Purpose: This study evaluated the effects of a classroom-based physical activity program on children's in-school physical activity levels and on-task behavior during academic instruction.
Methods: Physical activity of 243 students was assessed during school hours. Intervention-group students (N = 135) received a classroom-based program (i.e., Energizers). The control group (N = 108) did not receive Energizers. On-task behavior during academic instruction time was observed for 62 third-grade (N = 37) and fourth-grade students (N = 25) before and after Energizers activities. An independent groups t-test compared in-school physical activity levels between intervention and control classes. A multiple-baseline across-classrooms design was used to evaluate the effectiveness of the Energizers on on-task behavior. Additionally, a two-way (time [pre- vs postobservation] × period [baseline vs intervention]) repeated-measures analysis of variance compared on-task behavior between observation periods. Magnitudes of mean differences were evaluated with Cohen's delta (ES).
Results: Students in the intervention group took significantly (P < 0.05) more in-school steps (5587 ± 1633) than control-group students (4805 ± 1543), and the size of this difference was moderate (ES = 0.49). The intervention was effective in improving on-task behavior; after the Energizers were systematically implemented, on-task behavior systematically improved. The improvement in on-task behavior of 8% between the pre-Energizers and post-Energizers observations was statistically significant (P < 0.017), and the difference was moderate (ES = 0.60). Likewise, the least on-task students improved on-task behavior by 20% after Energizers activities. This improvement was statistically significant (P < 0.001) and meaningful (ES = 2.20).
Conclusion: A classroom-based physical activity program was effective for increasing daily in-school physical activity and improving on-task behavior during academic instruction.
1Activity Promotion Laboratory, Department of Exercise and Sport Science, and 2Department of Psychology, East Carolina University, Greenville, NC
Address for correspondence: Matthew T. Mahar, Ed.D., Department of Exercise and Sport Science, East Carolina University, Greenville, NC 27858; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Submitted for publication March 2006.
Accepted for publication June 2006.