References

Examples of Typical References


For more extensive guidance, please see the AMA Manual of Style, 10th edition (New York: Oxford University Press, 2007).

Periodical or journal
Simple
Huddle TS, Heudebert GR. Viewpoint: Taking apart the art: The risk of anatomizing clinical competence. Acad Med. 2007;82:536–541.

Supplement
Rieder CH. Foreword: Geriatrics and gerontology education for physicians: The JAHF/AAMC partnership. Acad Med. 2004;79(7 suppl): Sv–Svi.
In press or forthcoming
Brown RF, Bylund CL. Communication skills training: Describing a new conceptual model. Acad Med. [in press].
Note: For six or fewer authors, list all author names. For seven or more authors, list the first three author names, then “et al.”

Book
Simple, one author or multi-author
Rosenberg CE. Our Present Complaint: American Medicine Then and Now. Baltimore, Md: Johns Hopkins University Press; 2007.
Bynum WF, Hardy A, Jacyna S, Lawrence C, Tansey EM. The Western Medical Tradition 1800 to 2000. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press; 2006.
Edited
Shore DA, ed. The Trust Crisis in Healthcare: Causes, Consequences, and Cures. New York, NY: Oxford University Press; 2007.
Article or chapter
Duffy J. The growth of boards of health. In: Duffy J. The Sanitarians: A History of American Public Health. Chicago, Ill: University of Chicago Press; 1992.
In press or forthcoming
McHugh PR, Slavney PR. The Perspectives of Psychiatry, 2nd ed. Baltimore, Md: Johns Hopkins University Press; [in press].
Note: For six or fewer authors, list all author names. For seven or more authors, list the first three author names, then “et al.”

Web sites and online sources
See also specific types of references, below, and the AMA Manual of Style, 10th edition.

Liaison Committee on Medical Education. Accreditation Standards. (http://www.lcme.org/standard.htm). Revised June 2007. Accessed September 15, 2007.

e-Health Ethics Initiative. E-Health Code of Ethics. J Med Internet Res. 2000;2(2);e9. (http://www.jmir.org/2000/2/e9). Published May 24, 2000. Accessed April 29, 2006.


Conference proceeding
Unpublished
Mallon WT. The present and future of incentive compensation for clinical faculty. Paper presented at: Chairs Council of the annual meeting of the Association of Academic Physiatrists; April 12, 2007; San Juan, PR.
Published, online
Collins F. Talk presented at: National Human Research Protections Advisory Committee; April 9, 2001; Bethesda, Md. (http://www.hhs.gov.ohrp/nhrpac/mtg04-01/0409mtg.txt). Accessed February 26, 2004.
RIME
Cuddy MM, Swanson DB, Clauser BE. A multilevel analysis of the relationships between examinee gender and United States Medical Licensing Exam (USMLE) Step 2 CK content area performance. Acad Med. 2007;82(10 suppl): S89–S93.

Report
Government, print
Schiller JS, Kramarow EA, Dey AN. Fall Injury Episodes Among Noninstitutionalized Older Adults: United States, 2001-2003. Advance Data from Vital Health Statistics; No. 392. Hyatsville, Md: National Center for Health Statistics, 2007.
Government, online
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Protection of human subjects. 45 CFR §46. (http://www.hhs.gov/ohrp/humansubjects/guidance/45cr46.htm). Revised November 13, 2110. Effective December 13, 2001. Accessed February 27, 2007.
Nongovernment, print
Committee on the Consequences of Uninsurance, Board of Health Care Services, Institute of Medicine. Coverage Matters: Insurance and Health Care. Washington, DC: National Academy Press; 2007.
Newspaper
Breaching barriers of culture and understanding: Holy Cross links immigrants with health professionals who speak their language. Washington Post: Feb. 5, 2008: F-1.
Dissertation
Hawthorne H. The Historical and Cultural Context of the Flexner Report [dissertation]. University Park, Pa: Penn State University; 2008.
U.S. legal reference or court case
Please see the AMA Manual of Style, 10th edition, for specific guidance.

Personal Communication
Include name, title/position, organization/affiliation, and date. If your paper has multiple authors, please indicate the person who communicated with the source. 
Kanter SL. Vice dean, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine. Personal communication with A. Farmakidis, July 1, 2011.