Effect of Exercise Training Modality on C-Reactive Protein in Type 2 Diabetes

SWIFT, DAMON L.1; JOHANNSEN, NEIL M.1; EARNEST, CONRAD P.2; BLAIR, STEVEN N.3; CHURCH, TIMOTHY S.2

Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise:
doi: 10.1249/MSS.0b013e31824526cc
Basic Sciences
Abstract

Purpose: Type 2 diabetes is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease and elevated C-reactive protein (CRP) levels. Aerobic exercise training has been shown to improve CRP; however, there are limited data evaluating the effect of other exercise training modalities (aerobic, resistance, or combination training) in individuals with type 2 diabetes.

Methods: Participants (n = 204) were randomized to an aerobic exercise (aerobic), resistance exercise (resistance), or a combination of both (combination) for 9 months. CRP was evaluated at baseline and at follow-up.

Results: Baseline CRP was correlated with fat mass, waist circumference, body mass index, and V˙O2peak (P < 0.05). CRP was not reduced after aerobic (0.16 mg·L−1, 95% confidence interval (CI) = −1.0 to 1.3 mg·L−1), resistance (−0.03 mg·L−1, 95% CI = −1.1 to 1.0 mg·L−1), or combination (−0.49 mg·L−1, 95% CI = −1.5 to 0.6 mg·L−1) training compared to control (0.35 mg·L−1, 95% CI = −1.0 to 1.7 mg·L−1). Changes in fasting glucose (r = 0.20, P = 0.009), glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) (r = 0.21, P = 0.005), and fat mass (r = 0.19, P = 0.016) were associated with reductions in CRP but not with change in fitness or weight (P > 0.05). There were significant trends observed for CRP among tertiles of change in HbA1c (P = 0.009) and body fat (P = 0.040).

Conclusions: Aerobic, resistance, or a combination of both did not reduce CRP levels in individuals with type 2 diabetes. However, exercise-related improvements in HbA1c, fasting glucose, and fat mass were associated with reductions in CRP.

Author Information

1Department of Preventive Medicine, Pennington Biomedical Research Center, Baton Rouge, LA; 2Department of Exercise Biology, Pennington Biomedical Research Center, Baton Rouge, LA; and 3Departments of Exercise Science and Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC

Address for correspondence: Damon L. Swift, Ph.D., 6400 Perkins Rd, Baton Rouge, LA 70808; E-mail: Damon.Swift@pbrc.edu.

Submitted for publication August 2011.

Accepted for publication December 2011.

©2012The American College of Sports Medicine