Skip Navigation LinksHome > January 1996 - Volume 28 - Issue 1 > Tracking of physical activity in young children
Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise:
Epidemiology

Tracking of physical activity in young children

PATE, RUSSELL R.; BARANOWSKI, TOM; DOWDA, MARSHA; TROST, STEWART G.

Free Access
Article Outline
Collapse Box

Author Information

Department of Exercise Science, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208; and Department of Behavioral Science, UT-M.D. Anderson Cancer Center Houston, TX 77030

Submitted for publication September 1994.

Accepted for publication April 1995.

The collection of this data was supported with a grant from the National Heart Lung and Blood Institute (HL38131). The authors appreciate the efforts of J. Puhl and K. Greaves for collecting the physical activity data and J. Baranowski for managing the data collection, and C. Spelman for her assistance with preparation of this manuscript.

Address for correspondence: Russell R. Pate, Ph.D., Department of Exercise Science, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208.

Collapse Box

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to determine whether physical activity behavior tracks during early childhood. Forty-seven children (22 males, 25 females) aged 3-4 yr at the beginning of the study were followed over a 3-yr period. Heart rates were measured at least 2 and up to 4 d·yr-1 with a Quantum XL Telemetry heart rate monitor. Physical activity was quantified as the percentage of observed minutes between 3:00 and 6:00 p.m. during which heart rate was 50% or more above individual resting heart rate(PAHR-50 Index). Tracking of physical activity was analyzed using Pearson and Spearman correlations. Yearly PAHR-50 index tertiles were created and examined for percent agreement and Cohen's kappa. Repeated measures ANOVA was used to calculate the intraclass correlation coefficient across the 3 yr of the study. Spearman rank order correlations ranged from 0.57 to 0.66 (P < 0.0001). Percent agreement ranged from 49% to 62%. The intraclass R for the 3 yr was 0.81. It was concluded that physical activity behavior tends to track during early childhood.

It is well understood that certain behaviors observed during adulthood are associated with increased risk of chronic disease morbidity and mortality (4,23). Among these risk factors are cigarette smoking (7), consumption of a high-fat diet(16), and physical inactivity(3,24,27). In recent years, numerous public health initiatives have been directed toward reducing the prevalence of these behaviors among adults (21). However, it is now known that health behavior change programs targeted at adults are expensive and typically show high rates of recidivism(11,14,17). Accordingly, many experts have recommended that primary prevention of chronic disease be pursued through interventions that are directed at children(28,32).

An assumption that underlies health promotion programs in childhood and youth is that behavioral risk factors for chronic disease exhibit stability over time. That is, it has been assumed that children who adopt high risk behaviors tend to maintain those behaviors through childhood and into adulthood. There is evidence that this is the case for cigarette smoking(13,29) and dietary behaviors(6). However, very little is known about the tendency of physical activity to track during childhood. Accordingly, the purpose of this study was to determine whether physical activity behavior tracks during childhood.

Back to Top | Article Outline

METHODS

Subjects

The subjects for this study were 47 children who, at the beginning of the study, were 3-4 yr of age. These children were a subgroup of the participants of one of the eight sites of the Study of Children's Activity and Nutrition(SCAN), a multicenter longitudinal investigation of the development of cardiovascular disease risk factors and related behaviors in children(2). Informed consent was obtained from the guardian of each child and the study was reviewed and approved by the Institutional Review Board of the University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston.

A total of 263 youngsters participated in SCAN at the Galveston site; various techniques were used to recruit participants(15). Families whose immediate members had a history of chronic illness (e.g., hypertension), families without at least one parent residing in the household, and children with a disability that could affect participation (e.g., mental retardation) were excluded to avoid cultural and other differences within this group.

The 47 children, upon whom the analyses presented in this study were based, were those whose physical activity had been observed on a minimum of two (and up to four) occasions from 3:00 to 6:00 p.m. during each of the 3 yr of the study. Table 1 provides descriptive data on the total sample of 263 subjects and on the subgroup included in this study. The subgroup included a somewhat lower proportion of African-American youngsters and a greater fraction of non-Hispanic white youngsters than in the total sample. The physical characteristics and mean resting heart rate of the 263 subjects and the subgroup included in this study are shown inTable 2. Statistical analysis using t-tests revealed no significant differences between the two samples. Thus, the subjects in this study appear to have been representative of the larger group.

Table 1
Table 1
Image Tools
Table 2
Table 2
Image Tools
Back to Top | Article Outline
Design

Families participated in annual summer clinics at which a variety of physiological and self-report measures were collected. Resting heart rates were collected at the first annual summer clinic in 1986. Children were observed for up to 4 d between annual clinics, with an intended approximate 3 months' delay between observation days. Field heart rates for this study were collected from August 1986, through July 1989.

Back to Top | Article Outline
Measures

Resting heart rate was measured using an automatic Dinamap Adult/Pediatric Vital Signs Monitor (Model 845 XT/XT-IEC). All subjects were measured in the early morning, without prior exercise, having fasted overnight, lying at rest for 15 min, and using the right arm. Appropriate cuff size was determined by measuring the circumference of the upper arm at its largest point using a standardized tape measure. Because of normal variability in resting heart rate, five heart rate readings were taken, 1 min apart, and the last four were recorded. The mean of the four values was used in the analyses. For the analyses performed in this study, resting heart rate was calculated as the average of resting heart rates measured during the three clinic visits.

Physical activity was assessed by measuring heart rate using a portable monitor, the Quantum XL Telemetry heart rate monitor, which consists of a transmitter and a receiver. The transmitter (43 g) measures 137 × 30× 12 mm, and was attached to the chest by self-adhering electrodes placed approximately 2 inches below the nipples. Hypoallergenic micropore tape was applied to prevent the electrodes from becoming disconnected. The receiver(47 g, 51 × 45 × 15 mm) is a microcomputer that was programmed to record and store heart rate data once every minute. Leger and Thivierge(20) determined that under laboratory conditions, the Quantum XL was the most accurate and reliable of 13 commercially available portable heart rate monitors and was found by Treiber et al.(30) to be a valid measure of physical activity in field settings.

