Share this article on:

Medicine & Science in Sports & ExerciseJuly 1995Non-muscle cells play central roles in muscle repair and regeneration during the inflammation that follows muscle injury, although many aspects of the mechanisms by which inflammatory cells are attracted to injury sites and activated are unknown. Current evidence indicates that substances released from injured muscle can act as "wound hormones" that initiate inflammation. Most evidence supports the view that mono-nucleated cells that normally reside in muscle are activated by the injury, and then provide the chemotactic signal to circulating inflammatory cells. Three subsequent stages of inflammation can be identified, according to differences in the populations of inflammatory cells. First, neutrophils rapidly invade the injury site and promote inflammation by releasing cytokines that can attract and activate additional inflammatory cells. In at least some muscle injuries, neutrophils may further damage the injured muscle by releasing oxygen-free radicals that can damage cell membranes. Next, there is an increase in macrophages that invade damaged muscle fibers and phagocytose debris. Finally, there is an increase in a second subpopulation of macrophages that are associated with muscle regeneration. Although many of the potential mediators that underlie the proliferation, invasion, and activation of these inflammatory cell populations are known, few have been demonstrated conclusively to function in injured muscle in vivo.(C)1995The American College of Sports MedicineInflammatory cell response to acute muscle injury.TIDBALL, JAMES G.Brief Review: PDF Only727InternalMedicine & Science in Sports & Exercise200436142-43JAN 2004Contraction-Induced Injury Run Amok: An IntroductionMCCORMICK, KM & Science in Sports & Exercise2002345798-805MAY 2002Contraction-induced muscle damage is unaffected by vitamin E supplementationBEATON, LJ; ALLAN, DA; TARNOPOLSKY, MA; TIIDUS, PM; PHILLIPS, SM & Science in Sports & Exercise10.1249/01.mss.0000222832.43520.2720063861058-1064JUN 2006Activation of Akt as a Potential Mediator of Adaptations that Reduce Muscle InjuryLOCKHART, NC; BAAR, K; MAZZEO, RS; BROOKS, SV & Science in Sports & Exercise10.1249/MSS.0b013e3181a518f0200941101908-1914OCT 2009Protease Supplementation Improves Muscle Function after Eccentric ExerciseBUFORD, TW; COOKE, MB; REDD, LL; HUDSON, GM; SHELMADINE, BD; WILLOUGHBY, DS Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research2001152178-184MAY 2001The Effects of Creatine Supplementation on Exercise-Induced Muscle DamageRAWSON, ES; GUNN, B; CLARKSON, PM