Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurobehavioral development disorder affecting an estimated 6% to 9% of youth in the United States. The typical manifestations of ADHD, attention difficulties and hyperactivity, cause impairment in social and academic functioning, while common comorbid conditions can add significantly to the disease burden. Diagnosing ADHD requires a comprehensive clinical approach. Many medications have been shown to provide benefit for patients with ADHD, and a positive response to medication can be an important factor in clarifying the diagnosis. Medical therapy is of particular interest when treating athletes, as competitive bodies ban many treatment options. This review provides the sports medicine provider with a framework for the treatment of ADHD in the athlete.