Heart rate monitors were worn between the approximate hours of 7:00 a.m. and 7:00 p.m. However, for the analyses presented in this study, only the data collected between 3:00 and 6:00 p.m. were used. This time period was selected because it corresponds to the after-school period when children have the most discretion over their level of activity. This was important during the third year of the study, as many of the children were in school for much of the day. On observation days parents were instructed to allow the child to engage in his/her normal activities. All monitoring occurred on Monday through Thursday. Due to some technical difficulties with the heart rate monitors and parents curtailing the measurement sessions, fewer than 180 min of data were obtained from some children. Subjects were excluded if heart rate had been recorded for less than 120 min during this 3-h period. To exclude erroneous data, recorded heart rates less than 55 bpm or greater than 215 bpm were deleted.

Physical activity was quantified as the percentage of observed minutes during which heart rate was 50% or more above individual resting heart rate(PAHR-50 index). For a given year, a child's physical activity was taken as the mean PAHR-50 index for the 2-4 observation days. DuRant et al.(12) recently reported the PAHR-50 index to be a reliable indicator of physical activity in young children. The validity of the PAHR-50 index has not been formally evaluated.

Back to Top | Article Outline
Statistical Analyses

The tendency of physical activity behavior to track across the 3 yr of the study was assessed by calculating Pearson product-moment and Spearman rank order correlation coefficients. Also, yearly PAHR-50 index tertiles were created and examined for percent agreement and Cohen's kappa across years. Repeated measures ANOVA was used to calculate the intraclass correlation coefficient across the 3 yr of data. Significance was set at the 0.05 level.

Back to Top | Article Outline

RESULTS

Means and standard deviations for the PAHR-50 index and the Pearson and Spearman correlation coefficients for each year are shown inTable 3. The mean PAHR-50 index changed little from year to year, ranging from 12 to 15% during all 3 yr. This indicated that in the group as a whole, the overall level of physical activity was relatively constant throughout the study. Repeated-measures ANOVA revealed no significant differences among ethnic or gender groups with respect to mean PAHR-50 values.

Table 3
Table 3
Image Tools

Pearson correlations coefficients for the PAHR-50 index between years ranged from 0.53 to 0.63. The large standard deviations in comparison with the means revealed the data were not normally distributed, suggesting that the Spearman correlation might be more appropriate. Spearman rank order correlations were significant (P <.0001) and ranged from 0.57 to 0.66. This indicated that youngsters generally maintained their ranking with respect to physical activity behavior over the 3-yr study period. Since tracking is often quantified in terms of percentiles, tertiles for the mean PAHR-50 index were constructed and examined for consistency over the 3 yr of the study. Tertile means and standard deviations are shown inTable 4. The intraclass correlation coefficient across the 3 yr of physical activity data was 0.81. This result, along with the percentage of agreement and Cohen's kappa between the yearly tertiles(Table 5) demonstrated that physical activity levels within the group exhibited stability across years and that physical activity tended to track from year to year.

Table 4
Table 4
Image Tools
Table 5
Table 5
Image Tools
Back to Top | Article Outline

DISCUSSION

Previous studies have demonstrated that serum lipids(18,22,33), blood pressure(8,19), body composition (9), and physical fitness (10,26) tend to track during childhood. Importantly, each of these factors is known to be affected by physical activity behavior. The present study is the first to examine the tracking of physical activity behavior per se in young children. Our results provide strong evidence that physical activity behavior tends to track during early childhood and that less active children tend to remain less active than the majority of their peers.

A strength of the present study was our use of heart rate monitoring as an objective measure of physical activity. Importantly, heart rate monitoring avoids problems with recall and subjectivity, and is relatively inexpensive to administer in large-scale studies (25). We consider our use of the PAHR-50 index a further strength, as this measure is specific to more vigorous activity in children, is less likely to be affected by factors such as emotional state and climate, and controls for differences in fitness levels and/or age (12).

In keeping with previous studies, both Pearson and Spearman correlation coefficients were used to assess the extent of tracking. Pearson and Spearman correlations ranged from 0.53 to 0.63 and 0.57 to 0.66, respectively. In absolute terms, these correlations are no more than moderate, however, when compared with other tracking studies of risk factors such as body composition(0.53-0.64)(10), serum lipids(0.38-0.66)(33), and systolic blood pressure(0.25-0.65)(8), it appears that these correlations are typical and supportive of our conclusion that physical activity behavior tends to track during early childhood. In support of our conclusions, Bloom(5) defined a stable characteristic as one that exhibits a correlation of greater than 0.50 for two measures obtained at least 1 yr apart. Furthermore, it is possible that our correlation coefficients underestimated the true level of tracking within the group, given that we used only two to four observations of physical activity per year. A larger number of observations would be expected to produce a more reliable index and higher tracking coefficients.

It is important to note that this study was conducted with several important limitations. Physical activity was measured only in young children, only for 3 yr, with only two to four observations per year. Furthermore, because we chose to examine physical activity between the hours of 3:00 and 6:00 p.m., it is possible that some children may have exhibited different activity patterns at other times during the day. However, within the limitations of the study design, our findings provide support for the hypothesis that physical activity behavior has stability over time. This was evidenced by the 62% agreement for the PAHR-50 index tertiles between year 1 and year 3. Therefore, although we know relatively little about how to promote increased physical activity in children, our results strongly suggest that there is a somewhat stable group of children that should be the focus of such interventions.

