Skip Navigation LinksHome > April 2001 - Volume 76 - Issue 4 > Essential Elements of Communication in Medical Encounters: T...
Academic Medicine:
Educating Physicians: Essays

Essential Elements of Communication in Medical Encounters: The Kalamazoo Consensus Statement

Makoul, Gregory PhD

Free Access
Article Outline
Collapse Box

Author Information

Gregory Makoul, PhD, director of the Program in Communication and Medicine at Northwestern University Medical School, provided leadership in the writing process.

Correspondence and requests for reprints should be addressed to the Bayer Institute for Health Care Communication, 400 Morgan Lane, West Haven, CT 06516; e-mail: 〈bayer.institute@bayer.com〉.

The Bayer—Fetzer Conference on Physician—Patient Communication in Medical Education was held May 11–14, 1999. The Bayer Institute for Health Care Communication is a non-commercial, nonprofit, organization whose mission is to improve health through education, research, and advocacy in the area of clinican—patient communication. The Fetzer Institute is a nonprofit, private operating foundation that supports research, education, and service programs exploring the integral relationships among body, mind, and spirit. The conference site was Seasons, A Center for Renewal, owned and operated by the Fetzer Institute, in Kalamazoo, Michigan.

This consensus statement reflects the views of the conference participants; it does not necessarily imply endorsement by their institutions or associations.

Participants in the Bayer—Fetzer Conference on Physician—Patient Communication in Medical Education

The conference participants are listed in a box at the end of the text.

Collapse Box

Abstract

In May 1999, 21 leaders and representatives from major medical education and professional organizations attended an invitational conference jointly sponsored by the Bayer Institute for Health Care Communication and the Fetzer Institute. The participants focused on delineating a coherent set of essential elements in physician—patient communication to: (1) facilitate the development, implementation, and evaluation of communication-oriented curricula in medical education and (2) inform the development of specific standards in this domain. Since the group included architects and representatives of five currently used models of doctor—patient communication, participants agreed that the goals might best be achieved through review and synthesis of the models. Presentations about the five models encompassed their research base, overarching views of the medical encounter, and current applications. All attendees participated in discussion of the models and common elements. Written proceedings generated during the conference were posted on an electronic listserv for review and comment by the entire group. A three-person writing committee synthesized suggestions, resolved questions, and posted a succession of drafts on a listserv. The current document was circulated to the entire group for final approval before it was submitted for publication. The group identified seven essential sets of communication tasks: (1) build the doctor—patient relationship; (2) open the discussion; (3) gather information; (4) understand the patient's perspective; (5) share information; (6) reach agreement on problems and plans; and (7) provide closure. These broadly supported elements provide a useful framework for communication-oriented curricula and standards.

A growing emphasis on physician—patient communication in medicine and medical education is reflected in international consensus statements,1,2 guidelines for medical schools,3–6 and standards for professional practice and education.7–12 In May 1999, with work in these areas and related research13–17 as a backdrop, 21 people from medical schools, residency programs, continuing medical education providers, and prominent medical educational organizations in North America convened for three days in Kalamazoo, Michigan, for the Bayer—Fetzer Conference on Physician—Patient Communication in Medical Education. The aim of this invitational conference was to identify and specifically articulate ways to facilitate communication teaching, assessment, and evaluation.

The group used an open-ended, iterative process to identify and prioritize topics for discussion. A major topic of interest to the entire group was delineating a set of essential elements in physician—patient communication. Participants expressed three goals for the discussion:

1. Reaching consensus on a “short list” of elements that would characterize effective communication in several clinical contexts.

2. Providing tangible examples of skill competencies that would be useful for licensing bodies, organizations that accredit medical schools and residency programs, and directors of medical education programs at all levels.

3. Ensuring that the product generated by the group would be evidence based and appropriate for teaching, assessment, and evaluation.

Since the group included architects and representatives of five currently used models of doctor—patient communication, participants agreed that the goals might best be achieved through review and synthesis of the models' essential elements. Toward that end, brief presentations were delivered about each of the five models:

* Bayer Institute for Health Care Communication E4 Model18

* Three Function Model/Brown Interview Checklist19

* The Calgary—Cambridge Observation Guide20

* Patient-centered clinical method21

* SEGUE Framework for teaching and assessing communication skills22

Each presentation included an explicit description of the model, encompassing its research base, overarching views of the medical encounter, and current applications. After discussion of the models, attendees from the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME), the CanMEDS 2000 Project, the Educational Commission for Foreign Medical Graduates (ECFMG), and the Macy Health Communication Initiative provided information about their efforts to develop criteria for teaching and evaluating physician—patient communication. The group then began looking for commonalities among the models as well as points of departure. This process was enriched by the number and diversity of organizations represented by conference participants.

Back to Top | Article Outline

THE ESSENTIAL ELEMENTS

Consensus on the essential elements of physician—patient communication was reached by using the three goals outlined above to guide and ground discussion. The group's perspective on essential elements is consistent with the task approach, a concept that has been well supported in communication skills teaching since the early 1980s.3,18–25 As noted by Makoul and Schofield,2 “focusing on tasks provides a sense of purpose for learning communication skills. The task approach also preserves the individuality of [learners] by encouraging them to develop a repertoire of strategies and skills, and respond to patients in a flexible way.”

By identifying specific communication tasks, the group worked to highlight behaviors that are embedded in existing consensus statements, guidelines, and standards. While the list is by no means exhaustive, the intent was to make it easier for people working in this area to identify not only the key tasks, but the relevant knowledge, skills, and attitudes as well. References for the supporting research are listed and discussed in a number of texts.20,21,23–28

Back to Top | Article Outline
Build a Relationship: The Fundamental Communication Task

A strong, therapeutic, and effective relationship is the sine qua non of physician—patient communication.29,30 The group endorses a patient-centered, or relationship-centered, approach to care, which emphasizes both the patient's disease and his or her illness experience.31,32 This requires eliciting the patient's story of illness while guiding the interview through a process of diagnostic reasoning. It also requires an awareness that the ideas, feelings, and values of both the patient and the physician influence the relationship.2,15,33 Further, this approach regards the physician—patient relationship as a partnership, and respects patients' active participation in decision making.34–36 The task of building a relationship is also relevant for work with patients' families and support networks. In essence, building a relationship is an ongoing task within and across encounters: it undergirds the more sequentially ordered sets of tasks identified below.

