Skip Navigation LinksHome > January 2014 - Volume 46 - Issue 1 > Force–Velocity Properties’ Contribution to Bilateral Deficit...
Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise:
doi: 10.1249/MSS.0b013e3182a124fb
Applied Sciences

Force–Velocity Properties’ Contribution to Bilateral Deficit during Ballistic Push-off

Samozino, Pierre1; Rejc, Enrico2; di Prampero, Pietro Enrico2; Belli, Alain3; Morin, Jean-Benoît3

Supplemental Author Material
Collapse Box


Purpose: The objective of this study is to quantify the contribution of the force–velocity (F-v) properties to bilateral force deficit (BLD) in ballistic lower limb push-off and to relate it to individual F-v mechanical properties of the lower limbs.

Methods: The F-v relation was individually assessed from mechanical measurements for 14 subjects during maximal ballistic lower limb push-offs; its contribution to BLD was then investigated using a theoretical macroscopic approach, considering both the mechanical constraints of movement dynamics and the maximal external capabilities of the lower limb neuromuscular system.

Results: During ballistic lower limb push-off, the maximum force each lower limb can produce was lower during bilateral than unilateral actions, thus leading to a BLD of 36.7% ± 5.7%. The decrease in force due to the F-v mechanical properties amounted to 19.9% ± 3.6% of the force developed during BL push-offs, which represents a nonneural contribution to BLD of 43.5% ± 9.1%. This contribution to BLD that cannot be attributed to changes in neural features was negatively correlated to the maximum unloaded extension velocity of the lower limb (r = −0.977, P < 0.001).

Conclusion: During ballistic lower limb push-off, BLD is due to both neural alterations and F-v mechanical properties, the latter being associated with the change in movement velocity between bilateral and unilateral actions. The level of the contribution of the F-v properties depends on the individual F-v mechanical profile of the entire lower limb neuromuscular system: the more the F-v profile is oriented toward velocity capabilities, the lower the loss of force from unilateral to bilateral push-offs due to changes in movement velocity.

© 2014 American College of Sports Medicine


Article Tools


Article Level Metrics

Search for Similar Articles
You may search for similar articles that contain these same keywords or you may modify the keyword list to augment your search.

Connect With Us