Purpose: Sprint training is associated with several beneficial adaptations in skeletal muscle, including an enhancement of sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca2+ release. Unfortunately, several patient populations (e.g., the elderly, those with cardiac dysfunction) that might derive great benefit from sprint exercise are unlikely to tolerate it. The purpose of this report was to describe the development of a tolerable neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) protocol that induces skeletal muscle adaptations similar to those observed with sprint training.
Methods: Our NMES protocol was modeled after a published sprint exercise protocol and used a novel electrode configuration and stimulation sequence to provide adequate training stimulus while maintaining subject tolerance. Nine young, healthy subjects (four men) began and completed the training protocol of the knee extensor muscles.
Results: All subjects completed the protocol, with ratings of discomfort far less than those reported in studies of traditional NMES. Training induced significant increases in SR Ca2+ release and citrate synthase activity (∼16% and 32%, respectively), but SR Ca2+ uptake did not change. The percentage of myosin heavy chain IIx isoform was decreased significantly after training. At the whole muscle level, neither central activation nor maximum voluntary isometric contraction force were significantly altered, although isometric force did exhibit a trend toward an increase (∼3%, P = 0.055). Surprisingly, the NMES training produced a significant increase in muscle cross-sectional area (∼3%, P = 0.04).
Conclusions: It seems that an appropriately designed NMES protocol can mimic many of the benefits of sprint exercise training, with a low overall time commitment and training volume. These findings suggest that NMES has the potential to bring the benefits of sprint exercise to individuals who are unable to tolerate traditional sprint training.
1Laboratory for Integrative Muscle Biology, Division of Physical Therapy, Ohio University, Athens, OH; 2Ohio Musculoskeletal and Neurological Institute, Ohio University, Athens, OH; and 3Department of Biomedical Sciences, Ohio University Heritage College of Osteopathic Medicine, Athens, OH
Address for correspondence: David W. Russ, PT, Ph.D., Division of Physical Therapy, Ohio University School of Rehabilitation and Communication Sciences, W279 Grover Center, Room W 279, Athens, OH 45701; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Submitted for publication September 2011.
Accepted for publication March 2012.