Core stability and plyometric training have become common elements of training programs in competitive athletes. Core stability allows stabilization of the spine and trunk of the body in order to allow maximal translation of force to the extremities. Plyometric training is more dynamic and involves explosive-strength training. Integration of these exercises theoretically begins with core stabilization using more static exercises, allowing safe and effective transition to plyometric exercises. Both core strengthening and plyometric training have demonstrated mixed but generally positive results on injury prevention rehabilitation of certain types of injuries. Improvement in performance compared to other types of exercise is unclear at this time. This article discusses the theory and strategy behind core stability and plyometric training; reviews the literature on injury prevention, rehabilitation of injury, and performance enhancement with these modalities; and discusses the evaluation and rehabilitation of core stability.