Back to Top | Article Outline
Open the Discussion

* Allow the patient to complete his or her opening statement

* Elicit the patient's full set of concerns

* Establish/maintain a personal connection

Back to Top | Article Outline
Gather Information

* Use open-ended and closed-ended questions appropriately

* Structure, clarify, and summarize information

* Actively listen using nonverbal (e.g., eye contact) and verbal (e.g., words of encouragement) techniques

Back to Top | Article Outline
Understand the Patient's Perspective

* Explore contextual factors (e.g., family, culture, gender, age, socioeconomic status, spirituality)

* Explore beliefs, concerns, and expectations about health and illness

* Acknowledge and respond to the patient's ideas, feelings, and values

Back to Top | Article Outline
Share Information

* Use language the patient can understand

* Check for understanding

* Encourage questions

Back to Top | Article Outline
Reach Agreement on Problems and Plans

* Encourage the patient to participate in decisions to the extent he or she desires

* Check the patient's willingness and ability to follow the plan

* Identify and enlist resources and supports

Back to Top | Article Outline
Provide Closure

* Ask whether the patient has other issues or concerns

* Summarize and affirm agreement with the plan of action

* Discuss follow-up (e.g., next visit, plan for unexpected outcomes)

Back to Top | Article Outline

CONCLUSION

This outline of essential elements in effective physician—patient communication provides a coherent framework for teaching and assessing communication skills, determining relevant knowledge and attitudes, and evaluating educational programs. In addition, the outline can inform the development of specific standards in this domain. Most of the elements included in this document are present in each of the five models examined during the process of consensus building. A major strength of the outline is that it represents the collaboration and consensus of individuals with a variety of backgrounds and interests in medical education. Further, the basic outline can be tailored to meet the needs of different specialties, settings, and health problems. Conscientious efforts to address these essential elements across practice settings will help increase the efficiency and effectiveness of physician—patient communication,37 enhance patient and physician satisfaction,38,39 and improve health outcomes.40

Back to Top | Article Outline

REFERENCES

1. Simpson M, Buckman R, Stewart M, et al. Doctor—patient communication: the Toronto consensus statement. BMJ. 1991;303:1385–7.

2. Makoul G, Schofield T. Communication teaching and assessment in medical education: an international consensus statement. Patient Educ Couns. 1999;137:191–5.

3. Association of American Medical Colleges. Medical School Objectives Project, Report III. Contemporary Issues in Medicine: Communication in Medicine. Washington, DC: Association of American Medical Colleges, 1999.

4. Workshop Planning Committee: Consensus statement from the Workshop on the Teaching and Assessment of Communication Skills in Canadian Medical Schools. Can Med Assoc J. 1992;147:1149–52.

5. General Medical Council. Tomorrow's Doctors: Recommendations on Undergraduate Medical Education. London, U.K.: General Medical Council, 1993.

6. Bass EB, Fortin AH 4th, Morrison G, Wills S, Mumford LM, Goroll AH. National survey of clerkship directors in internal medicine on the competencies that should be addressed in the medicine core clerkship. Am J Med. 1997;102:564–71.

7. Liaison Committee on Medical Education. Functions and Structure of a Medical School. Washington, DC: Liaison Committee on Medical Education, 1998.

8. Klass D, De Champlain A, Fletcher E, King A, Macmillan M. Development of a performance-based test of clinical skills for the United States Medical Licensing Examination. Fed Bull. 1998;85:177–85.

9. Whelan GP. Educational Commission for Foreign Medical Graduates: clinical skills assessment prototype. Med Teach. 1999;21:156–60.

10. Committee for Review of Program Requirements. Agenda Book. Chicago, IL: Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education Accreditation, 1999.

11. Communications Self-Evaluation Process (COM-SEP) Committee. Minutes. Philadelphia, PA: American Board of Internal Medicine, 1999.

12. Tate P, Foulkes J, Neighbour R, Campion P, Field S. Assessing physicians' interpersonal skills via videotaped encounters: a new approach for the Royal College of General Practitioners Membership Examination. J Health Comm. 1999;4:143–52.

13. Novack DH, Volk G, Drossman DA, Lipkin M Jr. Medical interviewing and interpersonal skills teaching in U.S. medical schools. Progress, problems, and promise. JAMA. 1993; 269:2101–5.

14. Hargie O, Dickson D, Boohan M, Hughes K. A survey of communication skills training in UK schools of medicine: present practices and prospective proposals. Med Educ. 1998; 32:25–34.

15. Makoul G, Curry RH, Novack DH. The future of medical school courses in professional skills and perspectives. Acad Med. 1998;73:48–51.

16. Boon H, Stewart M. Patient—physician communication assessment instruments: 1986 to 1996 in review. Patient Educ Couns. 1998; 35:161–76.

17. Ong LML, deHaes JCJM, Hoos AM, Lammes FB. Doctor—patient communication: a review of the literature. Soc Sci Med. 1995;40:903–18.

18. Keller V, Carroll JG. A new model for physician—patient communication. Patient Educ Couns. 1994;23:131–40.

19. Novack DH, Dube C, Goldstein MG. Teaching medical interviewing: a basic course on interviewing and the physician—patient relationship. Arch Intern Med. 1992;152:1814–20.

20. Kurtz S, Silverman J, Draper J. Teaching and Learning Communication Skills in Medicine. Abingdon, Oxon, U.K.: Radcliffe Medical Press, 1998.

21. Stewart M, Belle Brown J, Weston WW, McWhinney IR, McWilliam CL, Freeman TR. Patient-Centered Medicine: Transforming the Clinical Method. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 1995.

22. Makoul G. Communication research in medical education. In: Jackson L, Duffy BK (eds). Health Communication Research: A Guide to Developments and Directions. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1998:17–35.

23. Riccardi VM, Kurtz SM. Communication and Counseling in Health Care. Springfield, IL: Charles C Thomas, 1983.

24. Pendleton D, Schofield T, Tate P, Havelock P. The Consultation: An Approach to Learning and Teaching. Oxford, U.K.: Oxford University Press, 1984.

25. Cohen-Cole SA. The Medical Interview: The Three-Function Approach. St. Louis, MO: Mosby Year Book, 1991.

26. Lipkin M Jr, Putnam SM, Lazare A (eds). The Medical Interview: Clinical Care, Education, and Research. New York: Springer-Verlag, 1995.

27. Silverman J, Kurtz S, Draper J. Skills for Communicating with Patients. Abingdon, Oxon, U.K.: Radcliffe Medical Press, 1998.

28. Stewart M, Roter D. Communicating with Medical Patients. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 1989.

29. Novack DH. Therapeutic aspects of the clinical encounter. J Gen Intern Med. 1987;2:346–55.

30. Safran DG, Taira DA, Rogers WH, Kosinski M, Ware JE, Tarlov AR. Linking primary care performance to outcomes of care. J Fam Pract. 1998;47:213–20.

31. Engel GL. The need for a new medical model: a challenge for biomedicine. Science. 1977;196:129–36.

32. Kleinman A. The Illness Narratives: Suffering, Healing and the Human Condition. New York: Basic Books, 1988.

33. Novack DH, Suchman AL, Clark W, Epstein RM, Najberg E, Kaplan C. Calibrating the physician: personal awareness and effective patient care. JAMA. 1997;278:502–9.

34. Williams GC, Freedman ZR, Deci EL. Supporting autonomy to motivate patients with diabetes for glucose control. Diabetes Care. 1998;21:1644–51.

35. Kaplan SH, Gandek B, Greenfield S, Rogers W, Ware JE. Patient and visit characteristics related to physicians' participatory decision-making style. Results from the Medical Outcomes Study. Med Care. 1995;33:1176–87.

36. Gudagnoli E, Ward P. Patient participation in decision making. Soc Sci Med. 1998;47:329–39.

37. Stewart MA. Effective physician—patient communication and health outcomes: a review. Can Med Assoc J. 1995;152:1423–33.

38. Williams S, Weinman J, Dale J. Doctor—patient communication and patient satisfaction: a review. Fam Pract. 1995;15:480–92.

39. Suchman AL, Roter D, Green M, Lipkin M Jr. Physician satisfaction with primary care office visits. Collaborative Study Group of the American Academy on Physician and Patient. Med Care. 1993;31:1083–92.

40. Greenfield S, Kaplan S, Ware JE. Expanding patient involvement in care: effects on patient outcomes. Ann Intern Med. 1985;102:520–8.

