Learning Objectives: The purposes of this article are to demonstrate that (1) osteoporosis is a debilitating disease that leads to fragile bones and bone fractures, (2) osteoporosis cannot be cured but can be prevented, and (3) low bone mineral density is a characteristic of osteoporosis. The Bone Estrogen Strength Training study results will demonstrate the following:
1. Bone mineral density can be maintained or increased in postmenopausal women using a regime of adequate resistance and weight-bearing exercise training combined with adequate calcium intake in the short term (1 year) and the long term (4 years).
2. In addition to calcium, other nutrients (particularly iron) interacted with hormone replacement therapy use and influenced short-term (1 year) and long-term (4 years) bone mineral density changes in the Bone Estrogen Strength Training study participants.