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Physical Activity Dimensions Associated with Impaired Glucose Metabolism

AMADID, HANAN1,2; JOHANSEN, NANNA B.3; BJERREGAARD, ANNE-LOUISE2; VISTISEN, DORTE1; FÆRCH, KRISTINE1; BRAGE, SØREN4; LAURITZEN, TORSTEN2; WITTE, DANIEL R.2,5; SANDBÆK, ANNELLI2; JØRGENSEN, MARIT E.1,6

Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise: November 2017 - Volume 49 - Issue 11 - p 2176–2184
doi: 10.1249/MSS.0000000000001362
Epidemiology

Purpose: Physical activity (PA) is important in the prevention of Type 2 diabetes, yet little is known about the role of specific dimensions of PA, including sedentary time in subgroups at risk for impaired glucose metabolism (IGM). We applied a data-driven decision tool to identify dimensions of PA associated with IGM across age, sex, and body mass index (BMI) groups.

Methods: This cross-sectional study included 1501 individuals (mean (SD) age, 65.6 (6.8) yr) at high risk for Type 2 diabetes from the ADDITION-PRO study. PA was measured by an individually calibrated combined accelerometer and heart rate monitor worn for 7 d. PA energy expenditure, time spent in different activity intensities, bout duration, and sedentary time were considered determinants of IGM together with age, sex, and BMI. Decision tree analysis was applied to identify subgroup-specific dimensions of PA associated with IGM. IGM was based on oral glucose tolerance test results and defined as a fasting plasma glucose level of ≥6.1 mmol·L−1 and/or a 2-h plasma glucose level of ≥7.8 mmol·L−1.

Results: Among overweight (BMI ≥25 kg·m−2) men, accumulating less than 30 min·d−1 of moderate-to-vigorous PA was associated with IGM, whereas among overweight women, sedentary time was associated with IGM. Among individuals older than 53 yr with normal weight (BMI <25 kg·m−2), time spent in light PA was associated with IGM. None of the dimensions of PA were associated with IGM among individuals ≤53 yr of age with normal weight.

Conclusions: We identified subgroups in which different activity dimensions were associated with IGM. Methodology and results from this study may suggest a preliminary step toward the goal of tailoring and targeting PA interventions aimed at Type 2 diabetes prevention.

1Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Steno Diabetes Center Copenhagen, Gentofte, DENMARK; 2Department of Public Health, Research Unit and Section of General Practice, University of Aarhus, Aarhus, DENMARK; 3Research Centre for Prevention and Health, Capital Region, Glostrup, DENMARK; 4MRC Epidemiology Unit, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UNITED KINGDOM; 5Danish Diabetes Academy, Odense, Denmark; and 6National Institute of Public Health, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, DENMARK

Address for correspondence: Hanan Amadid, M.D., Ph.D.-fellow, Steno Diabetes Center Copenhagen, Niels Steensens Vej 2-4, 2820 Gentofte, Denmark; E-mail: hanan.amadid.01@regionh.dk.

Submitted for publication January 2017.

Accepted for publication June 2017.

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© 2017 American College of Sports Medicine