KRAEMER, W. J., K. HÄKKINEN, N. T. TRIPLETT-MCBRIDE, A. C. FRY, L. P. KOZIRIS, N. A. RATAMESS, J. E. BAUER, J. S. VOLEK, T. MCCONNELL, R. U. NEWTON, S. E. GORDON, D. CUMMINGS, J. HAUTH, F. PULLO, J. M. LYNCH, S. A. MAZZETTI, and H. G. KNUTTGEN. Physiological Changes with Periodized Resistance Training in Women Tennis Players. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., Vol. 35, No. 1, pp. 157–168, 2003.
Purpose: To compare the physiological and performance adaptations between periodized and nonperiodized resistance training in women collegiate tennis athletes.
Methods: Thirty women (19 ± 1 yr) were assigned to either a periodized resistance training group (P), nonperiodized training group (NV), or a control group (C). Assessments for body composition, anaerobic power, V̇O2max, speed, agility, maximal strength, jump height, tennis-service velocity, and resting serum hormonal concentrations were performed before and after 4, 6, and 9 months of resistance training performed 2–3 d·wk−1
Results: Nine months of resistance training resulted in significant increases in fat-free mass; anaerobic power; grip strength; jump height; one-repetition maximum (1-RM) leg press, bench press, and shoulder press; serve, forehand, and backhand ball velocities; and resting serum insulin-like growth factor-1, testosterone, and cortisol concentrations. Percent body fat and V̇O2max decreased significantly in the P and NV groups after training. During the first 6 months, periodized resistance training elicited significantly greater increases in 1-RM leg press (9 ± 2 vs 4.5 ± 2%), bench press (22 ± 5 vs 11 ± 8%), and shoulder press (24 ± 7 vs 18 ± 6%) than the NV group. The absolute 1-RM leg press and shoulder press values in the P group were greater than the NV group after 9 months. Periodized resistance training also resulted in significantly greater improvements in jump height (50 ± 9 vs 37 ± 7%) and serve (29 ± 5 vs 16 ± 4%), forehand (22 ± 3 vs 17 ± 3%), and backhand ball velocities (36 ± 4 vs 14 ± 4%) as compared with nonperiodized training after 9 months.
Conclusions: These data demonstrated that periodization of resistance training over 9 months was superior for enhancing strength and motor performance in collegiate women tennis players.
1Human Performance Laboratory, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT;
2School of Biomedical and Sports Science, Edith Cowan University, Joondalup, WA, Australia;
3Laboratory for Sports Medicine, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA;
4Geisinger Medical Center, Danville, PA;
5East Stroudsburg University, East Stroudsburg, PA; and
6Neuromuscular Research Center, Department of Biology of Physical Activity, University of Jyväskylä, Jyväskylä, FINLAND
Address for correspondence: William J. Kraemer, Ph.D., FACSM, Human Performance Laboratory, Department of Kinesiology Unit-1110, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06269-1110; E-mail: email@example.com.
Submitted for publication January 2002.
Accepted for publication July 2002.