit since both determinations are related to the oxygen uptake, which is limited in the initial phase of exercise. Similarly, when longer exercise times are used, both the metabolically determined rate of anaerobic energy turnover and the oxygen deficit per time unit is low because of a more pronounced oxygen uptake than during the shorter exercise bouts. Therefore, the high correlation does not provide evidence that the oxygen deficit expresses the anaerobic energy production during whole body exercise. On the other hand, several findings in the study by Medbø and Tabata(21) suggest that the oxygen deficit cannot be used to quantify the anaerobic energy turnover. There was a lack of correlation between oxygen deficit and the metabolically determined anaerobic energy production for each exercise duration (Fig. 7). Furthermore, for the same anaerobic energy production (x-axis) an almost twofold difference in oxygen deficit was observed (see values in circles inFig. 7). In addition, the release of lactate to the blood was not taken into account in the study by Medbø and Tabata (1993). Thus, the estimated metabolic anaerobic energy production (x-axis) was underestimated and probably more so with longer exercise periods.

Figure 7-Individual ...
Figure 7-Individual ...
Image Tools

It would be nice if a simple measure such as the oxygen deficit could be used to determine the anaerobic energy production during intense exercise. Unfortunately, it appears that the energy provided from anaerobic sources during intense whole body exercise cannot be quantified from oxygen deficit determinations when energy demand during supramaximal exercise is estimated from a linear relationship between work intensity and energy production during submaximal exercise. Clearly, further studies are needed to examine what the energy demand during intense exercise is.

Back to Top | Article Outline

SUMMARY

Several problems arise when the total anaerobic energy production during intense whole body exercise, such as cycling and running, is estimated from measurements in biopsies obtained before and after the exercise. By using a model in which a single muscle is exercising and the mass of active muscles can be quantified, such as the knee-extensor exercise model, the problems are minimized and the anaerobic energy production can be determined more accurately. Estimated pulmonary oxygen deficit that is based on an energy demand extrapolated from a linear relationship between exercise intensity and oxygen uptake at submaximal exercise does not appear to represent the anaerobic energy production during exercise.

The experiments reported in this article were performed in collaboration with B. Saltin, T. Graham, L. Johansen, B. Kiens, and S. Strange. The studies were supported by grants from Team Danmark, the Danish Natural Science Foundation (11-0082), the Danish National Research Foundation (504-14), and Brandts Legat.

Address for correspondence: Jens Bangsbo, The August Krogh Institute, LHF, Universitetsparken 13, DK-2100 Copenhagen Ø, Denmark.

Back to Top | Article Outline

REFERENCES

1. Bangsbo, J., P. D. Gollnick, T. E. Graham, et al. Anaerobic energy production and O2 deficit-debt relationship during exhaustive exercise in humans. J. Physiol. 422:539-559, 1990.

2. Bangsbo, J., L. Johansen, T. Graham, and B. Saltin. Lactate and H+ effluxes from human skeletal muscles during intense, dynamic exercise. J. Physiol. 462:115-133, 1993.

3. Bangsbo J., A. Petersen, and L. Michalsik L. Accumulated O2 deficit during intense exercise and muscle characteristics of elite athletes. Int. J. Sports Med. 14:207-213, 1993.

4. Bergstrom, J. Muscle electrolytes in man. Scand. J. Clin. Lab. Invest. (Suppl.) 68, 1962.

5. Du Bois-Reymond, E. Ueber angeblich saure Reaction des Muskelfleisches. In: Gesammelte Abhandl. zur allg. Muskel-u. Nervenphysik 2-36, 1877.

6. Boobis, L. H., C. Williams, and S. A. Wootton. Human muscle metabolism during brief maximal exercise. J. Physiol. 338:21-22P, 1982.

7. Brooks, G. A. Anaerobic threshold: review of the concept and directions for future research. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. 17:22-31, 1985.

8. Dill, D. B., H. T. Edwards, E. V. Newman, and R. Margaris. Analysis of recovery from anaerobic work. Arbeitsphysiol. 9:299-307, 1936.

