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Cardiorespiratory Reference Data in Older Adults: The Generation 100 Study

STENSVOLD, DORTHE1,2; BUCHER SANDBAKK, SILVANA1; VIKEN, HALLGEIR1,2; ZISKO, NINA1; REITLO, LINE SKARSEM1,2; NAUMAN, JAVAID1,2; GAUSTAD, SVEIN ERIK1; HASSEL, ERLEND1,3; MOUFACK, MARCEL2; BRØNSTAD, EIVIND1,3; ASPVIK, NILS PETTER4; MALMO, VEGARD1,2; STEINSHAMN, SIGURD LOE1,3; STØYLEN, ASBJØRN1,2; ANDERSSEN, SIGMUND ALFRED5; HELBOSTAD, JORUNN L.6,7; ROGNMO, ØIVIND1,2; WISLØFF, ULRIK1,8

Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise: November 2017 - Volume 49 - Issue 11 - p 2206–2215
doi: 10.1249/MSS.0000000000001343
Applied Sciences

Purpose: Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is regarded a clinical vital sign, and accurate reference values for all age groups are essential. Little data exist on CRF and cardiorespiratory function in older adults. The aim of this study was to provide normative values for CRF and cardiorespiratory function in older adults, including people with history of cardiovascular diseases (CVD).

Methods: In total, 1537 (769 women) participants age 70 to 77 yr underwent clinical examinations and cardiopulmonary exercise tests. Peak oxygen uptake (V˙O2peak), ventilation (Epeak), expiration of carbon dioxide (VV˙CO2peak), breathing frequency (BFpeak), tidal volume (VTpeak), oxygen pulse (O2 pulsepeak), ventilatory efficiency (EqV˙O2peak and EqV˙CO2peak), and 1-min HR recovery were assessed.

Results: Men compared with women had higher V˙O2peak (31.3 ± 6.7 vs 26.2 ± 5.0 mL·min−1·kg−1), BFpeak (41.8 ± 8.0 vs 39.7 ± 7.1 breaths per minute), VTpeak (2.3 ± 0.5 vs 1.6 ± 0.3), O2 pulsepeak (16.4 ± 3.2 vs 11.3 ± 2.0), V˙CO2peak (2.9 ± 0.2 and 1.9 ± 0.1 L·min−1), Epeak (96.2 ± 21.7 vs 61.1 ± 21.6 L·min−1), EqV˙O2peak (38.0 ± 6.9 vs 35.1 ± 5.6), and EqV˙CO2peak (33.5 ± 5.7 vs 31.9 ± 4.5). Women and men with CVD had lower V˙O2peak (14% and 19%), peak HR (5% and 6%), Epeak (8% and 10%), VTpeak (7% and 4%), and lower EqV˙CO2peak (4% and 6%) compared with their healthy counterparts, respectively. Compared with healthy women and men, 1-min HR recovery was 12% and 16% lower for women and men with CVD.

Conclusions: This study represents the largest reference material on directly measured CRF and cardiorespiratory function in older men and women, with and without CVD. This novel information will help researchers and clinicians to interpret data form cardiopulmonary testing in older adults.

1K.G. Jebsen Center of Exercise in Medicine at Department of Circulation and Medical Imaging, Faculty of Medicine, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, NORWAY; 2Department of Cardiology, St Olavs Hospital, Trondheim University Hospital, Trondheim, NORWAY; 3Department of Thoracic Medicine, Clinic of Thoracic and Occupational Medicine, St Olavs Hospital, Trondheim University Hospital, Trondheim, NORWAY; 4Department of Sociology and Political Science, Faculty of Social Sciences and Technology Management, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, NORWAY; 5Department of Sports Medicine, The Norwegian School of Sport Sciences, Oslo, NORWAY; 6Department of Neuroscience, Faculty of Medicine, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, NORWAY; 7Clinic for Clinical Services, St. Olavs Hospital, Trondheim University Hospital, NORWAY; and 8School of Human Movement & Nutrition Sciences, University of Queensland, Queensland, AUSTRALIA

Address for correspondence: Dorthe Stensvold, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Department of Circulation and Medical Imaging, 7491 Trondheim, Norway; E-mail: dorthe.stensvold@ntnu.no.

Submitted for publication January 2017.

Accepted for publication April 2017.

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© 2017 American College of Sports Medicine