The results of this investigation clearly highlight the need for physicians and other primary health care providers to become actively involved in the promotion of physical activity and fitness in children and youth. Given their standing within the community and frequent contact with parents and children, health care professionals are uniquely qualified to deliver a broad range of primary and secondary prevention services designed to reduce the prevalence of negative health behaviors such as inactivity. Along these lines, the American Medical Association recently developed Guidelines for Adolescent Preventive Services (GAPS) (1). This document challenges primary health care providers to make preventive services a greater component of their clinical practice. Specifically, GAPS recommends that physicians regularly counsel adolescents about the benefits of exercise and encourage them to engage in safe exercise on a regular basis (1). Our observation of a relatively stable group of children with low levels of physical activity strongly suggests that these guidelines be extended to include children under the age of 10 yr, and that health care professionals, in coordination with schools and other community organizations, become actively involved in the promotion and assessment of physical activity in young children.

Finally, our conclusion, that physical activity in young children tracks during early childhood, indicates that further research in this area is warranted. Among the key unanswered questions are (a) for how many years is tracking evident? (b) Does physical activity track from childhood to adulthood? (c) What are the genetic, social, and environmental factors that explain the tracking of physical activity behavior? and (d) Does the tracking in physical activity account for the tracking in the physiological risk factors? Furthermore, our conclusion indicates that interventions targeted at promotion of physical activity in low active children are needed and worthy of exploration.

Back to Top | Article Outline

REFERENCES

1. American Medical Association. Guidelines for Adolescent Preventive Services. Chicago: American Medical Association, 1992.

2. Baranowski, T., E. Stone, R. Klesges, et al. Studies of child activity and nutrition (SCAN): longitudinal research on CVD risk factors and CVH behaviors in young children. Cardiovasc. Risk Factors 2:4-16, 1993.

3. Berlin, J. A. and G. A. Colditz. A meta-analysis of physical activity in the prevention of coronary heart disease. Am. J. Epidemiol. 132:612-628, 1990.

4. Blair, S. N., H. W. Kohl, R. S. Paffenbarger, D. G. Clark, K. H. Cooper, and L. W. Gibbons. Physical fitness and all-cause mortality. J.A.M.A. 262:2395-2401, 1989.

5. Bloom, B. S. Stability and Change in Human Characteristics. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1964, pp. 1-16.

6. Burns, T. L., P. P. Moll, and R. M. Lauer. Genetic models of human obesity-family studies. Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. 33:339-343, 1993.

7. Center For Disease Control. Smoking attributable mortality and years of potential life lost-United States, 1988. Morbid. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 40:62-63, 1991.

8. Clarke, W. R., H. G. Schrott, P. E. Leaverton, W. E. Connor, and R. M. Lauer. Tracking of blood lipids and blood pressure in children: the Muscatine study. Circulation 58:626-634, 1978.

9. Clarke, W. R. and R. M. Lauer. Does obesity track into childhood? Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. 33:423-430, 1993.

10. Dennison, B. A., J. H. Straus, E. D. Mellits, and E. Charney. Childhood fitness tests: predictor of adult physical activity levels?Pediatrics 82:324-330, 1988.

11. Dishman, R. K. Exercise Adherence. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics, 1988, pp. 279-396.

12. Durant, R. H., T. Baranowski, H. Davis, et al. Reliability and variability of indicators of heart-rate monitoring in children. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. 25:389-395, 1993.

13. Ershler, J., H. Levanthal, R. Fleming, K. Glynn. The quitting experience for smokers in sixth through twelfth grade. Addict. Behav. 14:365-378, 1989.

14. Haynes, R. B. Compliance with health advice: an overview with special reference to exercise programs. J. Cardiac Rehab. 4:120-123, 1984.

15. Hooks, P. C., Y. Tsong, T. Baranowski, J. Henske, P. R. Nader, and J. S. Levin. Recruitment strategies for multi-ethnic family and community research: a primer and model. Community Fam. Health 11:48-59, 1988.

16. Keys, A. Serum cholesterol response to dietary cholesterol. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 40:351-359, 1984.

17. King, A. C. Community interventions for promotion of physical activity and fitness. Exerc. Sports Sci. Rev. 19:211-259, 1991.

18. Laskarzewski, P., J. A. Morrison, I. De Groot, et al. Lipid and lipoprotein tracking in 108 children over a four-year period.Pediatrics 64:584-591, 1979.

19. Lauer, R. M., A. R. Andersen, R. Beaglehole, and T. L. Burns. Factors related to tracking of blood pressure in children. U.S. National Center for Health Statistics Health Examination Survey Cycles II and III. Hypertension 6:307-314, 1984.

20. Leger, L. and M. Thivierge. Heart rate monitors: validity, stability, and functionality. Physician Sportsmed. 116:143-151, 1988.

21. McGinnis, J. M. The public burden of sedentary lifestyles. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. 24(Suppl.):S196-S200, 1992.

22. Orchard, T. J., R. P. Donahue, L. H. Kuller, et al. Cholesterol screening in childhood: does it predict adult hypercholesterolemia? The Beaver County experience. J. Pediatr. 103:687-691, 1983.

23. Paffenbarger, R. S., R. T. Hyde, A. L. Wing, and C.-C. Hsieh. Physical activity, all-cause mortality and longevity of college alumni.N. Engl. J. Med. 314:605-613, 1986.

24. Paffenbarger, R. S., R. T. Hyde, and A. L. Wing. Physical activity and physical fitness as determinants of health and longevity. In: Exercise, Fitness, and Health. C. Bouchard, R. J. Shephard, T. Stephens, J. R. Sutton, and B. D. McPherson (Eds.). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics, 1990, pp. 33-48.

25. Pate, R. R. Physical activity assessment in children and adolescents. Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. 33:321-326, 1993.

26. Powell, K. E. and W. Dysinger. Childhood participation in organized school sports and physical education as precursors of adult physical activity. Am. J. Prev. Med. 3:276-281, 1987.

27. Powell, K. E., P. D. Thompson, C. J. Caspersen, and J. S. Kendrick. Physical activity and the incidence of coronary heart disease.Annu. Rev. Public Health 8:253-287, 1987.

