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Muscle Power: The Interaction of Cycle Frequency and Shortening Velocity

Martin, James C.

Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews: April 2007 - Volume 35 - Issue 2 - p 74-81
doi: 10.1097/jes.0b013e31803eb0a0

Force-velocity, force-time, and force-length relations of muscle are typically evaluated with reductionist techniques in which force is measured while the variable of interest is manipulated. However, force produced during voluntary movement arises from complex interaction of these contractile characteristics. Nonetheless, neuromuscular performance for cyclical, work-producing movements can be predicted from the interaction of average muscle shortening velocity and movement frequency.

Muscle shortening velocity and cycle frequency, which represents excitation state, interactively constrain muscular power across a wide range of conditions.

Department of Exercise and Sport Science, the University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT

Address for correspondence: James C. Martin, Ph.D., Department of Exercise and Sport Science, The University of Utah, 250 S 1850 E Room 241, Salt Lake City, UT 84112-0920 (E-mail:

Accepted for publication: November 7, 2006.

Associate Editor: Roger M. Enoka, Ph.D.

© 2007 American College of Sports Medicine