Back to Top | Article Outline
Participants in the Bayer–Fetzer Conference on Patient—Physician Communication in Medical Education, May 1999
Patrick H. Brunett, MD

Assistant Professor of Emergency Medicine, Oregon Health Sciences University; member of Society for Academic Emergency Medicine

Back to Top | Article Outline
Thomas L. Campbell, MD

Professor of Family Medicine and Psychiatry, University of Rochester School of Medicine; member of Society of Teachers of Family Medicine; Advisory Council, Bayer Institute for Health Care Communication

Back to Top | Article Outline
Kathleen Cole-Kelly, MS, MSW

Associate Professor of Family Medicine, Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine; Director of Curriculum and Faculty Development at Case Western for the Macy Health Communication Initiative

Back to Top | Article Outline
Deborah Danoff, MD

Assistant Vice President, Division of Medical Education, Association of American Medical Colleges

Back to Top | Article Outline
Robert Frymier, MD

National Director, Educational and Partnerships Division, Veterans Affairs Learning University; Associate Professor of Family Medicine, Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine

Back to Top | Article Outline
Michael G. Goldstein, MD

Associate Director, Clinical Education and Research, Bayer Institute for Health Care Communication; Adjunct Professor of Psychiatry, Brown University School of Medicine

Back to Top | Article Outline
Geoffrey H. Gordon, MD

Associate Director, Clinical Education and Research, Bayer Institute for Health Care Communication; Assistant Clinical Professor of Medicine and Psychiatry, Yale University School of Medicine

Back to Top | Article Outline
Daniel J. Klass, MD

Director, Standardized Patient Project, National Board Medical Examiners

Back to Top | Article Outline
Suzanne Kurtz, PhD

Professor of Communication, Faculties of Medicine and Education, University of Calgary

Back to Top | Article Outline
Jack Laidlaw, MD

Head, Division of Education, Cancer Care Ontario; Advisory Council, Bayer Institute for Health Care Communication

Back to Top | Article Outline
Forrest Lang, MD

Vice Chair, Department of Family Medicine, East Tennessee State University; member of Society of Teachers of Family Medicine

Back to Top | Article Outline
Anne-Marie MacLellan, MD

Faculty of Medicine, McGill University; member of Association of Canadian Medical Colleges

Back to Top | Article Outline
Gregory Makoul, PhD

Associate Professor and Director, Program in Communication and Medicine, Northwestern University Medical School

Back to Top | Article Outline
Steven Miller, MD

Director, Pediatric Medical Student Education, Columbia University School of Medicine; Council on Medical Student Education in Pediatrics

Back to Top | Article Outline
Dennis Novack, MD

Professor of Medicine and Associate Dean for Education, Medical College of Pennsylvania Hahnemann School of Medicine; member of American Academy on Physician and Patient

Back to Top | Article Outline
Elizabeth A. Rider, MSW, MD

Clinical Instructor in Pediatrics and Instructor in Medical Education, Harvard Medical School; Office of Educational Development, Harvard Medical School

Back to Top | Article Outline
Frank A. Simon, MD

Director, Division of Graduate Medical Education, American Medical Association

Back to Top | Article Outline
David Sluyter, EdD

Vice President for Education, Fetzer Institute

Back to Top | Article Outline
Susan Swing, PhD

Director of Research, Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education

Back to Top | Article Outline
Wayne Weston, MD

Professor of Family Medicine, University of Western Ontario; member of College of Family Physicians of Canada

Back to Top | Article Outline
Gerald P. Whelan, MD

Vice President for Clinical Skills Assessment, Educational Commission for Foreign Medical Graduates

Cited By:

This article has been cited 150 time(s).

Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
Compassionate care: Enhancing physician-patient communication and education in dermatology Part I: Patient-centered communication
Nguyen, TV; Hong, J; Prose, NS
Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology, 68(3): -.
10.1016/j.jaad.2012.10.059
CrossRef
Psychosomatic Medicine
Realizing Engel's vision: Psychosomatic medicine and the education of physician-healers
Novack, DH
Psychosomatic Medicine, 65(6): 925-930.
10.1097/01.PSY.0000099944.98748.FC
CrossRef
Journal of Palliative Medicine
End-of-life care: A retreat format for residents
McFarland, KF; Rhoades, DR
Journal of Palliative Medicine, 9(1): 82-89.

Patient Education and Counseling
First-year medical students' assessment of their own communication skills: A video-based, open-ended approach
Zick, A; Granieri, M; Makoul, G
Patient Education and Counseling, 68(2): 161-166.
10.1016/j.pec.2007.05.018
CrossRef
Medical Teacher
A situational judgement test of professional behaviour: development and validation
Schubert, S; Ortwein, H; Dumitsch, A; Schwantes, U; Wilhelm, O; Kiessling, C
Medical Teacher, 30(5): 528-533.
10.1080/01421590801952994
CrossRef
Patient Education and Counseling
The information needed by Canadian early-stage prostate cancer patients for decision-making: Stable over a decade
Feldrnan-Stewart, D; Brennenstuhl, S; Brundage, MD
Patient Education and Counseling, 73(3): 437-442.
10.1016/j.pec.2008.07.008
CrossRef
Pediatrics
Content of communication by pediatric residents after newborn genetic screening
Farrell, MH; La Pean, A; Ladouceur, L
Pediatrics, 116(6): 1492-1498.
10.1542/peds.2004-2611
CrossRef
Nurse Education Today
The patient's role in the assessment of students' communication skills
Davies, CS; Lunn, K
Nurse Education Today, 29(4): 405-412.
10.1016/j.nedt.2008.08.018
CrossRef
Patient Education and Counseling
Reconsidering the team concept: Educational implications for patient-centered cancer care
Haidet, P; Fecile, ML; West, HF; Teal, CR
Patient Education and Counseling, 77(3): 450-455.
10.1016/j.pec.2009.09.020
CrossRef
Canadian Journal of Neurological Sciences
Migraine: The doctor-patient link. Results of a needs assessment
Purdy, RA
Canadian Journal of Neurological Sciences, 29(): S3-S7.

Family Medicine
Effectiveness of a clinical interviewing training program for family practice residents: A randomized controlled trial
Moral, RR; Salvador, JJR; de Torres, LP; Castillejo, JAP
Family Medicine, 35(7): 489-495.

Journal of the American Board of Family Practice
The content of a low-income, uninsured primary care population: Including the patient agenda
Mauksch, LB; Katon, WJ; Russo, J; Tucker, SM; Walker, E; Cameron, J
Journal of the American Board of Family Practice, 16(4): 278-289.

Pain
Can words hurt? Patient-provider interactions during invasive procedures
Lang, EV; Hatsiopoulou, O; Koch, T; Berbaum, K; Lutgendorf, S; Kettenmann, E; Logan, H; Kaptchuk, TJ
Pain, 114(): 303-309.
10.1016/j.pain.2004.12.028
CrossRef
Medical Education
Communication skills competencies: definitions and a teaching toolbox
Rider, EA; Keefer, CH
Medical Education, 40(7): 624-629.
10.1111/j.1365-2929.2006.02500.x
CrossRef
Medical Teacher
Pediatric residents' perceptions of communication competencies: Implications for teaching
Rider, EA; Volkan, K; Hafler, JP
Medical Teacher, 30(7): E208-E217.
10.1080/01421590802208842
CrossRef
Family Medicine
Teaching learners to use mirroring: Rapport lessons from Neurolinguistic programming
Clabby, J; O'Connor, R
Family Medicine, 36(8): 541-543.

