Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship of serum vitamin D levels with lifestyle factors, including body fatness and physical activity (PA) parameters, and the clustering of metabolic risk factors in the Korean pediatric population.
Methods: Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels, accelerometer-based PA, and body fatness and metabolic syndrome parameters were assessed in a sample of children of Korean descent (N = 310). Correlation and multivariate linear regression were used to explore the relationships among serum vitamin D levels, lifestyle factors, and the clustering of metabolic risk factors in the study sample.
Results: Serum vitamin D levels were negatively associated with body fatness parameters, including body mass index, percent body fat, and waist circumference, but positively associated with accelerometer-based PA including low, moderate, and vigorous levels. In addition, serum vitamin D levels were inversely related to total cholesterol, triglycerides, fasting glucose, and insulin. A stepwise linear regression model showed that both low serum vitamin D levels and decreased vigorous PA were independent predictors for individual variation in the clustering of metabolic risk factors in this study sample.
Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that an increase in vigorous PA and vitamin D intake should be two major targets of public health inventions against the clustering of metabolic risk factors in the Korean pediatric population.