9. Cheetham, M. E., L. H. Boobis, S. Brooks, and C. Williams. Human muscle metabolism during sprint running. J. Appl. Physiol. 61:54-60, 1986.

10. Gaitanos, G. C., C. Williams, L. H. Boobis, and S. Brooks. Human muscle metabolism during intermittent maximal exercise.J. Appl. Physiol. 75:712-719, 1993.

11. Jacobs, I., O. Bar-Or, J. Karlsson, et al. Changes in muscle metabolites in females with 30s exhaustive exercise. Med. Sci. Sport 14:457-460, 1982.

12. Jones, N. L., N. McCartney, T. Graham, et al. Muscle performance and metabolism in maximal isokinetic cycling at slow and fast speeds. J. Appl. Physiol. 59:132-136, 1985.

13. Jorfeldt, L., A. Juhlin-Dannfelt, and J. Karlsson. Lactate release in relation to tissue lactate in human skeletal muscle during exercise. J. Appl. Physiol. 44:350-352, 1978.

14. Juel, C., J. Bangsbo, T. Graham, and B. Saltin. Lactate and potassium fluxes from skeletal muscle during intense dynamic knee-extensor exercise in man. Acta Physiol. Scand. 140:147-159, 1990.

15. Karlsson, J. and B. Saltin. Lactate, ATP, and CP in working muscles during exhaustive exercise in man. J. Appl. Physiol. 29:598-602, 1970.

16. Katz, A., S. Broberg, K. Sahlin, and J. Wahren. Muscle ammonia and amino acid metabolism during dynamic exercise in man. Clin. Physiol. 6:365-379, 1986.

17. Krogh, A. and J. Lindhard. The changes in respiration at the transition from work to rest. J. Physiol. 53:431-437, 1920.

18. Lundsgaard, E. Betydningen af faenomenet maelkesyrefrie muskelkontraktoner for opfattelsen af muskelkontraktioners kemi. Danske Hospitalstidende 75:84-95, 1932.

19. Margaria, R., H. T. Edwards, and D. B. Dill. The possible mechanisms of contracting and paying the oxygen debt and the role of lactic acid in muscular contraction. Am. J. Physiol. 106:689-715, 1933.

20. McCartney, N., L. L. Spriet, J. F. Heigenhauser, J. M. Kowalchuk, J. R. Sutton, and N. L. Jones. Muscle power and metabolism in maximal intermittent exercise. J. Appl. Physiol. 60:1164-1169, 1986.

21. Medbø, J. I. and I. Tabata. Anaerobic energy release in working muscle during 30 s to 3 min of exhausting bicycling,J. Appl. Physiol. 74:1654-1660, 1993.

22. Nevill, M. E., L. H. Boobis, S. Brooks, and C. Williams. Effect of training on muscle metabolism during treadmill sprinting. J. Appl. Physiol. 67:2376-2382, 1989.

23. Sacks, J. and W. C. Sacks. Blood and muscle lactic acid in the steady state. Am. J. Physiol. 118:697-702, 1937.

24. Spriet, L. L., K. Söderlund, M. Bergström, and E. Hultman. Anaerobic energy release in skeletal muscle during electrical stimulation in men. J. Appl. Physiol. 62:611-615, 1987.

Back to Top | Article Outline
Section Description

BASIC SCIENCES

Symposium: New Insights into the Control of Human Muscle Blood Flow and Metabolism Studied in Vivo

Cited By:

This article has been cited 44 time(s).

