Energy turnover during offshore sailing was studied in 11 male crew members of one team during the first three legs of the 1993-1994 Whitbread Round The World Race. The effect of racing on the energy balance of the crew members was studied by anthropometric measurements and dietary intake as calculated from food inventories before and after each leg. Energy turnover, calculated from dietary intake and release of endogenous energy as a result of changes in body composition, was higher than expected (about 18-20 MJ·d-1). These findings were confirmed using the doubly labeled water technique in six crew members during the third leg, in which mean energy turnover was found to be 19.3 MJ·d-1. Changes in body weight and composition indicated a negative energy balance during all legs.
Department of Nutrition, University of Uppsala, Uppsala, SWEDEN; Department of Human Biology, University of Limburg, Maastricht, THE NETHERLANDS
Submitted for publication March 1995.
Accepted for publication March 1996.
The authors thanks are due to the crew members for their cooperation in this study.
This study was supported by grants from the Swedish Sports Research Council, as well as from Metagenics Inc., San Clemente, CA; Sport Nutrition Nordic AB, Stockholm, Sweden; and the Department of Nutrition, University of Uppsala.
Address for correspondence: Leif Hambraeus, Department of Nutrition, Dag Hammarskjölds väg 21, S-752 37 Uppsala, Sweden.
R.E., M.M., and R.N. are members of the Intrum Justitia team.