28. Simons-Morton, B. G., N. M. O'Hara, D. G. Simons-Morton, and G. S. Parcel. Children and fitness: a public health perspective. Res. Q. Exerc. Sport 58:295-303, 1987.

29. Taoli, E. and E. L. Wynder. Effect of the age at which smoking begins on frequency of smoking in adulthood. N. Engl. J. Med. 325:968-969, 1991.

30. Treiber, F. A., L. Musante, S. Hartdagan, H. Davis, M. Levy, and W. B. Strong. Validation of a heart rate monitor with children in laboratory and field settings. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. 21:338-342, 1989.

31. U.S. Department Of Health And Human Services.Surgeon General's Report on Nutrition and Health. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 1988, pp. 83-135.

32. U.S. Department Of Health And Human Services.Healthy People 2000: National Health and Disease Prevention Objectives (full report, with commentary). Washington, DC: Department of Health and Human Services. Publication 91:50212, 1991, pp. 91-125.

33. Webber, L. S., S. R. Srinivasan, W. A. Wattigney, and G. S. Berensen. Tracking of serum lipids and lipoproteins from childhood to adulthood. Am. J. Epidemiol. 133:884-899, 1991.

EXERCISE; HEART RATE MONITORING; HEALTH; RISK FACTORS

Cited By:

This article has been cited 112 time(s).

Pediatric Exercise Science
Physical activity during school recess: The Liverpool Sporting Playgrounds Project
Ridgers, ND; Stratton, G
Pediatric Exercise Science, 17(3): 281-290.

European Journal of Applied Physiology
Heart rate as an indicator of the intensity of physical activity in human adolescents
Ekelund, U; Poortvliet, E; Yngve, A; Hurtig-Wennlov, A; Nilsson, A; Sjostrom, M
European Journal of Applied Physiology, 85(): 244-249.

Journal of Pediatric Psychology
Opportunities and challenges in the prevention and control of cancer and other chronic diseases: Children's diet. and nutrition and weight and physical activity
Tercyak, KP; Tyc, VL
Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 31(8): 750-763.
10.1093/jpepsy/jsj126
CrossRef
Applied Physiology Nutrition and Metabolism-Physiologie Appliquee Nutrition Et Metabolisme
Physical activity for preschool children - How much and how?
Timmons, BW; Naylor, PJ; Pfeiffer, KA
Applied Physiology Nutrition and Metabolism-Physiologie Appliquee Nutrition Et Metabolisme, 32(): S122-S134.
10.1139/H07-112
CrossRef
Health Education Research
A qualitative examination of perceived barriers and facilitators of physical activity for urban and rural youth
Moore, JB; Jilcott, SB; Shores, KA; Evenson, KR; Brownson, RC; Novick, LF
Health Education Research, 25(2): 355-367.
10.1093/her/cyq004
CrossRef
Osteoporosis International
Influence of activity level on patellar ultrasound transmission velocity in children
Lappe, JM; Recker, RR; Weidenbusch, D
Osteoporosis International, 8(1): 39-46.

Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
Adherence to physical activity and electronic media guidelines in Australian pre-school children
Okely, AD; Trost, SG; Steele, JR; Cliff, DP; Mickle, K
Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health, 45(): 5-8.
10.1111/j.1440-1754.2008.01445.x
CrossRef
Pediatric Exercise Science
Is physical activity belated to body size, fundamental motor skills, and CHD risk factors in early childhood?
Saakslahti, A; Numminen, P; Niinikoski, H; Rask-Nissila, L; Viikari, J; Tuominen, J; Valimaki, I
Pediatric Exercise Science, 11(4): 327-340.

Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
Physical activity as a preventive measure for coronary heart disease risk factors in early childhood
Saakslahti, A; Numminen, P; Varstala, V; Helenius, H; Tammi, A; Viikari, J; Valimaki, I
Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports, 14(3): 143-149.
10.1046/j.1600-0838.2003.00347.x
CrossRef
American Journal of Preventive Medicine
Tracking of activity and sedentary behaviors in childhood - The Iowa Bone Development Study
Janz, KF; Burns, TL; Levy, SM
American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 29(3): 171-178.
10.1016/j.amepre.2005.06.001
CrossRef
Sports Medicine
Physical activity levels of children during school playtime
Ridgers, ND; Stratton, G; Fairclough, SJ
Sports Medicine, 36(4): 359-371.

European Physical Education Review
The relationship between situational and contextual self-determined motivation and physical activity intensity as measured by heart rates during ninth grade students' physical education classes
Jaakkola, T; Liukkonen, J; Laakso, T; Ommundsen, Y
European Physical Education Review, 14(1): 13-31.
10.1177/13S6336X07085707
CrossRef
Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Objectively measured physical activity between children with autism spectrum disorders and children without disabilities during inclusive recess settings in Taiwan
Pan, CY
Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 38(7): 1292-1301.
10.1007/s10803-007-0518-6
CrossRef
American Journal of Preventive Medicine
Effects of physical activity interventions in youth - Review and synthesis
Stone, EJ; McKenzie, TL; Welk, GJ; Booth, ML
American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 15(4): 298-315.

Annals of Epidemiology
Prevalence and correlates of physical activity behaviors among elementary schoolchildren in multiethnic, low income, inner-city neighborhoods in Montreal, Canada
O'Loughlin, J; Paradis, G; Kishchuk, N; Barnett, T; Renaud, L
Annals of Epidemiology, 9(7): 397-407.

Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport
Measurement issues in the assessment of physical activity in children
Welk, GJ; Corbin, CB; Dale, D
Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 71(2): S59-S73.

American Journal of Health Promotion
Evaluation of a community-based intervention to promote physical activity in youth: Lessons from active winners
Pate, RR; Saunders, RP; Ward, DS; Felton, G; Trost, SG; Dowda, M
American Journal of Health Promotion, 17(3): 171-182.