Journal of Veterinary Medical Education
Academic faculty development: The art and practice of effective communication in veterinary medicine
Bonvicini, K; Keller, VF
Journal of Veterinary Medical Education, 33(1): 50-57.

Patient Education and Counseling
Impact of communication training on physician expression of empathy in patient encounters
Bonvicini, KA; Perlin, MJ; Bylund, CL; Carroll, G; Rouse, RA; Goldstein, MG
Patient Education and Counseling, 75(1): 3-10.
10.1016/j.pec.2008.09.007
CrossRef
Medical Teacher
Using patient-generated cases to teach students skills in responding to patients' emotions
Rosenbaum, ME; Ferguson, KJ
Medical Teacher, 28(2): 180-182.
10.1080/01421590500314165
CrossRef
Patient Education and Counseling
Measuring patient views of physician communication skills: Development and testing of the Communication Assessment Tool
Makoul, G; Krupat, E; Chang, CH
Patient Education and Counseling, 67(3): 333-342.
10.1016/j.pec.2007.05.005
CrossRef
Pediatrics
Pediatric residents' use of jargon during counseling about newborn genetic screening results
Farrell, M; Deuster, L; Donovan, J; Christopher, S
Pediatrics, 122(2): 243-249.
10.1542/peds.2007-2160
CrossRef
Patient Education and Counseling
Are interventions to enhance communication performance in allied health professionals effective, and how should they be delivered? Direct and indirect evidence
Parry, R
Patient Education and Counseling, 73(2): 186-195.
10.1016/j.pec.2008.05.029
CrossRef
Journal of General Internal Medicine
Beyond Knowledge, Toward Linguistic Competency: An Experiential Curriculum
Bereknyei, S; Nevins, A; Schillinger, E; Garcia, RD; Stuart, AE; Braddock, CH
Journal of General Internal Medicine, 25(): S155-S159.
10.1007/s11606-010-1271-7
CrossRef
Academic Emergency Medicine
Assessing the ACGME general competencies: General considerations and assessment methods
Swing, SR
Academic Emergency Medicine, 9(): 1278-1288.

Medical Teacher
Communication skills, cultural challenges and individual support: challenges of international medical graduates in a Canadian healthcare environment
Hall, P; Keely, E; Dojeiji, S; Byszewski, A; Marks, M
Medical Teacher, 26(2): 120-125.
10.1080/01421590310001653982
CrossRef
Clinics in Perinatology
Talking about the unthinkable: Perinatal/neonatal communication issues and procedures
Fox, S; Platt, FW; White, MK; Hulac, P
Clinics in Perinatology, 32(1): 157-+.
10.1016/j.clp.2004.11.011
CrossRef
Journal of General Internal Medicine
Discussing health care costs with patients - An opportunity for empathic communication
Hardee, JT; Platt, FW; Kasper, IK
Journal of General Internal Medicine, 20(7): 666-669.
10.1111/j.1525-1497.2005.0125.x
CrossRef
CNS Spectrums
The potentially somatizing effect of clinical consultation
Salmon, P
CNS Spectrums, 11(3): 190-200.

Patient Education and Counseling
Dilemmas in patient centeredness and shared decision making: A case for vulnerability
de Haes, H
Patient Education and Counseling, 62(3): 291-298.
10.1016/j.pec.2006.06.012
CrossRef
American Journal of Medicine
Communication skills: A call for teaching to the test
Headly, A
American Journal of Medicine, 120(): 912-915.
10.1016/j.amjmed.2007.06.024
CrossRef
Patient Education and Counseling
Reflective teaching of medical communication skills with DiViDU: Assessing the level of student reflection on recorded consultations with simulated patients
Hulsman, RL; Harmsen, AB; Fabriek, M
Patient Education and Counseling, 74(2): 142-149.
10.1016/j.pec.2008.10.009
CrossRef
Journal of Nursing Scholarship
Consent Administrator Training to Reduce Disparities in Research Participation
Larson, EL; Cohn, EG; Meyer, DD; Boden-Albala, B
Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 41(1): 95-103.
10.1111/j.1547-5069.2009.01256.x
CrossRef
Patient Education and Counseling
The SEGUE Framework for teaching and assessing communication skills
Makoul, G
Patient Education and Counseling, 45(1): 23-34.

Jama-Journal of the American Medical Association
Effect of communications training on medical student performance
Yedidia, MJ; Gillespie, CC; Kachur, E; Schwartz, MD; Ockene, J; Chepaitis, AE; Snyder, CW; Lazare, A; Lipkin, M
Jama-Journal of the American Medical Association, 290(9): 1157-1165.

Anaesthesia
Improving anaesthetists' communication skills
Harms, C; Young, JR; Amsler, F; Zettler, C; Scheidegger, D; Kindler, CH
Anaesthesia, 59(2): 166-172.

Teaching and Learning in Medicine
Comprehensive assessment of professional competence: The Rochester experiment
Epstein, RM; Dannefer, EF; Nofziger, AC; Hansen, JT; Schultz, SH; Jospe, N; Connard, LW; Medrum, SC; Henson, LC
Teaching and Learning in Medicine, 16(2): 186-196.

Archives De Pediatrie
Improving communication between the radiologist, the patient and his parents
Ollivier, L; Leclere, J; Ruszniewski, M; Smets, A; Neuenschwander, S
Archives De Pediatrie, 13(6): 758-760.
10.1016/j.arcped.2006.03.065
CrossRef
Pediatric Radiology
RADPED: an approach to teaching communication skills to radiology residents
Goske, MJ; Reid, JR; Yaldoo-Poltorak, D; Hewson, M
Pediatric Radiology, 35(4): 381-386.
10.1007/s00247-004-1356-8
CrossRef
Patient Education and Counseling
Recipients' perspective on breaking bad news: How you put it really makes a difference
Mast, MS; Kindlimann, A; Langewitz, W
Patient Education and Counseling, 58(3): 244-251.
10.1016/j.pec.2005.05.005
CrossRef
Research on Language and Social Interaction
Patient "demand" for medical interventions: Exerting pressure for an offer in a primary care clinic visit
Gill, VT
Research on Language and Social Interaction, 38(4): 451-479.

Journal of Veterinary Medical Education
Development, teaching, and evaluation of a consultation structure model for use in veterinary education
Alan, R; Paula, S; Jonathan, S; Ian, T; Rob, TM; Gray, C; Bush, L; Glyde, M; Healy, A; Dale, V; Kaney, S; Magrath, C; Marshall, S; May, S; McVey, B; Spencer, C; Sutton, R; Tandy, J; Watson, P; Winter, A
Journal of Veterinary Medical Education, 33(1): 38-44.

Patient Education and Counseling
Optimal matches of patient preferences for information, decision-making and interpersonal behavior: Evidence, models and interventions
Kiesler, DJ; Auerbach, SM
Patient Education and Counseling, 61(3): 319-341.
10.1016/j.pec.2005.08.002
CrossRef
Social Science & Medicine
Critical elements of culturally competent communication in the medical encounter: A review and model
Teal, CR; Street, RL
Social Science & Medicine, 68(3): 533-543.
10.1016/j.socscimed.2008.10.015
CrossRef
Psychotherapie Psychosomatik Medizinische Psychologie
Application of standardized patients in teaching, learning and assessment
Ortwein, H; Frohmel, A; Burger, W
Psychotherapie Psychosomatik Medizinische Psychologie, 56(1): 23-29.

Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine
Assessment of parental understanding by pediatric residents during Counseling after newborn genetic screening
Farrell, MH; Kuruvilla, P
Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, 162(3): 199-204.

Medical Education
UK consensus statement on the content of communication curricula in undergraduate medical education
von Fragstein, M; Silverman, J; Cushing, A; Quilligan, S; Salisbury, H; Wiskin, C
Medical Education, 42(): 1100-1107.
10.1111/j.1365-2923.2008.03137.x
CrossRef
Quality of Life Research
Prospects and challenges in using patient-reported outcomes in clinical practice
Fung, CH; Hays, RD
Quality of Life Research, 17(): 1297-1302.
10.1007/s11136-008-9379-5
CrossRef
Journal of the National Medical Association
Health Literacy and Control in the Medical Encounter: A Mixed-Methods Analysis
Arthur, SA; Geiser, HR; Arriola, KRJ; Kripalani, S
Journal of the National Medical Association, 101(7): 677-683.

Acta Oncologica
How do interventions designed to improve provider-patient communication work? Illustrative applications of a framework for communication
Brundage, MD; Feldman-Stewart, D; Tishelman, C
Acta Oncologica, 49(2): 136-143.
10.3109/02841860903483684
CrossRef
Journal of General Internal Medicine
Validating measures of third year medical students' use of interpreters by standardized patients and faculty observers
Lie, D; Boker, J; Bereknyei, S; Ahearn, S; Fesko, C; Lenahan, P
Journal of General Internal Medicine, 22(): 336-340.
10.1007/s11606-007-0349-3
CrossRef
Psycho-Oncologie
Improving patient care in oncology imaging departments
Ollivier, L; Dolbeault, S; Leclere, J; Neuenschwander, S
Psycho-Oncologie, 2(1): 5-12.
10.1007/s11839-008-0066-0
CrossRef
Journal of Politeness Research-Language Behaviour Culture
Politeness strategies in question formulation in a UK telephone advisory service
Brown, B; Crawford, P
Journal of Politeness Research-Language Behaviour Culture, 5(1): 73-91.
10.1515/JPLR.2009.005
CrossRef
Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine
Characteristics of Mother-Provider Interactions Surrounding Postpartum Return to Work
Clinch, CR; Grzywacz, JG; Tucker, J; Walls, JK; Arcury, TA
Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine, 22(5): 498-506.
10.3122/jabfm.2009.05.090010
CrossRef
Atencion Primaria
Evaluation of the patient centered clinical relationship: analysis of psychometric properties using the CICAA scale
Moral, EG; Moral, RR; de Torres, LAP; Rejano, JMP
Atencion Primaria, 42(3): 162-168.
10.1016/j.aprim.2009.07.005
CrossRef
Patient Education and Counseling
The interplay between education and research about patient-provider communication
Makoul, G
Patient Education and Counseling, 50(1): 79-84.
10.1016/S0738-3991(03)00085-5
CrossRef
Journal of General Internal Medicine
The influence of information technology on patient-physician relationships
Weiner, M; Biondich, P
Journal of General Internal Medicine, 21(): S35-S39.
10.1111/j.1525-1497.2006.00307.x
CrossRef
Neurologic Clinics
Patient Education in Neurology
Hunderfund, ANL; Bartleson, JD
Neurologic Clinics, 28(2): 517-+.
10.1016/j.ncl.2009.11.002
CrossRef
Patient Education and Counseling
Core assumptions and research opportunities in clinical communication
Salmon, P; Young, B
Patient Education and Counseling, 58(3): 225-234.
10.1016/j.pec.2005.05.018
CrossRef
Archives of Disease in Childhood
Teaching and learning consultation skills for paediatric practice
Howells, RJ; Davies, HA; Silverman, JD
Archives of Disease in Childhood, 91(4): 367-370.
10.1136/adc.2005.073775
CrossRef
Journal of Health Communication
Factors associated with patients' perceptions of health care providers' communication behavior
Rutten, LJF; Augustson, E; Wanke, K
Journal of Health Communication, 11(): 135-146.
10.1080/10810730600639596
CrossRef
Health Communication
Using standardized patients to assess the interpersonal skills of physicians: Six years' experience with a high-stakes certification examination
van Zanten, M; Boulet, JR; McKinley, D
Health Communication, 22(3): 195-205.

Journal of General Internal Medicine
Depressive Symptoms and Perceived Doctor-Patient Communication in the Heart and Soul Study
Schenker, Y; Stewart, A; Na, B; Whooley, MA
Journal of General Internal Medicine, 24(5): 550-556.
10.1007/s11606-009-0937-5
CrossRef
Mayo Clinic Proceedings
Assessing and Managing All Aspects of Migraine: Migraine Attacks, Migraine-Related Functional Impairment, Common Comorbidities, and Quality of Life
Buse, DC; Rupnow, MFT; Lipton, RB
Mayo Clinic Proceedings, 84(5): 422-435.

Social Science & Medicine
Interacting with cancer patients: the significance of physicians' communication behavior
Arora, NK
Social Science & Medicine, 57(5): 791-806.
PII S0277-9536(02)00449-5
CrossRef
Annals of Internal Medicine
Processes for effective communication in primary care
Weiner, SJ; Barnet, B; Cheng, TL; Daaleman, TP
Annals of Internal Medicine, 142(8): 709-714.

Patient Education and Counseling
Enhancing clinician communication skills in a large healthcare organization: A longitudinal case study
Stein, T; Frankel, RM; Krupat, E
Patient Education and Counseling, 58(1): 4-12.
10.1016/j.pec.2005.01.014
CrossRef
Patient Education and Counseling
Women's satisfaction with physicians' communication skills during an infertility consultation
Leite, RC; Makuch, MY; Petta, CA; Morais, SS
Patient Education and Counseling, 59(1): 38-45.
10.1016/j.pec.2004.09.006
CrossRef
Zeitschrift Fur Gesundheitspsychologie
Psycho-social distress in patients with chronic somatic diseases - The Department of Rehabilitation Psychology and Psychotherapy at the University of Freiburg (abteilung fur rehabilitationspsychologie und psychotherapie)
Helmes, A; Kramer, L; Bengel, J
Zeitschrift Fur Gesundheitspsychologie, 16(3): 104-107.
10.1026/0943-8149.16.3.104
CrossRef
Journal of Health Communication
The Role of the Clinician in Cancer Clinical Communication
Eggly, SS; Albrecht, TL; Kelly, K; Prigerson, HG; Sheldon, LK; Studts, J
Journal of Health Communication, 14(): 66-75.
10.1080/10810730902806778
CrossRef
Family Medicine
Assessing communication competence: A review of current tools
Schirmer, JM; Mauksch, L; Lang, F; Marvel, MK; Zoppi, K; Epstein, RM; Brock, D; Pryzbylski, M
Family Medicine, 37(3): 184-192.

