Purpose: The present study determined the efficacy of the Continuous Glucose Monitoring System (CGMS) during moderate exercise and monitored the changes in whole-day glucose profiles using the CGMS in individuals with and without type 2 diabetes.
Methods: Six, obese, diet-treated individuals with and four age-matched individuals without type 2 diabetes were monitored using the CGMS for 3 d. Subjects cycled at 90% of a predetermined lactate threshold for 1 h at approximately 09:00 h on day 2, during which venous blood was sampled at 10-min intervals and immediately analyzed for glucose concentrations.
Results: Venous blood glucose and CGMS values declined during exercise in the diabetes (P < 0.001) but not the control group (P = 0.085). The CGMS overestimated blood glucose in the control (P = 0.003) and the diabetes (P = 0.045) groups during exercise. The number of data points outside of the 95% confidence intervals was <5% in both groups, showing that there is a statistically acceptable level of agreement between venous blood glucose and CGMS values during exercise. Moderate exercise improved whole-day average glucose concentrations (P = 0.007) and whole-day area under the glucose curve (P = 0.016) values (AUCglu), and the time spent within ±10% of fasting venous glucose (FVG) increased in the diabetes group (P = 0.021). No such effects were seen in the control group.
Conclusion: Using continuous glucose monitoring we were able to demonstrate that a period of moderate exercise improved whole-day glycemic control in obese individuals with type 2 diabetes. The CGMS should only be used as an adjunct and not as an alternative to frequent blood glucose sampling when examining the changes in glucose values during exercise in individuals with and without type 2 diabetes.
1School of Pharmacy and Biomolecular Sciences, University of Brighton, Brighton, UNITED KINGDOM; and 2Chelsea School, Welkin Performance Laboratories, University of Brighton, Eastbourne, UNITED KINGDOM
Address for correspondence: Adam L. Macdonald, School of Pharmacy and Biomolecular Sciences and Chelsea School, Welkin Laboratories, 30 Carlisle Road, Eastbourne, BN20 7SP, United Kingdom; E-mail: email@example.com.
Submitted for publication February 2005.
Accepted for publication August 2005.