The effects of supervised physical training (PT) and lifestyle education(LSE) on risk factors for coronary artery disease and non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus were compared in obese 7- to 11-yr-old black girls. The subjects were divided into two groups. The PT group (N = 12) completed a 5-d·wk-1, 10-wk, aerobic training program; and the LSE group participated in weekly lifestyle discussions to improve exercise and eating habits. The PT group showed a significant increase in aerobic fitness(P < 0.05) and decrease in percent body fat (P < 0.05), while the LSE group declined significantly more in dietary energy and percent of energy from fat (P < 0.05). Fasting insulin did not change significantly. The LSE group declined significantly more than the PT group in glucose (P < 0.05), and glycohemoglobin declined from baseline in both groups (P < 0.05). Lipid changes were similar in the two groups: total cholesterol/high density lipoprotein cholesterol(P < 0.01) and triglycerides (P < 0.05) declined, the low density lipoprotein (LDL)/apoproteinB ratio increased (which indicates a decrease in small dense LDL) (P < 0.05) and lipoprotein(a) increased (P < 0.05). Thus, the interventions were similarly effective in improving some diabetogenic and atherogenic factors, perhaps through different pathways; i.e., the PT improved fitness and fatness, while the LSE improved diet. Exercise and diet-induced changes in lipoprotein(a) require further investigation.
Georgia Prevention Institute, Department of Pediatrics; and Department of Medicine; Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, GA 30912
Submitted for publication October 1994.
Accepted for publication August 1995.
This work was supported by grants from the Medical College of Georgia Research Institute and Department of Pediatrics, and the American Heart Association-Georgia Affiliate.
Address for correspondence: Bernard Gutin, Ph.D., Professor of Pediatrics and Physiology, Georgia Prevention Institute, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, GA 30912-3710; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.