The fields of sports medicine and performing arts medicine have begun recent initiatives to collaborate more closely and to share information pertinent to the treatment of athletes and performing artists. This article provides a review of the common musculoskeletal and neurological problems encountered among performing artists who play instruments. Approaches to history, examination, diagnosis, and treatment are offered, based on literature reviews, expert opinion, and the authors’ own experiences in a musician’s clinic. Treatments focus on conservative management within a multidisciplinary framework, and indications are given for appropriate surgical referral. Providers are encouraged to build an understanding of the unique issues affecting instrumental athletes.