Western Journal of Nursing Research
Exercise self-efficacy, enjoyment, and feeling states among adolescents - Response by Robbins, Pis, Pender, Kazanis
[Anon]
Western Journal of Nursing Research, 26(7): 719-721.
10.1177/0193945904267304
CrossRef
Psychology of Sport and Exercise
Predicting attitudes and physical activity in an "at-risk" minority youth sample: A test of self-determination, theory
Vierling, KK; Standage, M; Treasure, DC
Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 8(5): 795-817.
10.1016/j.psychsport.2006.12.006
CrossRef
Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
How active are rural children in Australian physical education?
Barnett, LM; van Beurden, E; Zask, A; Brooks, LO; Dietrich, UC
Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 5(3): 253-265.

British Journal of Nutrition
Body composition and physical activity in New Zealand Maori, Pacific and European children aged 5-14 years
Rush, EC; Plank, LD; Davies, PSW; Watson, P; Wall, CR
British Journal of Nutrition, 90(6): 1133-1139.
10.1079/BJN20031000
CrossRef
Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine
A randomized trial of the effects of reducing television viewing and computer use on body mass index in young children
Epstein, LH; Roemmich, JN; Robinson, JL; Paluch, RA; Winiewicz, DD; Fuerch, JH; Robinson, TN
Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, 162(3): 239-245.

Human Movement Science
Physical fitness and health indices in children, adolescents and adults with high or low motor competence
Cantell, M; Crawford, SG; Doyle-Baker, PK
Human Movement Science, 27(2): 344-362.
10.1016/j.humov.2008.02.007
CrossRef
Australian Occupational Therapy Journal
Exploring the reasons why adolescents participate in physical activity and identifying strategies that facilitate their involvement in such activity
Ketteridge, A; Boshoff, K
Australian Occupational Therapy Journal, 55(4): 273-282.
10.1111/j.1440-1630.2007.00704.x
CrossRef
Pediatric Exercise Science
Effects of a three-year intervention on children's physical activity from age 4 to 7
Saakslahti, A; Numminen, P; Salo, P; Tuominen, J; Helenius, H; Valimaki, I
Pediatric Exercise Science, 16(2): 167-180.

European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Associations between active commuting to school, fat mass and lifestyle factors in adolescents: the Kiel Obesity Prevention Study (KOPS)
Landsberg, B; Plachta-Danielzik, S; Much, D; Johannsen, M; Lange, D; Muller, MJ
European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 62(6): 739-747.
10.1038/sj.ejcn.1602781
CrossRef
Pediatric Exercise Science
The legacy of physical education: Influences on adult lifestyle
Shephard, RJ; Trudeau, F
Pediatric Exercise Science, 12(1): 34-50.

Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport
Understanding physical activity intention in Canadian school children and youth: An application of the theory of planned behavior
Mummery, WK; Spence, JC; Hudec, JC
Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 71(2): 116-124.

Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport
Mastery motivational climate: Influence on physical play and heart rate in African American toddlers
Parish, LE; Rudisill, ME; Onge, PMS
Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 78(3): 171-178.

Pediatric Exercise Science
Relationships Between Fundamental Movement Skills and Objectively Measured Physical Activity in Preschool Children
Cliff, DP; Okely, AD; Smith, LM; McKeen, K
Pediatric Exercise Science, 21(4): 436-449.

Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport
Tracking of physical activity and physical fitness across the lifespan
Malina, RM
Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 67(3): S48-S57.

Pediatrics
Developmental changes in energy expenditure and physical activity in children: Evidence for a decline in physical activity in girls before puberty
Goran, MI; Gover, BA; Nagy, TR; Johnson, RK
Pediatrics, 101(5): 887-891.

American Journal of Preventive Medicine
One- and two-year predictors of decline in physical activity among inner-city schoolchildren
Barnett, TA; O'Loughlin, J; Paradis, G
American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 23(2): 121-128.
PII S0749-3797(02)00464-6
CrossRef
Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport
Physical activity and situational motivation in physical education: Influence of the motivational climate and perceived ability
Parish, LE; Treasure, DC
Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 74(2): 173-182.

European Journal of Pediatrics
Physical activity in relation to overweight and obesity in children and adolescents
Molnar, D; Livingstone, B
European Journal of Pediatrics, 159(): S45-S55.

Ergonomics
Promoting children's physical activity in primary school: an intervention study using playground markings
Stratton, G
Ergonomics, 43(): 1538-1546.

American Journal of Human Biology
Physical activity and fitness: Pathways from childhood to adulthood
Malina, RM
American Journal of Human Biology, 13(2): 162-172.

Quest
School based physical activity in the United Kingdom: Can it create physically active adults?
Daley, AJ
Quest, 54(1): 21-33.

Journal of Exposure Analysis and Environmental Epidemiology
Using human activity data in exposure models: Analysis of discriminating factors
McCurdy, T; Graham, SE
Journal of Exposure Analysis and Environmental Epidemiology, 13(4): 294-317.
10.1038/sj.jea.7500281
CrossRef
Journal of School Health
Exercise level and energy expenditure in the TAKE 10!((R)) in-class physical activity program
Stewart, JA; Dennison, DA; Kohl, HW; Doyle, JA
Journal of School Health, 74(): 397-400.

Journal of Sports Sciences
Physical activity and school recess time: Differences between the sexes and the relationship between children's playground physical activity and habitual physical activity
Mota, J; Silva, P; Santos, MP; Ribeiro, JC; Oliveira, J; Duarte, JA
Journal of Sports Sciences, 23(3): 269-275.
10.1080/02640410410001730124
CrossRef
Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences
Exercise locus of control, behavior, and intention among Mexican American youth
Guinn, B; Vincent, V; Dugas, D; Semper, T; Jorgensen, L; Nelson, L
Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 28(1): 115-126.
10.1177/0739986305283635
CrossRef
Pediatric Exercise Science
Tracking physical activity and sedentary behavior in young children
Kelly, LA; Reilly, JJ; Jackson, DM; Montgomery, C; Grant, S; Paton, JY
Pediatric Exercise Science, 19(1): 51-60.

