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The Preferred Movement Path Paradigm: Influence of Running Shoes on Joint Movement.

Nigg, Benno M.; Vienneau, Jordyn; Smith, Aimée C.; Trudeau, Matthieu B.; Mohr, Maurice; Nigg, Sandro R.
Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise: Post Acceptance: March 8, 2017
doi: 10.1249/MSS.0000000000001260
Original Investigation: PDF Only

Purpose: (a) to quantify differences in lower extremity joint kinematics for groups of runners subjected to different running footwear conditions, and (b) to quantify differences in lower extremity joint kinematics on an individual basis for runners subjected to different running footwear conditions.

Methods: Three-dimensional ankle and knee joint kinematics were collected for 35 heel-toe runners when wearing three different running shoes and when running barefoot. Absolute mean differences in ankle and knee joint kinematics were computed between running shoe conditions. The percentage of individual runners who displayed differences below a 2[degrees], 3[degrees] and 5[degrees] threshold were also calculated.

Results: The results indicate that the mean kinematics of the ankle and knee joints were similar between running shoe conditions. Aside from ankle dorsi-flexion and knee flexion, the percentage of runners maintaining their movement path between running shoes (i.e. less than 3[degrees]) was in the order of magnitude of about 80 to 100%. Many runners showed ankle and knee joint kinematics that differed between a conventional running shoe and barefoot by more than 3[degrees], especially for ankle dorsiflexion and knee flexion

Conclusion: Many runners stay in the same movement path (the preferred movement path) when running in various different footwear conditions. The percentage of runners maintaining their preferred movement path depends on the magnitude of the change introduced by the footwear condition.

(C) 2017 American College of Sports Medicine