Women differ from men with regard to muscle and tendon, most likely because of sex differences in estrogen. The present experimental findings suggest the hypothesis that estrogen has an anabolic effect on muscle primarily by lowering the protein turnover and enhancing sensitivity to resistance training. Furthermore, estrogen may reduce the stiffness of tendons, an effect that may be modified by physical training.
We discuss the extent to which estrogen modulates skeletal muscle protein turnover at rest and after training.
1Section of Sport Science, Department of Public Health, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark; and 2Institute of Sports Medicine, Bispebjerg Hospital, and Centre of Healthy Aging, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
Address for correspondence: Mette Hansen, Section of Sport Science, Department of Public Health, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark. Dalgas Ave. 4, 8000 Aarhus, Denmark (E-mail: email@example.com).
Accepted for publication: June 10, 2014.
Associate Editor: Benjamin F. Miller, Ph.D., FACSM