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Quiet Eye Distinguishes Children of High and Low Motor Coordination Abilities


Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise: June 2013 - Volume 45 - Issue 6 - p 1144–1151
doi: 10.1249/MSS.0b013e31828288f1
Applied Sciences

Purpose This is the first study to use the quiet eye (QE) as an objective measure of visuomotor control underpinning proficiency differences in children’s motor coordination.

Methods Fifty-seven, year 5 primary school children (9–10 yr old) completed the Movement Assessment Battery for Children, Second Edition (MABC-2), while wearing a gaze registration system. Participants were subsequently divided into one of three ability groups: high motor coordination (HMC), median motor coordination (MMC), and low motor coordination (LMC) based on these MABC-2 scores (mean % rank: HMC = 84%, MMC = 51%, LMC = 19%). QE analyses were performed for the fourth task of the MABC-2, which involved throwing a tennis ball against a wall and catching it on the return.

Results The HMC group was more successful in the catching task than both other groups (catching percentage: HMC = 92%, MMC = 62%, LMC = 35%) and demonstrated superior visuomotor control throughout the throwing and catching phases of the task. Compared with the other groups, the HMC group demonstrated longer targeting QE fixations before the release of the ball (HMC = 500 ms, MMC = 410 ms, LMC = 260 ms) and longer tracking QE durations before catching (HMC = 260 ms, MMC = 200 ms, LMC = 150 ms). There were no significant differences in ball flight time between the groups. Mediation analyses revealed that only the duration of the tracking QE predicted group differences in catching ability.

Conclusions Findings suggest that the ability to predict and calibrate movements based on sensory feedback may be impaired in children with movement coordination difficulties and have implications for how they are taught fundamental movement skills.

1Sport and Health Sciences, University of Exeter, Exeter, UNITED KINGDOM; and 2Faculty of Kinesiology, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, CANADA

Address for correspondence: Mark Wilson, CPsychol, Sport and Health Sciences, University of Exeter, St. Luke’s Campus, Exeter, Devon EX1 2LU, United Kingdom; E-mail:

Submitted for publication June 2012.

Accepted for publication December 2012.

©2013The American College of Sports Medicine