Although the kinematics and dynamics of overarm throws, such as baseball pitching, have been studied extensively, the relations between these measures remain largely unknown. This review uses a three-dimensional analysis to characterize the mechanical basis of skilled overarm throws by focusing on how each joint angular acceleration is produced by the muscle torques, gravity torques, and velocity-dependent torques.
A 3D analysis identifies the mechanical basis of the large joint angular accelerations in overarm throwing by skilled performers.
1Graduate School of Education, the University of Tokyo, Japan; 2Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, Japan; 3Department of Life Sciences, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, the University of Tokyo, Japan
Address for correspondence: Masaya Hirashima, Ph.D., Graduate School of Education, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, Japan 113-0033 (E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; email@example.com).
Accepted for publication: January 31, 2008.
Associate Editor: Roger M. Enoka, Ph.D.