Purpose: Participation in physical activity during pregnancy may reduce the risk of maternal and fetal disorders. However, few studies have validated physical activity questionnaires for use during pregnancy, a time characterized by different patterns of activity than nonpregnancy. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the validity and reliability of the Kaiser Physical Activity Survey (KPAS) for use during pregnancy.
Methods: The KPAS, adapted from the Baecke physical activity survey, was designed specifically to assess physical activity in women. Unique features of the KPAS include the assessment of multiple domains of physical activity (household/caregiving, occupational, active living, and sports/exercise) as well as total activity. Summary KPAS indices were compared with objective (ActiGraph accelerometer by ActiGraph LLC) and subjective (Pregnancy Physical Activity Questionnaire (PPAQ)) measures of physical activity. Participants completed the self-administered PPAQ followed by the interviewer-administered KPAS and then wore the accelerometer for the following 7 d. At the end of the 7-d period, the questionnaires were repeated.
Results: Intraclass correlation coefficients used to measure reproducibility of the KPAS were r = 0.84 for total activity and ranged from r = 0.76 for active living activities to r = 0.86 for occupational activity. Spearman correlations between the KPAS and three published cut points used to classify accelerometer data ranged from r = 0.49–0.59 for total activity, r = 0.12–0.26 for household/caregiving, r = 0.26–0.33 for occupational activity, r = 0.31–0.36 for active living, and r = 0.34–0.51 for sports/exercise. Spearman correlations between the KPAS and the PPAQ ranged from r = 0.71 for household/caregiving to r = 0.84 for sports/exercise.
Conclusions: The KPAS is a reliable and reasonably accurate instrument for estimating physical activity among pregnant women.
1Department of Public Health and 2Department of Exercise Science, School of Public Health and Health Sciences, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA; and 3Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Division of Research, Kaiser Permanente Medical Care Program, Oakland, CA
Address for correspondence: Dr. Lisa Chasan-Taber, Department of Public Health, School of Public Health and Health Sciences, 405 Arnold House, University of Massachusetts, 715 North Pleasant Street, Amherst, MA 01003-9304; E-mail: LCT@schoolph.umass.edu.
Submitted for publication April 2005.
Accepted for publication July 2005.
The authors are grateful to J. Bianca Erickson, Maren Fragala, Sara Pragluski, and Rebecca Hasson for their assistance with data collection.
This work was supported by an American Diabetes Association Career Development Award 7-00-CD-02 and the National Institute for Child Health and Human Development HD39341.