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00005768-201304000-0002600005768_2013_45_802_krustrup_response_4letter< 36_0_3_0 >Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise©2013The American College of Sports MedicineVolume 45(4)April 2013p 802RESPONSE[SPECIAL COMMUNICATIONS: Letters to the Editor-in-Chief]Krustrup, Peter; Bendiksen, Mads; Bangsbo, JensDepartment of Nutrition, Exercise, and Sports University of Copenhagen Copenhagen, DenmarkSport and Health Sciences College of Life and Environmental Sciences University of Exeter Exeter, Devon, United KingdomDear Editor-in-Chief:We thank Dr. Vescovi for his interest in our newly developed 90-min Copenhagen Soccer Test (CST) and his appreciation of our inclusion of technical elements and soccer-specific movements mimicking the physiological demands of competitive matches for elite male players (2). Our study revealed that the CST is reproducible, allows frequent and rapid physiological measurements, and produces game-like fatigue development, making the CST a valuable tool to investigate factors underlying the physical performance in soccer and the effects of different training, nutritional, and environmental interventions (6). The locomotor activities selected for the CST protocol, based on our motion analysis studies of male soccer players in competitive matches (2), consist of repeated 5-min low-, moderate-, or high-intensity segments with 152-m walking (6 km·h−1), 171-m jogging (8 km·h−1), 69-m low-intensity running (12 km·h−1), 41- to 101-m moderate-intensity running (15 km·h−1), 55- to 120-m high-speed running (18 km·h−1), 30-m backward running (10 km·h−1), 23-m sideway–backward sliding, and 40-m maximal sprinting, with dribbling, passing, and shooting exercises incorporated within each 5-min segment.We agree with Dr. Vescovi that the published protocol has direct application to male players and that the differences in physical capacity and match performance between males and females must be accounted for in applying the CST to female players. A modified version of the test, the Copenhagen Soccer Test for Women (CSTw), has been developed by us for application in elite female soccer players, and we will publish articles documenting the positive results from our validation experiments shortly.The CSTw includes the same movements and technical tests as those in the CST but reduces the sprinting and high-intensity running distances and the total distance covered by 22%, 34%, and 5%, in accordance with the observed differences in the match distance covered between the male and female elite players of approximately 20%, 35%, and 5% (3,5,6). For clarification, all the sprinting activities in CST and CSTw are maximal and not >25 km·h−1 as mentioned by Dr. Vescovi, because the sprints are performed as 2 × 20-m shuttle sprint tests with timing-gate recordings after 5, 15, 25, and 40 m (2).We appreciate Dr. Vescovi’s observation that there are gender differences in physical fitness and speed characteristics; an average elite female player has approximately 10%, 20%, and 15% lower maximal sprinting speed, Yo-Yo intermittent endurance performance, and maximal oxygen uptake, respectively (3–8), which may require additional speed-threshold calculations when analyzing elite female time-motion data. However, identifying whether speed-threshold adjustments should relate to speed at maximal oxygen uptake, speed at exhaustion in intermittent exercise tests, or maximal sprinting speed is not straightforward, and whether speed thresholds should be individualized to account for large between-player variations is also a matter of debate (1). Interestingly, whichever of the given approaches is used, elite females perform less high-intensity running and sprinting than their male counterparts, most likely because of a poorer anaerobic capacity related to genetics and lower training intensity (3,5,7).We look forward to making further constructive contributions to the development of movement analyses and training approaches in elite male and female soccer players.Peter KrustrupDepartment of Nutrition, Exercise, and SportsUniversity of CopenhagenCopenhagen, DenmarkMads BendiksenJens BangsboSport and Health SciencesCollege of Life and Environmental SciencesUniversity of ExeterExeter, Devon, United KingdomREFERENCES1. Abt G, Lovell R. The use of individualized speed and intensity thresholds for determining the distance run at high-intensity in professional soccer. J Sports Sci. 2009; 27 (9): 893–8. [CrossRef] [Medline Link] [Context Link]2. Bendiksen M, Bischoff R, Randers MB, et al.. The Copenhagen Soccer Test: physiological response and fatigue development. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2012; 44 (8): 1595–603. [Context Link]3. Krustrup P, Mohr M, Ellingsgaard H, Bangsbo J. Physical demands during an elite female soccer game: importance of training status. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2005; 37 (7): 1242–8. [CrossRef] [Full Text] [Medline Link] [Context Link]4. Krustrup P, Zebis M, Jensen JM, Mohr M. Game-induced fatigue patterns in elite female soccer. J Strength Cond Res. 2010; 24 (2): 437–41. [Context Link]5. Mohr M, Krustrup P, Andersson H, Kirkendal D, Bangsbo J. Match activities of elite women soccer players at different performance levels. J Strength Cond Res. 2008; 22 (2): 341–9. [CrossRef] [Full Text] [Medline Link] [Context Link]6. Mohr M, Krustrup P, Bangsbo J. Match performance of high-standard soccer players with special reference to development of fatigue. J Sports Sci. 2003; 21 (7): 519–28. [CrossRef] [Medline Link] [Context Link]7. Mujika I, Santisteban J, Impellizzeri FM, Castagna C. Fitness determinants of success in men’s and women’s football. J Sports Sci. 2009; 27 (2): 107–14. [CrossRef] [Medline Link] [Context Link]8. Vescovi JD. Sprint profile of professional women soccer players during competitive matches: Female Athletes in Motion (FAiM) Study. J Sports Sci. 2012; 30 (12): 1259–65. 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