Introduction: Many studies suggest that cardiorespiratory fitness, measured as peak oxygen uptake (V˙O2peak), may be the single best predictor of cardiovascular morbidity and premature cardiovascular mortality. However, current reference values are either estimates of oxygen uptake or come from small studies, mainly of men. Therefore, the aims of this study were to directly measure V˙O2peak in healthy adult men and women and to assess the association with cardiovascular risk factor levels.
Methods: A cross-sectional study of 4631 volunteering, free-living Norwegian men (n = 2368) and women (n = 2263) age 20-90 yr. The data collection was from June 2007 to June 2008. Participants were free from known pulmonary or cardiovascular disease. V˙O2peak was measured by ergospirometry during treadmill running. Associations (odds ratios, OR) with unfavorable levels of cardiovascular risk factors and a cluster of cardiovascular risk factors were assessed by logistic regression analysis.
Results: Overall, mean V˙O2peak was 40.0 ± 9.5 mL·kg−1·min−1. Women below the median V˙O2peak (<35.1 mL·kg−1·min−1) were five times (OR = 5.4, 95% confidence interval = 2.3-12.9) and men below the median (<44.2 mL·kg−1·min−1) were eight times (OR = 7.9, 95% confidence interval = 3.5-18.0) more likely to have a cluster of cardiovascular risk factors compared to those in the highest quartile of V˙O2peak (≥40.8 and ≥50.5 mL·kg−1·min−1 in women and men, respectively). Each 5-mL·kg−1·min−1 lower V˙O2peak corresponded to ∼56% higher odds of cardiovascular risk factor clustering.
Conclusions: These data represent the largest reference material of objectively measured V˙O2peak in healthy men and women age 20-90 yr. Even in people considered to be fit, V˙O2peak was clearly associated with levels of conventional cardiovascular risk factors.
1Department of Circulation and Medical Imaging, Faculty of Medicine, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, NORWAY; 2The Human Movement Science Programme, Faculty of Social Sciences and Technology Management, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, NORWAY; 3Department of Cardiology, St. Olavs Hospital, Trondheim, NORWAY; 4Department of Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, NORWAY; and 5Centre for Sports and Physical Activity Research, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, NORWAY
Address for correspondence: Ulrik Wisløff, Ph.D., Department of Circulation and Medical Imaging, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Postboks 8905, Medisinsk Teknisk Forskningssenter, 7491 Trondheim, Norway; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Submitted for publication September 2010.
Accepted for publication December 2010.