Relationship between training frequency and subcutaneous and visceral fat in women. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., Vol. 29, No. 12, pp. 1549-1553, 1997. We examined the interaction of two different frequencies of aerobic exercise training (30 min at 50-60% of maximal heart rate reserve per session) and a self-administered caloric restriction program on the changes in subcutaneous (SFM) and visceral (VFM) fat mass over a period of 13 wk. Twenty-six sedentary young women (27.9% body fat) were randomized into three groups: nonexercising control (C, N = 8); 1-2 sessions/wk plus a 240 kcal caloric restriction (1-2SW, N = 9); and 3-4 sessions/wk without caloric restriction (3-4SW, N = 9). There was a equivalent decrease in the percentage of body fat and total fat mass in both exercise groups compared with that in C. Reduction in SFM was significant in 3-4SW, but not in 1-2SW or C. A negative correlation was observed between training frequency and changes in SFM (r = -0.65). In contrast, VFM decreased significantly and equivalently in both 1-2SW and 3-4SW, but there was no correlation between training frequency and changes in VFM (r = 0.20). It is suggested that the decrease in SFM, but not VFM, is proportional to the amount of aerobic exercise training. A change in VFM appears to be related to an deficit in caloric balance either by dietary restriction (decrease caloric intake) or by increased caloric expenditure.