Patient Education and Counseling
Comparing genetic counseling with non-genetic health care interactions: Two of a kind?
Smets, E; Van Zwieten, M; Michie, S
Patient Education and Counseling, 68(3): 225-234.
10.1016/j.pec.2007.05.015
CrossRef
Journal of General Internal Medicine
A Method to Quantify Residents' Jargon Use During Counseling of Standardized Patients About Cancer Screening
Deuster, L; Christopher, S; Donovan, J; Farrell, M
Journal of General Internal Medicine, 23(): 1947-1952.
10.1007/s11606-008-0729-3
CrossRef
Anz Journal of Surgery
Guide to the Assessment of Competence and Performance in Practising Surgeons
Dickinson, I; Watters, D; Graham, I; Montgomery, P; Collins, J
Anz Journal of Surgery, 79(3): 198-204.
10.1111/j.1445-2197.2008.04839.x
CrossRef
Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery-American Volume
Communication skills for patient-centered care - Research-based, easily learned techniques for medical interviews that benefit orthopaedic surgeons and their patients
Tongue, JR; Epps, HR; Forese, LL
Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery-American Volume, 87A(3): 652-658.

Teaching and Learning in Medicine
A model for educational feedback based on clinical communication skills strategies: Beyond the "feedback sandwich"
Milan, FB; Parish, SJ; Reichgott, MJ
Teaching and Learning in Medicine, 18(1): 42-47.

Journal of Moral Education
Defining features of moral sensitivity and moral motivation: pathways to moral reasoning in medical students
Morton, KR; Worthley, JS; Testerman, JK; Mahoney, ML
Journal of Moral Education, 35(3): 387-406.
10.1080/03057240600874653
CrossRef
Bmc Family Practice
Characteristics of communication guidelines that facilitate or impede guideline use: a focus group study
Veldhuijzen, W; Ram, PM; van der Weijden, T; Niemantsverdriet, S; van Der Vleuten, CPM
Bmc Family Practice, 8(): -.
ARTN 31
CrossRef
Journal of General Internal Medicine
Interpersonal skill in medicine: The essential partner of verbal communication
Dyche, L
Journal of General Internal Medicine, 22(7): 1035-1039.
10.1007/s11606-007-0153-0
CrossRef
Supportive Care in Cancer
Ways to obtain a breast cancer diagnosis, consistency of information, patient satisfaction, and the presence of relatives
Brake, H; Sassmann, H; Noeres, D; Neises, M; Geyer, S
Supportive Care in Cancer, 15(7): 841-847.
10.1007/s00520-006-0195-6
CrossRef
Journal of Cystic Fibrosis
European best practice guidelines for cystic fibrosis neonatal screening
Castellani, C; Southern, KW; Brownlee, K; Roelse, JD; Duff, A; Farrell, M; Mehta, A; Munck, A; Pollitt, R; Sermet-Gaudelus, I; Wilcken, B; Ballmann, M; Corbetta, C; de Monestrol, I; Farrell, P; Feilcke, M; Ferec, C; Gartner, S; Gaskin, K; Hammermann, J; Kashirskaya, N; Loeber, G; Macek, M; Mehta, G; Reiman, A; Rizzotti, P; Sammon, A; Sands, D; Smyth, A; Sommerburg, O; Torresani, T; Travert, G; Vernooij, A; Elborn, S
Journal of Cystic Fibrosis, 8(3): 153-173.
10.1016/j.jcf.2009.01.004
CrossRef
Medical Education
Trained lay observers can reliably assess medical students' communication skills
Bergus, GR; Woodhead, JC; Kreiter, CD
Medical Education, 43(7): 688-694.
10.1111/j.1365-2923.2009.03396.x
CrossRef
Medical Teacher
Patient-centred attitudes among medical students: Gender and work experience in health care make a difference
Wahlqvist, M; Gunnarsson, RK; Dahlgren, G; Nordgren, S
Medical Teacher, 32(4): E191-E198.
10.3109/01421591003657451
CrossRef
Jama-Journal of the American Medical Association
Communication skills education in medical school and beyond
Makoul, G
Jama-Journal of the American Medical Association, 289(1): 93.

British Medical Journal
Doctors communication of trust, care, and respect in breast cancer: qualitative study
Wright, EB; Holcombe, C; Salmon, P
British Medical Journal, 328(): 864-867.
10.1136/bmj.38046.771308.7C
CrossRef
Advances in Health Sciences Education
Communication skills in standardized-patient assessment of final-year medical students: A psychometric study
Guiton, G; Hodgson, CS; Delandshere, G; Wilkerson, L
Advances in Health Sciences Education, 9(3): 179-187.

Journal De Radiologie
Improving overall patient care during imaging studies: the radiologist's CREDO and PERLES
Leclere, J; Ollivier, L; Ruszniewski, M; Neuenschwander, S
Journal De Radiologie, 87(): 1831-1836.

Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine
Identifying medical interview behaviors that best elicit information from patients in clinical practice
Takemura, Y; Atsumi, R; Tsuda, T
Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine, 213(2): 121-127.

Academic Radiology
Patients as partners in radiology education: An innovative approach to teaching and assessing patient-centered communication
Lown, BA; Sasson, JP; Hinrichs, P
Academic Radiology, 15(4): 425-432.
10.1016/j.acra.2007.12.001
CrossRef
Current Pain and Headache Reports
Facilitating communication with patients for improved migraine outcomes
Buse, DC; Lipton, RB
Current Pain and Headache Reports, 12(3): 230-236.

Quality of Life Research
A conceptual framework for patient-provider communication: a tool in the PRO research tool box
Feldman-Stewart, D; Brundage, M
Quality of Life Research, 18(1): 109-114.
10.1007/s11136-008-9417-3
CrossRef
Medical Education
Comparing narrative and multiple-choice formats in online communication skill assessment
Kim, S; Spielberg, F; Mauksch, L; Farber, S; Duong, C; Fitch, W; Greer, T
Medical Education, 43(6): 533-541.
10.1111/j.1365-2923.2009.03368.x
CrossRef
Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine
Patients prefer the method of "Tell Back-Collaborative Inquiry" to assess understanding of medical information
Kemp, EC; Floyd, MR; McCord-Duncan, E; Lang, F
Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine, 21(1): 24-30.
10.3122/jabfm.2008.01.070093
CrossRef
Health Psychology
Physician and patient communication training in primary care: Effects on participation and satisfaction
Haskard, KB; Williams, SL; DiMatteo, MR; Rosenthal, R; White, MK; Goldstein, MG
Health Psychology, 27(5): 513-522.
10.1037/0278-6133.27.5.513
CrossRef
Patient Education and Counseling
Vocational trainees' views and experiences regarding the learning and teaching of communication skills in general practice
Van Nuland, M; Thijs, G; Van Royen, P; Van den Noortgate, W; Goedhuys, J
Patient Education and Counseling, 78(1): 65-71.
10.1016/j.pec.2009.05.002
CrossRef
Family Medicine
Communication assessment using the common ground instrument: Psychometric properties
Lang, F; McCord, R; Harvill, L; Anderson, DS
Family Medicine, 36(3): 189-198.

Nursing Outlook
Advancing practice inquiry: Research foundations of the practice doctorate in nursing
Magyary, D; Whitney, JD; Brown, MA
Nursing Outlook, 54(3): 139-151.
10.1016/j.outlook.2006.03.004
CrossRef
New England Journal of Medicine
The developing physician - Becoming a professional
Stern, DT; Papadakis, M
New England Journal of Medicine, 355(): 1794-1799.

Archives of Internal Medicine
Relationship, communication, and efficiency in the medical encounter - Creating a clinical model from a literature review
Mauksch, LB; Dugdale, DC; Dodson, S; Epstein, R
Archives of Internal Medicine, 168(): 1387-1395.

