Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is well established as a powerful imaging modality for the shoulder. In the last decade, ultrasound has emerged as an effective imaging option, alongside MRI, for evaluation of the shoulder. With MRI and ultrasound, clinicians now have two viable advanced imaging options for the diagnostic evaluation of shoulder pain. This article discusses the advantages and disadvantages of ultrasound and MRI for the shoulder. Applications where ultrasound is considered the imaging test of choice, those where MRI is more advantageous, and those where both ultrasound and MRI are viable alternatives for shoulder imaging are discussed.