Hamstring tears are exceedingly common in a variety of athletic populations and contribute to a significant amount of morbidity and time lost from sport. Many modifiable and nonmodifiable risk factors have been identified with hamstring injury. There is strong evidence that Nordic hamstring exercises can decrease the risk of hamstring injury, limited evidence that sports specific anaerobic interval training and isokinetic strengthening can reduce injury rates, and limited evidence that daily static stretching after injury can increase recovery rate. The majority of medical, surgical, and rehabilitative intervention studies have limitations based on the total number of hamstring injuries included in a given study, reliance on retrospective cohort studies, and conclusions based on case series that limit the utility of the information. Most do not provide a level of evidence greater than expert opinion.
Moses H. Cone Sports Medicine Fellowship and Family Medicine Residency, Moses Cone Health System, Greensboro, NC
Address for correspondence: Karl B. Fields, M.D., Director, Moses Cone Sports Medicine Fellowship, Moses Cone Health System, Family Medicine Residency and Sports Medicine Fellowship, Professor and Associate Chairman, Department of Family Medicine, UNC-Chapel Hill, 1125 N. Church Street, Greensboro, NC 27401 (E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org).