Resistance Exercise Increases Endothelial Progenitor Cells and Angiogenic Factors

ROSS, MARK D.1,2; WEKESA, ANTONY L.1; PHELAN, JOHN P.1; HARRISON, MICHAEL1

Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise:
doi: 10.1249/MSS.0b013e3182a142da
Basic Sciences
Abstract

Introduction: Bone marrow-derived endothelial progenitor cells (EPC) are involved in vascular growth and repair. They increase in the circulation after a single bout of aerobic exercise, potentially related to muscle ischemia. Muscular endurance resistance exercise (MERE) bouts also have the potential to induce muscle ischemia if appropriately structured.

Purpose: The objective of this study is to determine the influence of a single bout of MERE on circulating EPC and related angiogenic factors.

Methods: Thirteen trained men age 22.4 ± 0.5 yr (mean ± SEM) performed a bout of MERE consisting of three sets of six exercises at participants’ 15-repetition maximum without resting between repetitions or exercises. The MERE bout duration was 12.1 ± 0.6 min. Blood lactate and HR were 11.9 ± 0.9 mmol·L−1 and 142 ± 5 bpm, respectively, at the end of MERE. Blood was sampled preexercise and at 10 min, 2 h, and 24 h postexercise.

Results: Circulating EPC and serum concentrations of vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGF-A, VEGF-C, and VEGF-D), granulocyte colony stimulating factor, soluble Tie-2, soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1, and matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-1, MMP-2, MMP-3, MMP-9, and MMP-9) were higher (P < 0.05) in the postexercise period. Circulating EPC levels were unchanged at 10 min postexercise but higher at 2 h postexercise (P < 0.05). The concentration of most angiogenic factors and metalloproteinases were higher at 10 min postexercise (VEGF-A, +38%; VEGF-C, +40%; VEGF-D, +9%; soluble Tie-2, +15%; soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1, +24%; MMP-1, +62%; MMP-2, +3%; MMP-3, +54%; and MMP-9, +45%; all P < 0.05). Soluble E-selectin was lower (P < 0.05) at 2 and 24 h postexercise, with endothelial microparticles and thrombomodulin unchanged.

Conclusions: Short intense bouts of MERE can trigger increases in circulating EPC and related angiogenic factors, potentially contributing to vascular adaptation and vasculoprotection.

Author Information

1Department of Health, Sport and Exercise Science, Waterford Institute of Technology, Waterford, IRELAND; and 2School of Life, Sport and Social Sciences, Edinburgh Napier University, Edinburgh, Scotland, UNITED KINGDOM

Address for correspondence: Michael Harrison, Ph.D., Department of Health, Sport and Exercise Science, Waterford Institute of Technology, Cork Road, Waterford, Ireland; E-mail: mharrison@wit.ie.

Submitted for publication March 2013.

Accepted for publication June 2013.

© 2014 American College of Sports Medicine