Cardiac Autonomic Function and High-Intensity Interval Training in Middle-Age Men

KIVINIEMI, ANTTI M.1; TULPPO, MIKKO P.1,2; ESKELINEN, JOONAS J.3; SAVOLAINEN, ANNA M.3; KAPANEN, JUKKA4; HEINONEN, ILKKA H. A.3,5; HUIKURI, HEIKKI V.6; HANNUKAINEN, JARNA C.3; KALLIOKOSKI, KARI K.3

Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise:
doi: 10.1249/MSS.0000000000000307
Applied Sciences
Abstract

Purpose: The effects of short-term high-intensity interval training (HIT) on cardiac autonomic function are unclear. The present study assessed cardiac autonomic adaptations to short-term HIT in comparison with aerobic endurance training (AET).

Methods: Twenty-six healthy middle-age sedentary men were randomized into HIT (n = 13, 4–6 × 30 s of all-out cycling efforts with 4-min recovery) and AET (n = 13, 40–60 min at 60% of peak workload) groups, performing six sessions within 2 wk. The participants underwent a 24-h ECG recording before and after the intervention and, additionally, recorded R-R interval data in supine position (5 min) at home every morning during the intervention. Mean HR and low-frequency (LF) and high-frequency (HF) power of R-R interval oscillation were analyzed from these recordings.

Results: Peak oxygen consumption (V˙O2peak) increased in both groups (P < 0.001). Compared with AET (n = 11), HIT (n = 13) increased 24-h LF power (P = 0.024), tended to increase 24-h HF power (P = 0.068), and increased daytime HF power (P = 0.038). In home-based measurements, supine HF power decreased on the days after HIT (P = 0.006, n = 12) but not AET (P = 0.80, n = 9) session. The acute response of HF power to HIT session did not change during the intervention.

Conclusions: In conclusion, HIT was more effective short-term strategy to increase R-R interval variability than aerobic training, most probably by inducing larger increases in cardiac vagal activity. The acute autonomic responses to the single HIT session were not modified by short-term training.

Author Information

1Department of Exercise and Medical Physiology, Verve Research, Oulu, FINLAND; 2Department of Applied Sciences, London South Bank University, London, UNITED KINGDOM; 3Turku PET Centre, University of Turku and Turku University Hospital, Turku, FINLAND; 4Paavo Nurmi Centre, Turku, FINLAND; 5Research Centre of Applied and Preventive Cardiovascular Medicine, University of Turku, Turku, FINLAND; and 6Institute of Clinical Medicine, University Hospital and University of Oulu, Oulu, FINLAND

Address for correspondence: Antti M. Kiviniemi, Ph.D., Verve, Kasarmintie 13, PO Box 404, FI-90101 Oulu, Finland; E-mail: Antti.Kiviniemi@verve.fi.

J.C.H. and K.K.K. contributed equally to this article.

Submitted for publication October 2013.

Accepted for publication February 2014.

© 2014 American College of Sports Medicine