International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity
Validation of a maternal questionnaire on correlates of physical activity in preschool children
McMinn, AM; van Sluijs, EMF; Harvey, NC; Cooper, C; Inskip, HM; Godfrey, KM; Griffin, SJ
International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 6(): -.
ARTN 81
CrossRef
Biology of Sport
Tracking of physical activity in early adolescence
Raudsepp, L; Pall, P
Biology of Sport, 14(3): 199-203.

International Journal of Sports Medicine
Immune modulation following aerobic exercise in children with cystic fibrosis
Boas, SR; Danduran, MJ; McColley, SA; Beaman, K; O'Gorman, MRG
International Journal of Sports Medicine, 21(4): 294-301.

Annals of Behavioral Medicine
The neighborhood and home environments: Disparate relationships with physical activity and sedentary behaviors in youth
Roemmich, JN; Epstein, LH; Raja, S; Yin, L
Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 33(1): 29-38.

Perceptual and Motor Skills
Relations Among Physical Activity Patterns, Lifestyle Activities, and Fundamental Movement Skills for Finnish Students in Grade 7
Jaakkola, T; Kalaja, S; Liukkonen, J; Jutila, A; Virtanen, P; Watt, A
Perceptual and Motor Skills, 108(1): 97-111.
10.2466/PMS.108.1.97-111
CrossRef
Preventive Medicine
Community interventions to promote proper nutrition and physical activity among youth
Pate, RR; Trost, SG; Mullis, R; Sallis, JF; Wechsler, H; Brown, DR
Preventive Medicine, 31(2): S138-S149.
10.1006/pmed.2000.0632
CrossRef
Pediatric Exercise Science
Anthropometry, fitness and physical activity of urban and rural South Australian children
Dollman, J; Norton, K; Tucker, G
Pediatric Exercise Science, 14(3): 297-312.

Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
How active are we? Levels of routine physical activity in children and adults
Livingstone, MBE; Robson, PJ; Wallace, JMW; McKinley, MC
Proceedings of the Nutrition Society, 62(3): 681-701.
10.1079/PNS2003291
CrossRef
Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Tracking of physical activity and aerobic power from childhood through adolescence
McMurray, RG; Harrell, JS; Bangdiwala, SI; Hu, JH
Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 35(): 1914-1922.
10.1249/01.MSS.0000093612.59984.0E
CrossRef
Journal of the American Dietetic Association
Factors related to adiposity among children aged 3 to 7 years
Robertson, SM; Cullen, KW; Baranowski, J; Baranowski, T; Hu, SH; de Moor, C
Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 99(8): 938-943.

Pediatric Exercise Science
The effects of playground markings on the energy expenditure of 5-7-year-old school children
Stratton, G; Leonard, J
Pediatric Exercise Science, 14(2): 170-180.

Canadian Journal of Public Health-Revue Canadienne De Sante Publique
Smoking, physical activity, and diet in North American youth - Where are we at?
O'Loughlin, JL; Tarasuk, J
Canadian Journal of Public Health-Revue Canadienne De Sante Publique, 94(1): 27-30.

Obesity Research
Objectively measured physical activity in a representative sample of 3-to 4-year-old children
Jackson, DM; Reilly, JJ; Kelly, LA; Montgomery, C; Grant, S; Paton, JY
Obesity Research, 11(3): 420-425.

American Journal of Preventive Medicine
Longitudinal physical activity and sedentary behavior trends - Adolescence to adulthood
Gordon-Larsen, P; Nelson, MC; Popkin, BM
American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 27(4): 277-283.
10.1016/j.amepre.2004.07.006
CrossRef
Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport
2004 C. H. McCloy Research Lecture: Are American children and youth fit? it's time we learned
Morrow, JR
Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 76(4): 377-388.

Archives of Disease in Childhood
Sun exposure and risk of melanoma
Oliveria, SA; Saraiya, M; Geller, AC; Heneghan, MK; Jorgensen, C
Archives of Disease in Childhood, 91(2): 131-138.
10.1136/adc.2005.086918
CrossRef
Health Promotion Journal of Australia
Improving children's physical activity in out-of-school hours care settings
Sangster, J; Eccleston, P; Porter, S
Health Promotion Journal of Australia, 19(1): 16-21.

Journal of School Health
Promoting Physical Activity Among Youth Through Community-Based Prevention Marketing
Bryant, CA; Courtney, AH; McDermott, RJ; Alfonso, ML; Baldwin, JA; Nickelson, J; Brown, KRM; DeBate, RD; Phillips, LM; Thompson, Z; Zhu, YL
Journal of School Health, 80(5): 214-224.

Preventive Medicine
Physical activity and nutrition in children and youth: An overview of obesity prevention
Baranowski, T; Mendlein, J; Resnicow, K; Frank, E; Cullen, KW; Baranowski, J
Preventive Medicine, 31(2): S1-S10.

Journal of School Health
Children's physical activity during recess and outside of school
Beighle, A; Morgan, CF; Le Masurier, G; Pangrazi, RP
Journal of School Health, 76(): 516-520.

Journal of Medical Internet Research
Using internet and mobile phone technology to deliver an automated physical activity program: Randomized controlled trial
Hurling, R; Catt, M; Boni, MD; Fairley, BW; Hurst, T; Murray, P; Richardson, A; Sodhi, JS
Journal of Medical Internet Research, 9(2): -.
ARTN e7
CrossRef
Sports Medicine
Factors affecting levels of physical activity in adults
Seefeldt, V; Malina, RM; Clark, MA
Sports Medicine, 32(3): 143-168.

Health Education & Behavior
Effect of a ban on extracurricular sports activities by secondary school teachers on physical activity levels of adolescents: A multilevel analysis
Pabayo, R; O'Loughlin, J; Gauvin, L; Paradis, G; Gray-Donald, K
Health Education & Behavior, 33(5): 690-702.
10.1177/1090198105285327
CrossRef
International Journal of Obesity
Obesity during growth in Switzerland: role of early socio-cultural factors favouring sedentary activities
Suter, PM; Ruckstuhl, N
International Journal of Obesity, 30(): S4-S10.
10.1038/sj.ijo.0803513
CrossRef
Pediatric Exercise Science
Application of the transtheoretical model of behavior change to preadolescents' physical activity and exercise behavior
Cardinal, BJ; Engels, HJ; Zhu, WM
Pediatric Exercise Science, 10(1): 69-80.

Quest
The youth physical activity promotion model: A conceptual bridge between theory and practice
Welk, GJ
Quest, 51(1): 5-23.

Ethnicity & Disease
TV viewing habits and body mass index among South Carolina head start children
Levin, S; Martin, MW; Riner, WE
Ethnicity & Disease, 14(3): 336-339.

American Journal of Human Biology
Patterns of daily physical activity during school days in children and adolescents
Mota, J; Santos, P; Guerra, S; Ribeiro, JC; Duarte, JA
American Journal of Human Biology, 15(4): 547-553.
10.1002/ajhb.10163
CrossRef
Western Journal of Nursing Research
Exercise self-efficacy, enjoyment, and feeling states among adolescents
Robbins, LB; Pis, MB; Pender, NJ; Kazanis, AS
Western Journal of Nursing Research, 26(7): 699-715.
10.1177/0193945904267300
CrossRef
Early Childhood Research Quarterly
The physical activity levels of preschool-aged children: A systematic review
Tucker, P
Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 23(4): 547-558.
10.1016/j.ecresq.2008.08.005
CrossRef
Preventive Medicine
Transitions out of high school: Time of increased cancer risk?
Baranowski, T; Cullen, KW; BasenEngquist, K; Wetter, DW; Cummings, S; Martineau, DS; Prokhorov, AV; Chorley, J; Beech, B; Hergenroeder, AC
Preventive Medicine, 26(5): 694-703.

Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Resting heart rate definition and its effect on apparent levels of physical activity in young children
Logan, N; Reilly, JJ; Grant, S; Paton, JY
Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 32(1): 162-166.

Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Postexercise immune correlates in children with and without cystic fibrosis
Boas, SR; Danduran, MJ; McBride, AL; McColley, SA; O'Gorman, MRG
Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 32(): 1997-2004.

Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly
Determinants of physical activity in an inclusive setting
Kodish, S; Kulinna, PH; Martin, J; Pangrazi, R; Darst, P
Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly, 23(4): 390-409.

Pediatric Exercise Science
Longitudinal stability of sedentary behaviors and physical activity during early adolescence
Raudsepp, L; Neissaar, I; Kull, M
Pediatric Exercise Science, 20(3): 251-262.

Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
Physical activity in children measured by accelerometry: stability over time
Nyberg, G; Ekelund, U; Marcus, C
Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports, 19(1): 30-35.
10.1111/j.1600-0838.2007.00756.x
CrossRef
Obesity Facts
Tracking of Physical Activity from Childhood to Adulthood: A Review
Telama, R
Obesity Facts, 2(3): 187-195.
10.1159/000222244
CrossRef
Pediatric Exercise Science
Reproducibility and stability of physical activity in children
Raudsepp, L; Pall, P
Pediatric Exercise Science, 10(4): 320-326.

International Journal of Obesity
Role of physical activity in the prevention of obesity in children
Goran, MI; Reynolds, KD; Lindquist, CH
International Journal of Obesity, 23(): S18-S33.

Child Care Health and Development
Associations of lifestyle factors with quality of life (QOL) in Japanese children: a 3-year follow-up of the Toyama Birth Cohort Study
Chen, X; Sekine, M; Hamanishi, S; Yamagami, T; Kagamimori, S
Child Care Health and Development, 31(4): 433-439.

Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Physical activity patterns in youth with autism spectrum disorders
Pan, CY; Frey, GC
Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 36(5): 597-606.
10.1007/s10803-006-0101-6
CrossRef
Obesity
Body mass, DRD4, physical activity, sedentary behavior, and family socioeconomic status: The add health study
Guo, G; North, KE; Gorden-Larsen, P; Bulik, CM; Choi, S
Obesity, 15(5): 1199-1206.

Preventive Medicine
Long-term effects of a playground markings and physical structures on children's recess physical activity levels
Ridgers, ND; Stratton, G; Fairclough, SJ; Twisk, JWR
Preventive Medicine, 44(5): 393-397.
10.1016/j.ypmed.2007.01.009
CrossRef
Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
Tracking of objectively measured physical activity from childhood to adolescence: The European youth heart study
Kristensen, PL; Moller, NC; Korsholm, L; Wedderkopp, N; Andersen, LB; Froberg, K
Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports, 18(2): 171-178.
10.1111/j.1600-0838.2006.00622.x
CrossRef
Pediatric Exercise Science
Tracking of physical activity, physical inactivity, and health-related physical fitness in rural youth
Pate, RR; Trost, SG; Dowda, M; Ott, AE; Ward, DS; Saunders, R; Felton, G
Pediatric Exercise Science, 11(4): 364-376.

Obesity Research
Influence of an interpersonal laboratory stressor on youths' choice to be physically active
Roemmich, JN; Gurgol, CM; Epstein, LH
Obesity Research, 11(9): 1080-1087.

Pediatric Exercise Science
Lessons learned from the Trois-Rivieres physical education study: A retrospective
Shephard, RJ; Trudeau, F
Pediatric Exercise Science, 17(2): 112-123.