Sports Medicine
High-Intensity Interval Training, Solutions to the Programming Puzzle
Buchheit, M; Laursen, PB
Sports Medicine, 43(): 927-954.
10.1007/s40279-013-0066-5
CrossRef
Somatosensory and Motor Research
Brainstem excitability is not influenced by blood lactate levels
Coco, M; Alagona, G; Perciavalle, V; Rapisarda, G; Costanzo, E; Perciavalle, V
Somatosensory and Motor Research, 30(2): 90-95.
10.3109/08990220.2013.769949
CrossRef
Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
Lactate accumulation in response to supramaximal exercise in rowers
Maciejewski, H; Bourdin, M; Lacour, JR; Denis, C; Moyen, B; Messonnier, L
Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports, 23(5): 585-592.
10.1111/j.1600-0838.2011.01423.x
CrossRef
Theoretical Biology and Medical Modelling
On the kinetics of anaerobic power
Moxnes, JF; Hausken, K; Sandbakk, O
Theoretical Biology and Medical Modelling, 9(): -.
ARTN 29
CrossRef
Sports Medicine
Energy system interaction and relative contribution during maximal exercise
Gastin, PB
Sports Medicine, 31(): 725-741.

International Journal of Sports Medicine
Accumulated oxygen deficit during ramp exercise
Pouilly, JP; Busso, T
International Journal of Sports Medicine, 29(1): 16-20.

Science & Sports
An extended model of power-exhaustion time to estimate aerobic and anaerobic energy production during intense exercise
Busso, T; Chatagnon, M
Science & Sports, 23(5): 239-243.
10.1016/j.scispo.2007.06.009
CrossRef
European Journal of Applied Physiology
Oxygenation trends in vastus lateralis muscle during incremental and intense anaerobic cycle exercise in young men and women
Bhambhani, Y; Maikala, R; Esmail, S
European Journal of Applied Physiology, 84(6): 547-556.

European Journal of Applied Physiology
Modelling of aerobic and anaerobic energy production during exhaustive exercise on a cycle ergometer
Chatagnon, M; Busso, T
European Journal of Applied Physiology, 97(6): 755-760.
10.1007/s00421-006-0236-3
CrossRef
Journal of Physiology-London
The cardiovascular challenge of exercising in the heat
Gonzalez-Alonso, J; Crandall, CG; Johnson, JA
Journal of Physiology-London, 586(1): 45-53.
10.1113/jphysiol.2007.142158
CrossRef
Somatosensory and Motor Research
Elevated blood lactate is associated with increased motor cortex excitability
Coco, M; Alagona, G; Rapisarda, G; Costanzo, E; Calogero, RA; Perciavalle, V; Perciavalle, V
Somatosensory and Motor Research, 27(1): 1-8.
10.3109/08990220903471765
CrossRef
International Journal of Sports Medicine
Effect of competitive distance on energy expenditure during simulated competition
Foster, C; DeKoning, JJ; Hettinga, F; Lampen, J; Dodge, C; Bobbert, M; Porcari, JP
International Journal of Sports Medicine, 25(3): 198-204.
10.1055/s-2003-45260
CrossRef
European Journal of Applied Physiology
Comparison between maximal power in the power-endurance relationship and maximal instantaneous power
Chatagnon, M; Pouilly, JP; Thomas, V; Busso, T
European Journal of Applied Physiology, 94(): 711-717.
10.1007/s00421-004-1287-y
CrossRef
Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
Recovery of power output and heart rate kinetics during repeated bouts of rowing exercise with different rest intervals
Mavrommataki, E; Bogdanis, GC; Kaloupsis, S; Maridaki, M
Journal of Sports Science and Medicine, 5(1): 115-122.

Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
Modeling and analysis of the effect of training on (V) over dot O-2 kinetics and anaerobic capacity
Stirling, JR; Zakynthinaki, MS; Billat, V
Bulletin of Mathematical Biology, 70(5): 1348-1370.
10.1007/s11538-008-9302-9
CrossRef
Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
Influence of pacing strategy on O-2 uptake and exercise tolerance
Jones, AM; Wilkerson, DP; Vanhatalo, A; Burnley, M
Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports, 18(5): 615-626.
10.1111/j.1600-0838.2007.00725.x
CrossRef
International Journal of Sports Medicine
Maximal accumulated oxygen deficit and blood responses of ammonia, lactate and pH after anaerobic test: a comparison between international and national elite karate athletes
Ravier, G; Dugue, B; Grappe, F; Rouillon, JD
International Journal of Sports Medicine, 27(): 810-817.
10.1055/s-2005-872965
CrossRef
Journal of Sports Sciences
History of developments in sport and exercise physiology: A. V. Hill, maximal oxygen uptake, and oxygen debt
Hale, T
Journal of Sports Sciences, 26(4): 365-400.
10.1080/02640410701701016
CrossRef
Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
Impressive anaerobic adaptations in elite karate athletes due to few intensive intermittent sessions added to regular karate training
Ravier, G; Dugue, B; Grappe, F; Rouillon, JD
Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports, 19(5): 687-694.
10.1111/j.1600-0838.2008.00807.x
CrossRef
Journal of Physiology-London
ATP and heat production in human skeletal muscle during dynamic exercise: higher efficiency of anaerobic than aerobic ATP resynthesis
Krustrup, P; Ferguson, RA; Kjaer, M; Bangsbo, J
Journal of Physiology-London, 549(1): 255-269.
10.1113/jphysiol.2002.035089
CrossRef
Sports Medicine
Endurance and strength training for soccer players - Physiological considerations
Hoff, J; Helgerud, J
Sports Medicine, 34(3): 165-180.

American Journal of Physiology-Regulatory Integrative and Comparative Physiology
Energetics of high-speed running: integrating classical theory and contemporary observations
Weyand, PG; Bundle, MW
American Journal of Physiology-Regulatory Integrative and Comparative Physiology, 288(4): R956-R965.
10.1152/ajpregu.00628.2004
CrossRef
Sports Exercise and Injury
The physiological profile of soccer players
Bangsbo, J
Sports Exercise and Injury, 4(4): 144-150.

American Journal of Physiology-Endocrinology and Metabolism
ATP production and efficiency of human skeletal muscle during intense exercise: effect of previous exercise
Bangsbo, J; Krustrup, P; Gonzalez-Alonso, J; Saltin, B
American Journal of Physiology-Endocrinology and Metabolism, 280(6): E956-E964.

Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Aerobic and anaerobic energy conversion during high-intensity exercise
Ward-Smith, AJ
Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 31(): 1855-1860.

Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
Effect of training on accumulated oxygen deficit and shuttle run performance
Ramsbottom, R; Nevill, AM; Seager, RD; Hazeldine, R
Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness, 41(3): 281-290.

American Journal of Physiology-Regulatory Integrative and Comparative Physiology
Biochemistry of exercise-induced metabolic acidosis
Robergs, RA; Ghiasvand, F; Parker, D
American Journal of Physiology-Regulatory Integrative and Comparative Physiology, 287(3): R502-R516.
10.1152/ajpregu.00114.2004
CrossRef
European Journal of Applied Physiology
Validity of the two-parameter model in estimating the anaerobic work capacity
Dekerle, J; Brickley, G; Hammond, AJP; Pringle, JSM; Carter, H
European Journal of Applied Physiology, 96(3): 257-264.
10.1007/s00421-005-0074-8
CrossRef
American Journal of Physiology-Regulatory Integrative and Comparative Physiology
A metabolic basis for impaired muscle force production and neuromuscular compensation during sprint cycling
Bundle, MW; Ernst, CL; Bellizzi, MJ; Wright, S; Weyand, PG
American Journal of Physiology-Regulatory Integrative and Comparative Physiology, 291(5): R1457-R1464.
10.1152/ajpregu.00108.2006
CrossRef
Journal of Applied Physiology
The fastest runner on artificial legs: different limbs, similar function?
Weyand, PG; Bundle, MW; McGowan, CP; Grabowski, A; Brown, MB; Kram, R; Herr, H
Journal of Applied Physiology, 107(3): 903-911.
10.1152/japplphysiol.00174.2009
CrossRef
Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
The relative contributions of anaerobic and aerobic energy supply during track 100-, 400- and 800-m performance
Nevill, AM; Ramsbottom, R; Nevill, ME; Newport, S; Williams, C
Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness, 48(2): 138-142.

Journal of Sports Sciences
Energy conversion rates during sprinting with an emphasis on the performance of female athletes
Ward-Smith, AJ; Radford, PF
Journal of Sports Sciences, 18(): 835-843.