European Journal of Dental Education
The effect of undergraduate education in communication skills: a randomised controlled clinical trial
Haak, R; Rosenbohm, J; Koerfer, A; Obliers, R; Wicht, MJ
European Journal of Dental Education, 12(4): 213-218.
10.1111/j.1600-0579.2008.00521.x
CrossRef
Supportive Care in Cancer
Ways of talking about illness and prognosis in palliative cancer care consultations-two interactional frames
Liden, E; Ohlen, J; Hyden, LC; Friberg, F
Supportive Care in Cancer, 18(4): 399-408.
10.1007/s00520-009-0673-8
CrossRef
Teaching and Learning in Medicine
Development of a Communication Curriculum for Emergency Medicine Residents
Sullivan, C; Ellison, SR; Quaintance, J; Arnold, L; Godrey, P
Teaching and Learning in Medicine, 21(4): 327-333.
10.1080/10401330903228604
CrossRef
Mayo Clinic Proceedings
Two words to improve physician-patient communication: What else?
Barrier, PA; Li, JTC; Jensen, NM
Mayo Clinic Proceedings, 78(2): 211-214.

Medical Education
In their own words: presenting the patient's perspective using research-based theatre
Rosenbaum, ME; Ferguson, KJ; Herwaldt, LA
Medical Education, 39(6): 622-631.
10.1111/j.1365-2929.2005.02181.x
CrossRef
Medical Education
Impact of student ethnicity and patient-centredness on communication skills performance
Hauer, KE; Boscardin, C; Gesundheit, N; Nevins, A; Srinivasan, M; Fernandez, A
Medical Education, 44(7): 653-661.
10.1111/j.1365-2923.2010.03632.x
CrossRef
Teaching and Learning in Medicine
Assessing residents' competency in care management: Report of a consensus conference
Frohna, JG; Cox, M; Kalet, A; Halpern, R; Kachur, E; Hewson, MG; Zabar, S; Yedidia, MJ; Williams, BC
Teaching and Learning in Medicine, 16(1): 77-84.

Journal of Pain and Symptom Management
Patient-physician communication in the context of persistent pain: Validation of a modified version of the patients' perceived involvement in care scale
Smith, MY; Winkel, G; Egert, J; Diaz-Wionczek, M; DuHamel, KN
Journal of Pain and Symptom Management, 32(1): 71-81.
10.1016/j.jpainsymman.2006.01.007
CrossRef
Medical Education
Comparison of two instruments for assessing communication skills in a general practice objective structured clinical examination
Van Nuland, M; Van Den Noortgate, W; Degryse, J; Goedhuys, J
Medical Education, 41(7): 676-683.
10.1111/j.1365-2923.2007.02788.x
CrossRef
Patient Education and Counseling
Conflict, collusion or collaboration in consultations about medically unexplained symptoms: The need for a curriculum of medical explanation
Salmon, P
Patient Education and Counseling, 67(3): 246-254.
10.1016/j.pec.2007.03.008
CrossRef
Feuillets De Radiologie
Improving communication between the radiologist, the patients and their families in onco-pediatric radiology
Leclere, J; Ollivier, L; Ruszniewski, M; Neuenschwander, S
Feuillets De Radiologie, 47(1): 62-67.

Journal of General Internal Medicine
Teaching medical students about communicating with patients with major mental illness
Iezzoni, LI; Ramanan, RA; Lee, S
Journal of General Internal Medicine, 21(): 1112-1115.
10.1111/j.1525-1497.2006.0521.x
CrossRef
Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America
Fostering Ecologic perspectives in child psychiatry
Storck, MG; Stoep, AV
Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 16(1): 133-+.
10.1016/j.chc.2006.09.005
CrossRef
Medical Teacher
Why medical students should learn how to teach
Dandavino, M; Snell, L; Wiseman, J
Medical Teacher, 29(6): 558-565.
10.1080/01421590701477449
CrossRef
Medical Teacher
Critical care recognition, management and communication skills during an emergency medicine clerkship
Ellison, S; Sullivan, C; Quaintance, J; Arnold, L; Godfrey, P
Medical Teacher, 30(): E228-E238.
10.1080/01421590802334259
CrossRef
Patient Education and Counseling
A method to quantify and compare clinicians' assessments of patient understanding during counseling of standardized patients
Farrell, MH; Kuruvilla, P; Eskra, KL; Christopher, SA; Brienza, RS
Patient Education and Counseling, 77(1): 128-135.
10.1016/j.pec.2009.03.013
CrossRef
Archives of Disease in Childhood
Assessment of doctors' consultation skills in the paediatric setting: the Paediatric Consultation Assessment Tool
Howells, RJ; Davies, HA; Silverman, JD; Archer, JC; Mellon, AF
Archives of Disease in Childhood, 95(5): 323-329.
10.1136/adc.2008.146191
CrossRef
Medical Education
Coming of age as communicators: differences in the implementation of common communications skills training in four residency programmes
Razack, S; Meterissian, S; Morin, L; Snell, L; Steinert, Y; Tabatabai, D; MacLellan, AM
Medical Education, 41(5): 441-449.
10.1111/j.1365-2929.2007.02722.x
CrossRef
Teaching and Learning in Medicine
Integrative clinical experience: An innovative program to prepare for internship
Fisher, JW; Thompson, BM; Garcia, AD
Teaching and Learning in Medicine, 19(3): 302-307.

Internal and Emergency Medicine
The morning report: how do faculty members perceive medical educational needs?
Virgili, G
Internal and Emergency Medicine, 3(1): 1-2.
10.1007/s11739-008-0116-4
CrossRef
Journal of Transcultural Nursing
"They Get a C-Section ... They Gonna Die": Somali Women's Fears of Obstetrical Interventions in the United States
Brown, E; Carroll, J; Fogarty, C; Holt, C
Journal of Transcultural Nursing, 21(3): 220-227.
10.1177/1043659609358780
CrossRef
Family Medicine
Integrating the art and science of medical practice: Innovations in teaching medical communication skills
Haq, C; Steele, DJ; Marchand, L; Seibert, C; Brody, D
Family Medicine, 36(): S43-S50.

Javma-Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
Use of the Roter interaction analysis system to analyze veterinarian-client-patient communication in companion animal practice
Shaw, JR; Adams, CL; Bonnett, BN; Larson, S; Roter, DL
Javma-Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 225(2): 222-229.

