Purpose: It remains unclear whether habitual physical activity in sickle cell trait (SCT) carriers modulates the levels of resting and postexercise vascular adhesion and inflammatory molecules.
Methods: Plasma levels of pro-inflammatory (interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5, IL-8, sCD40L, and tumor necrosis factor α) and anti-inflammatory (IL-10) cytokines and adhesion molecules (soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1), soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1), sP-selectin, or sE-selectin) were assessed at rest and in response to an incremental exercise to exhaustion in untrained (UT: no regular physical activity) and trained (T: soccer players, 8 h·wk−1 minimum) SCT and control (CON) subjects (n = 8 per group; age = 23.5 ± 0.35 yr).
Results: sVCAM-1 levels were significantly higher in the UT-SCT group than that in T-SCT group (+43.5%) at rest, at the end, and at 1, 2, and 24 h after the end of the exercise. For the other molecules, no differences emerged among the groups at rest, but in response to exercise plasma, sICAM-1, sVCAM-1, sE-selectin, and sCD40L increased in all groups, and sP-selectin only increased in the UT group. All values that increased with the acute exercise returned to their respective baseline levels 1 h after the end of the exercise.
Conclusions: A physically active lifestyle in SCT carriers may decrease endothelial activation and may limit the risk for vascular adhesion events in the microcirculation of SCT subjects.
1Center of Research and Innovation on Sports, University Claude Bernard of Lyon 1, University of Lyon, Lyon, FRANCE; 2Laboratory of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University of Yaoundé I, Yaoundé, CAMEROON; 3Laboratory of Exercise Physiology, University Jean Monnet of Saint Etienne, Saint Etienne, FRANCE; 4Laboratory of Exercise Physiology, University of Savoie, Chambéry, FRANCE; 5Unit of Hemoglobin Molecular Pathology, Edouard Herriot Hospital, Lyon, FRANCE; 6Cellular and Molecular Integrative Physiology, University Claude Bernard of Lyon 1, University of Lyon, Lyon, FRANCE; 7Department of Pediatrics, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY; 8Department of Pediatrics, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL; and 9National Institute of Youth and Sports, Yaoundé, CAMEROON
Address for correspondence: Cyril Martin, Ph.D., Centre de Recherche etd'Innovation sur le Sport (CRIS EA647), Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, Université de Lyon, Campus La Doua, Bat Raphael Dubois, 27-29 bd du 11 novembre 1918, 69622 Villeurbanne Cedex, France; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Submitted for publication July 2009.
Accepted for publication March 2010.