European Journal of Applied Physiology
Supra-maximal cycling efficiency assessed in humans by using a new protocol
Mourot, L; Hintzy, F; Messonier, L; Zameziati, K; Belli, A
European Journal of Applied Physiology, 93(3): 325-332.
10.1007/s00421-004-1179-1
CrossRef
American Journal of Physiology-Regulatory Integrative and Comparative Physiology
Sprint performance-duration relationships are set by the fractional duration of external force application
Weyand, PG; Lin, JE; Bundle, MW
American Journal of Physiology-Regulatory Integrative and Comparative Physiology, 290(3): R758-R765.
10.1152/ajpregu.00562.2005
CrossRef
Pflugers Archiv-European Journal of Physiology
The slow component of oxygen uptake during intense, sub-maximal exercise in man is associated with additional fibre recruitment
Krustrup, P; Soderlund, K; Mohr, M; Bangsbo, J
Pflugers Archiv-European Journal of Physiology, 447(6): 855-866.
10.1007/s00424-003-1203-z
CrossRef
European Journal of Applied Physiology
Modelling of aerobic and anaerobic energy production in middle-distance running
Busso, T; Chatagnon, M
European Journal of Applied Physiology, 97(6): 745-754.
10.1007/s00421-006-0235-4
CrossRef
Journal of Sports Sciences
Reproducibility of the maximum accumulated oxygen deficit and run time to exhaustion during short-distance running
Doherty, M; Smith, PM; Schroder, K
Journal of Sports Sciences, 18(5): 331-338.

Journal of Physiology-London
Inadequate heat release from the human brain during prolonged exercise with hyperthermia
Nybo, L; Secher, NH; Nielsen, B
Journal of Physiology-London, 545(2): 697-704.
10.1113/jphysiol.2002.030023
CrossRef
Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
A model of oxygen uptake kinetics in response to exercise: Including a means of calculating oxygen demand/deficit/debt
Stirling, JR; Zakynthinaki, MS; Saltin, B
Bulletin of Mathematical Biology, 67(5): 989-1015.
10.1016/j.bulm.2004.12.005
CrossRef
Journal of Applied Physiology
Effects of prior exercise on muscle metabolism during sprint exercise in horses
McCutcheon, LJ; Geor, RJ; Hinchcliff, KW
Journal of Applied Physiology, 87(5): 1914-1922.

Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
Development of an anaerobic capacity test for field sport athletes
Moore, A; Murphy, A
Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 6(3): 275-284.

Journal of Sports Sciences
Effects of starting strategy on 5-min cycling time-trial performance
Aisbett, B; Le Rossignol, P; McConell, GK; Abbiss, CR; Snow, R
Journal of Sports Sciences, 27(): 1201-1209.
10.1080/02640410903114372
CrossRef
Journal of Neuroscience Research
Sodium L-lactate differently affects brain-derived neurothrophic factor, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and heat shock protein 70 kDa production in human astrocytes and SH-SY5Y cultures
Coco, M; Caggia, S; Musumeci, G; Perciavalle, V; Graziano, ACE; Pannuzzo, G; Cardile, V
Journal of Neuroscience Research, 91(2): 313-320.
10.1002/jnr.23154
CrossRef
Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise
Effect of Explosive versus Slow Contractions and Exercise Intensity on Energy Expenditure
MAZZETTI, S; DOUGLASS, M; YOCUM, A; HARBER, M
Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 39(8): 1291-1301.
10.1249/mss.0b013e318058a603
PDF (645) | CrossRef
Back to Top | Article Outline
Keywords:

ANAEROBIC ENERGY; SUPRAMAXIMAL EXERCISE; LACTATE; OXYGEN DEFICIT; CREATINE PHOSPHATE; ADENOSINE BIPHOSPHATE

©1998The American College of Sports Medicine

Login

Article Tools

Images

Share

Search for Similar Articles
You may search for similar articles that contain these same keywords or you may modify the keyword list to augment your search.

Connect With Us