Preventive Medicine
The effect of multicolor playground markings on children's physical activity level during recess
Stratton, G; Mullan, E
Preventive Medicine, 41(): 828-833.
10.1016/j.ypmed.2005.07.009
CrossRef
Applied Physiology Nutrition and Metabolism-Physiologie Appliquee Nutrition Et Metabolisme
Prevention of overweight and obesity in children under the age of 6 years
Olstad, DL; McCargar, L
Applied Physiology Nutrition and Metabolism-Physiologie Appliquee Nutrition Et Metabolisme, 34(4): 551-570.
10.1139/H09-016
CrossRef
British Journal of Health Psychology
Applying the Transtheoretical Model of Change to exercise in young Chinese people
Callaghan, P; Eves, FF; Norman, P; Chang, AM; Lung, CY
British Journal of Health Psychology, 7(): 267-282.

Canadian Journal of Applied Physiology-Revue Canadienne De Physiologie Appliquee
Habitual physical activity during development
Gavarry, O; Falgairette, G
Canadian Journal of Applied Physiology-Revue Canadienne De Physiologie Appliquee, 29(2): 201-220.

Journal of School Health
Exploring Effective Strategies for Increasing the Amount of Moderate-to-Vigorous Physical Activity Children Accumulate During Recess: A Quasi-Experimental Intervention Study
Efrat, MW
Journal of School Health, 83(4): 265-272.
10.1111/josh.12026
CrossRef
Kinesiology
Play Area and Physical Activity in Recess in Primary Schools
Escalante, Y; Backx, K; Saavedra, JM; Garcia-Hermoso, A; Dominguez, AM
Kinesiology, 44(2): 123-129.

Sports Medicine
The Effect of School Recess Interventions on Physical Activity A Systematic Review
Parrish, AM; Okely, AD; Stanley, RM; Ridgers, ND
Sports Medicine, 43(4): 287-299.
10.1007/s40279-013-0024-2
CrossRef
Canadian Psychology-Psychologie Canadienne
Promoting Physical Activity in Preschoolers: A Review of the Guidelines, Barriers, and Facilitators for Implementation of Policies and Practices
Tremblay, L; Boudreau-Lariviere, C; Cimon-Lambert, K
Canadian Psychology-Psychologie Canadienne, 53(4): 280-290.
10.1037/a0030210
CrossRef
American Journal of Preventive Medicine
Tracking Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior in Childhood A Systematic Review
Jones, RA; Hinkley, T; Okely, AD; Salmon, J
American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 44(6): 651-658.
10.1016/j.amepre.2013.03.001
CrossRef
5Th International Conference of Intercultural Arts Education 2012: Design Learning
Physical activity and learning environment qualities in Finnish day care
Kyhala, AL; Reunamo, J; Ruismaki, H
5Th International Conference of Intercultural Arts Education 2012: Design Learning, 45(): 247-256.
10.1016/j.sbspro.2012.06.561
CrossRef
Pediatric Exercise Science
Tracking of Accelerometer-Measured Physical Activity in Early Childhood
Edwards, NM; Khoury, PR; Kalkwarf, HJ; Woo, JG; Claytor, RP; Daniels, SR
Pediatric Exercise Science, 25(3): 487-501.

Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise
Daily primary school physical education: effects on physical activity during adult life
TRUDEAU, F; LAURENCELLE, L; TREMBLAY, J; RAJIC, M; SHEPHARD, RJ
Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 31(1): 111-117.

Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise
Longitudinal Study of Physical Activity and Inactivity in Preschoolers: The FLAME Study
Taylor, RW; Murdoch, L; Carter, P; Gerrard, DF; Williams, SM; Taylor, BJ
Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 41(1): 96-102.
10.1249/MSS.0b013e3181849d81
PDF (190) | CrossRef
Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise
Do 9- to 12 yr-old children meet existing physical activity recommendations for health?
SLEAP, M; TOLFREY, K
Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 33(4): 591-596.

PDF (240)
Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise
A review of correlates of physical activity of children and adolescents
SALLIS, JF; PROCHASKA, JJ; TAYLOR, WC
Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 32(5): 963-975.

PDF (106)
Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise
Tracking of physical fitness during adolescence: a panel study in boys
MAIA, JA; LEFEVRE, J; CLAESSENS, A; RENSON, R; VANREUSEL, B; BEUNEN, G
Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 33(5): 765-771.

PDF (97)
Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise
Tracking of health-related fitness components in youth ages 9 to 12
MARSHALL, SJ; SARKIN, JA; SALLIS, JF; McKENZIE, TL
Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 30(6): 910-916.

Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise
Tracking physical fitness and physical activity from childhood to adolescence: the Muscatine study
JANZ, KF; DAWSON, JD; MAHONEY, LT
Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 32(7): 1250-1257.

PDF (85)
Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise
Physical Activity Levels of Children with Intellectual Disabilities during School
PITETTI, KH; BEETS, MW; COMBS, C
Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 41(8): 1580-1586.
10.1249/MSS.0b013e31819d4438
PDF (126) | CrossRef
Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise
Tracking of Physical Activity and Inactivity in Middle School Girls
BAGGETT, CD; STEVENS, J; MCMURRAY, RG; EVENSON, KR; MURRAY, DM; CATELLIER, DJ; HE, K
Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 40(11): 1916-1922.
10.1249/MSS.0b013e318180c390
PDF (136) | CrossRef
Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise
Effects of a Classroom-Based Program on Physical Activity and On-Task Behavior
MAHAR, MT; MURPHY, SK; ROWE, DA; GOLDEN, J; SHIELDS, AT; RAEDEKE, TD
Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 38(12): 2086-2094.
10.1249/01.mss.0000235359.16685.a3
PDF (160) | CrossRef
Nursing Research
Self-Efficacy and Perceived Exertion of Girls During Exercise
Pender, NJ; Bar-Or, O; Wilk, B; Mitchell, S
Nursing Research, 51(2): 86-91.

PDF (1563)
Back to Top | Article Outline

©1996The American College of Sports Medicine

Login

Article Tools

Images

Share

Search for Similar Articles
You may search for similar articles that contain these same keywords or you may modify the keyword list to augment your search.

Connect With Us