Academic Emergency Medicine
Assessing Interpersonal and Communication Skills in Emergency Medicine
Chan, TM; Wallner, C; Swoboda, TK; Leone, KA; Kessler, C
Academic Emergency Medicine, 19(): 1390-1402.
10.1111/acem.12030
CrossRef
Postgraduate Medical Journal
Sophia Title
Crotty, BH; Mostaghimi, A; Landon, BE
Postgraduate Medical Journal, 89(): 554-559.
10.1136/postgradmedj-2012-131688
CrossRef
Patient Education and Counseling
Re-thinking shared decision-making: Context matters
Matthias, MS; Salyers, MP; Frankel, RM
Patient Education and Counseling, 91(2): 176-179.
10.1016/j.pec.2013.01.006
CrossRef
Patient Education and Counseling
How doctors move from generic goals to specific communicative behavior in real practice consultations
Veldhuijzen, W; Mogendorff, K; Ram, P; van der Weijden, T; Elwyn, G; van der Vleuten, C
Patient Education and Counseling, 90(2): 170-176.
10.1016/j.pec.2012.10.005
CrossRef
Patient Education and Counseling
Communication guidelines as a learning tool: An exploration of user preferences in general practice
Veldhuijzen, W; Ram, PM; van der Weijden, T; van der Vleuten, CPM
Patient Education and Counseling, 90(2): 213-219.
10.1016/j.pec.2012.10.002
CrossRef
Patient Education and Counseling
Frequency of high-quality communication behaviors used by primary care providers of heterozygous infants after newborn screening
Farrell, MH; Christopher, SA
Patient Education and Counseling, 90(2): 226-232.
10.1016/j.pec.2012.10.024
CrossRef
Medical Education
Adjusting medical school admission: assessing interpersonal skills using situational judgement tests
Lievens, F
Medical Education, 47(2): 182-189.
10.1111/medu.12089
CrossRef
Psycho-Oncology
Comparing doctors' and nurses' accounts of how they provide emotional care for parents of children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia
Forsey, M; Salmon, P; Eden, T; Young, B
Psycho-Oncology, 22(2): 260-267.
10.1002/pon.2084
CrossRef
Medical Education Online
Clinical skills assessment of procedural and advanced communication skills: performance expectations of residency program directors
Langenau, EE; Zhang, XY; Roberts, WL; DeChamplain, AF; Boulet, JR
Medical Education Online, 17(): -.
ARTN 18812
CrossRef
Patient Education and Counseling
Education in patient-physician communication: How to improve effectiveness?
Wouda, JC; van de Wiel, HBM
Patient Education and Counseling, 90(1): 46-53.
10.1016/j.pec.2012.09.005
CrossRef
Patient Education and Counseling
What parents want from emails with their pediatrician: Implications for teaching communication skills
Schiller, JH; Christner, JG; Stansfield, RB; Watnick, CS; Mullan, PB
Patient Education and Counseling, 92(1): 61-66.
10.1016/j.pec.2013.02.012
CrossRef
Patient Education and Counseling
Pathways towards designing effective medical communication curricula
Wouda, JC; Hulsman, RL
Patient Education and Counseling, 93(1): 1-2.
10.1016/j.pec.2013.07.005
CrossRef
Patient Education and Counseling
A European consensus on learning objectives for a core communication curriculum in health care professions
Bachmann, C; Abramovitch, H; Barbu, CG; Cavaco, AM; Elorza, RD; Haak, R; Loureiro, E; Ratajska, A; Silverman, J; Winterburn, S; Rosenbaum, M
Patient Education and Counseling, 93(1): 18-26.
10.1016/j.pec.2012.10.016
CrossRef
American Journal of Gastroenterology
2012 David Sun Lecture: Helping Your Patient by Helping Yourself-How to Improve the Patient-Physician Relationship by Optimizing Communication Skills
Drossman, DA
American Journal of Gastroenterology, 108(4): 521-528.
10.1038/ajg.2013.56
CrossRef
Academic Psychiatry
Improving Physician-Patient Communication Through Coaching of Simulated Encounters
Ravitz, P; Lancee, WJ; Lawson, A; Maunder, R; Hunter, JJ; Leszcz, M; McNaughton, N; Pain, C
Academic Psychiatry, 37(2): 87-93.

Academic Medicine
Characterizing the Patient-Centeredness of Hidden Curricula in Medical Schools: Development and Validation of a New Measure
Haidet, P; Kelly, PA; Chou, C; The Communication, Curriculum, and Culture Study Group,
Academic Medicine, 80(1): 44-50.

PDF (69)
Academic Medicine
Communication Skills Training: Describing a New Conceptual Model
Brown, RF; Bylund, CL
Academic Medicine, 83(1): 37-44.
10.1097/ACM.0b013e31815c631e
PDF (87) | CrossRef
Academic Medicine
Teaching Inpatient Communication Skills to Medical Students: An Innovative Strategy
Losh, DP; Mauksch, LB; Arnold, RW; Maresca, TM; Storck, MG; Maestas, RR; Goldstein, E
Academic Medicine, 80(2): 118-124.

PDF (65)
Academic Medicine
Commentary: Communication Skills: How Simulation Training Supplements Experiential and Humanist Learning
Makoul, G
Academic Medicine, 81(3): 271-274.

PDF (48)
Academic Medicine
Assessing Medical Students' Skills in Working With Interpreters During Patient Encounters: A Validation Study of the Interpreter Scale
Lie, D; Bereknyei, S; Braddock, CH; Encinas, J; Ahearn, S; Boker, JR
Academic Medicine, 84(5): 643-650.
10.1097/ACM.0b013e31819faec8
PDF (77) | CrossRef
Academic Medicine
Assessing Competence in Communication and Interpersonal Skills: The Kalamazoo II Report
Duffy, FD; Gordon, GH; Whelan, G; Cole-Kelly, K; Frankel, R; All Participants in the American Academy on Physician and Patient's Conference on Education and Evaluation of Competence in Communication and Interper,
Academic Medicine, 79(6): 495-507.

PDF (120)
Academic Medicine
Satisfying the Patient, But Failing the Test
Egener, B; Cole-Kelly, K
Academic Medicine, 79(6): 508-510.

PDF (44)
Academic Medicine
Teaching Communication in Clinical Clerkships: Models from the Macy Initiative in Health Communications
Kalet, A; Pugnaire, MP; Cole-Kelly, K; Janicik, R; Ferrara, E; Schwartz, MD; Lipkin, M; Lazare, A
Academic Medicine, 79(6): 511-520.

PDF (233)
Academic Medicine
Integrating Communication Training into a Required Family Medicine Clerkship
Egnew, TR; Mauksch, LB; Greer, T; Farber, SJ
Academic Medicine, 79(8): 737-743.

PDF (81)
Anesthesiology
Patterns of Communication during the Preanesthesia Visit
Zollo, RA; Lurie, SJ; Epstein, R; Ward, DS
Anesthesiology, 111(5): 971-978.
10.1097/ALN.0b013e3181b8f7e3
PDF (535) | CrossRef
Medical Care
The Influence of Depressive Symptoms on Clinician–Patient Communication Among Patients With Type 2 Diabetes
Swenson, SL; Rose, M; Vittinghoff, E; Stewart, A; Schillinger, D
Medical Care, 46(3): 257-265.
10.1097/MLR.0b013e31816080e9
PDF (345) | CrossRef
Medical Care
The Use of Patient Satisfaction Surveys and Alternative Coding Procedures to Predict Malpractice Risk
Fullam, F; Garman, AN; Johnson, TJ; Hedberg, EC
Medical Care, 47(5): 553-559.
10.1097/MLR.0b013e3181923fd7
PDF (262) | CrossRef
Medical Care
Patient-Centered Communication During Primary Care Visits for Depressive Symptoms: What is the Role of Physician Personality?
Chapman, BP; Duberstein, PR; Epstein, RM; Fiscella, K; Kravitz, RL
Medical Care, 46(8): 806-812.
10.1097/MLR.0b013e31817924e4
PDF (290) | CrossRef
Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
Difficult conversations: Improving communication skills and relational abilities in health care*
Meyer, EC; Sellers, DE; Browning, DM; McGuffie, K; Solomon, MZ; Truog, RD
Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, 10(3): 352-359.
10.1097/PCC.0b013e3181a3183a
PDF (341) | CrossRef
Back to Top | Article Outline

© 2001 Association of American Medical Colleges

Login

Article Tools

Share