Introduction: Breakfast omission may reduce daily energy intake. Exercising fasted impairs performance compared with exercising after breakfast, but the effect breakfast omission has on evening exercise performance is unknown. This study assessed the effect of omitting breakfast on evening exercise performance and within-day energy intake.
Methods: Ten male, habitual breakfast eaters completed two trials in a randomized, counterbalanced order. Subjects arrived at the laboratory in an overnight-fasted state and either consumed or omitted a 733 ± 46 kcal (3095 ± 195 kJ) breakfast. Ad libitum energy intake was assessed at 4.5 h (lunch) and 11 h (dinner). At 9 h, subjects completed a 30-min cycling exercise at approximately 60% V˙O2peak, followed by a 30-min maximal cycling performance test. Food was not permitted for subjects once they left the laboratory after dinner until 0800 h the following morning. Acylated ghrelin, GLP-1(7–36), glucose, and insulin were assessed at 0, 4.5, and 9 h. Subjective appetite sensations were recorded throughout.
Results: Energy intake was 199 ± 151 kcal greater at lunch (P < 0.01) after breakfast omission compared with that after breakfast consumption and tended to be greater at dinner after consuming breakfast (P = 0.052). Consequently, total ad libitum energy intake was similar between trials (P = 0.196), with 24-h energy intake 19% ± 5% greater after consuming breakfast (P < 0.001). Total work completed during the exercise performance test was 4.5% greater after breakfast (314 ± 53 vs 300 ± 56 kJ; P < 0.05). Insulin was greater during breakfast consumption at 4.5 h (P < 0.05), with no other interaction effect for hormone concentrations.
Conclusions: Breakfast omission might be an effective means of reducing daily energy intake but may impair performance later that day, even after consuming lunch.
School of Sport, Exercise, and Health Sciences, Loughborough University, Loughborough, Leicestershire, UNITED KINGDOM
Address for correspondence: Lewis J. James, Ph.D., School of Sport, Exercise and Health Sciences, Loughborough University, Loughborough, Leicestershire, LE11 3TU, United Kingdom; E-mail: L.James@lboro.ac.uk.
Submitted for publication December 2014.
Accepted for publication April 2015.