How Reliable Are Lower-Limb Kinematics and Kinetics during a Drop Vertical Jump?

Malfait, Bart1; Sankey, Sean2; Firhad Raja Azidin, Raja M.2; Deschamps, Kevin1; Vanrenterghem, Jos2; Robinson, Mark A.2; Staes, Filip1; Verschueren, Sabine1

Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise:
doi: 10.1249/MSS.0000000000000170
Clinical Sciences

Purpose: As drop vertical jumps (DVJ) are widely used as a screening task, the assessment of the reliability of lower-limb biomechanical parameters during DVJ is important. The aim of this study was to assess the reliability of the kinematic and kinetic peak values as well as of the waveforms for lower-limb parameters obtained with the Liverpool John Moores University biomechanical model (LJMU model) during performance of DVJ.

Methods: The reliability was analyzed by calculating the intertrial (otrial), intersession (osess), and intertherapist (other) errors of hip and knee joint parameters in a repeated-measures design including two therapists and a total of six sessions.

Results: The results showed otrial that ranged from 1.1° to 3.5° for all peak kinematic parameters and from 3.6 to 12.9 N·m for all peak kinetic parameters. The osess of the peak values ranged from1.9° to 5.7° for all angles and from 5.4 to 19.8 N·m for the hip and knee joint moments in all planes. The other of the peak values ranged from 2.7° to 6.4° for all angles and from 5.8 to 22.4 N·m for all moments. Most of the kinematic and kinetic peak parameters had other-trial ≤ 2.0° and 4.3 N·m, respectively, suggesting a small extrinsic variability. Furthermore, the entire waveforms also showed a rather high otrial relative to other types of variability.

Conclusions: The present findings indicated that DVJ kinetics and kinematics show small extrinsic variability. The reported errors are useful for clinical interpretation processes of DVJ performance as screening task for injury risk and rehabilitation outcome taking into consideration the different types of measurement error over time.

Author Information

1Musculoskeletal Rehabilitation Research Group, Faculty of Kinesiology and Rehabilitation Sciences, Department of Rehabilitation Sciences and Physiotherapy, KU Leuven, Leuven, BELGIUM; and 2Research Institute for Sport and Exercise Sciences, Faculty of Science, Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool, UNITED KINGDOM

Address for correspondence: Sabine Verschueren, P.T., Ph.D., Research Centre for Musculoskeletal Rehabilitation, Department of Rehabilitation Sciences, Faculty of Kinesiology and Rehabilitation Sciences, KU Leuven, Tervuursevest 101 bus 1501, 3001 Leuven, Belgium; E-mail:

Submitted for publication April 2013.

Accepted for publication September 2013.

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© 2014 American College of Sports Medicine