Daily Exercise Prescription on the Basis of HR Variability among Men and Women

KIVINIEMI, ANTTI M.1; HAUTALA, ARTO J.1; KINNUNEN, HANNU2; NISSILÄ, JUUSO2; VIRTANEN, PAULA2; KARJALAINEN, JAANA1; TULPPO, MIKKO P.1

Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise: July 2010 - Volume 42 - Issue 7 - pp 1355-1363
doi: 10.1249/MSS.0b013e3181cd5f39
Applied Sciences

Purpose: To test the utility of HR variability (HRV) in daily exercise prescription in moderately active (approximately two exercises per week) men and women.

Methods: A total of 21 men and 32 women were divided into standard training (ST: males = 7 and females = 7), HRV-guided training (HRV-I: males = 7 and females = 7; HRV-II: females = 10), and control (males = 7 and females = 8) groups. The 8-wk aerobic training period included 40-min exercises at moderate and vigorous intensities (70% and 85% of maximal HR). The ST group was instructed to perform two or more sessions at moderate and three or more sessions at vigorous intensity weekly. HRV-I and HRV-II groups trained on the basis of changes in HRV, measured every morning. In the HRV-I group, an increase or no change in HRV resulted in vigorous-intensity training on that day. Moderate-intensity exercise or rest was prescribed if HRV had decreased. The HRV-II group performed a vigorous-intensity exercise only when HRV had increased. Peak oxygen consumption (V˙O2peak) and maximal workload (Loadmax) were measured by a maximal bicycle ergometer test before and after the intervention.

Results: The changes in V˙O2peak did not differ between the training groups either in men or in women. In men, the change in Loadmax was higher in the HRV-I group than in the ST group (30 ± 8 vs 18 ± 10 W, P = 0.033). In women, no differences were found in the changes in Loadmax between the training groups (18 ± 10, 15 ± 11, and 18 ± 5 W for ST, HRV-I, and HRV-II, respectively). The HRV-II group performed fewer vigorous-intensity exercises than the ST and HRV-I groups (1.8 ± 0.3 vs 2.8 ± 0.6 and 3.3 ± 0.2 times per week, respectively, P < 0.01 for both).

Conclusions: HRV measurements are beneficial in exercise training prescription in moderately active men and women. Women benefit from HRV guidance by achieving significant improvement in fitness with a lower training load.

1Department of Exercise and Medical Physiology, Verve Research, Oulu, FINLAND; and 2Polar Electro Oy, Kempele, FINLAND

Address for correspondence: Antti M. Kiviniemi, Ph.D., Verve Research, Kasarmintie 13, PO Box 404, FI-90101 Oulu, Finland; E-mail: Antti.Kiviniemi@verve.fi.

Submitted for publication September 2009.

Accepted for publication November 2009.

©2010The American College of Sports Medicine