Purpose: Chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS) is a prevalent urologic disorder among men, but its etiology is still poorly understood. Our objective was to examine the relation between physical activity and incidence of CP/CPPS in a large cohort of male health professionals.
Methods: We conducted a prospective cohort study among men in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study followed from 1986 to 2008. The study population included 20,918 men who completed all CP/CPPS questions on the 2008 questionnaire. Leisure-time physical activity, including type and intensity of activity, was measured by questionnaire in 1986. A National Institute of Health Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index pain score was calculated on the basis of the responses on the 2008 questionnaire. Participants with pain scores ≥8 were considered CP/CPPS cases (n = 689).
Results: Higher leisure-time physical activity was associated with lower risk of CP/CPPS. The multivariable-adjusted odds ratio comparing >35.0 to ≤3.5 MET·h·wk−1 of physical activity was 0.72 (95% confidence interval, 0.56–0.92; P for trend <0.001). Observed inverse associations between physical activity and CP/CPPS were similar for both moderate- and vigorous-intensity activities. Sedentary behavior, measured as time spent watching television, was not associated with risk of CP/CPPS (P for trend = 0.64).
Conclusions: Findings from this study, the first large scale and most comprehensive study to date on this association, suggest that higher levels of leisure-time physical activity may lower risk of CP/CPPS in middle-age and older men.
1Department of Nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA; 2Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA; 3Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN; 4Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA; 5Department of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA; 6Channing Division of Network Medicine, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women’s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA; and 7Department of Biostatistics, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA
Address for correspondence: Andrea K. Chomistek, Sc.D., Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Indiana University Bloomington, Room C101, 1025 E. 7th Street, Bloomington, IN; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Submitted for publication March 2014.
Accepted for publication August 2014.
Supplemental digital content is available for this article. Direct URL citations appear in the printed text and are provided in the HTML and PDF versions of this article on the journal’s Web site (www.acsm-msse.org).
J. D. D. current address is Department of Nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA.