You could be reading the full-text of this article now if you...

If you have access to this article through your institution,
you can view this article in

Teaching as a Competency: Competencies for Medical Educators

Srinivasan, Malathi MD; Li, Su-Ting T. MD, MPH; Meyers, Fredrick J. MD; Pratt, Daniel D. PhD; Collins, John B. PhD; Braddock, Clarence MD; Skeff, Kelley M. MD, PhD; West, Daniel C. MD; Henderson, Mark MD; Hales, Robert E. MD, MBA; Hilty, Donald M. MD

Academic Medicine:
doi: 10.1097/ACM.0b013e31822c5b9a
Faculty
Abstract

Most medical faculty receive little or no training about how to be effective teachers, even when they assume major educational leadership roles. To identify the competencies required of an effective teacher in medical education, the authors developed a comprehensive conceptual model.

After conducting a literature search, the authors met at a two-day conference (2006) with 16 medical and nonmedical educators from 10 different U.S. and Canadian organizations and developed an initial draft of the “Teaching as a Competency” conceptual model. Conference participants used the physician competencies (from the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education [ACGME]) and the roles (from the Royal College's Canadian Medical Education Directives for Specialists [CanMEDS]) to define critical skills for medical educators. The authors then refined this initial framework through national/regional conference presentations (2007, 2008), an additional literature review, and expert input. Four core values grounded this framework: learner engagement, learner-centeredness, adaptability, and self-reflection.

The authors identified six core competencies, based on the ACGME competencies framework: medical (or content) knowledge; learner- centeredness; interpersonal and communication skills; professionalism and role modeling; practice-based reflection; and systems-based practice. They also included four specialized competencies for educators with additional programmatic roles: program design/implementation, evaluation/scholarship, leadership, and mentorship. The authors then cross-referenced the competencies with educator roles, drawing from CanMEDS, to recognize role-specific skills.

The authors have explored their framework's strengths, limitations, and applications, which include targeted faculty development, evaluation, and resource allocation. The Teaching as a Competency framework promotes a culture of effective teaching and learning.

Author Information

Dr. Srinivasan is associate professor of medicine, University of California, Davis, School of Medicine, Sacramento, California.

Dr. Li is vice chair of education, program director, and associate professor of pediatrics, University of California, Davis, School of Medicine, Sacramento, California.

Dr. Meyers is executive associate dean, Office of the Dean, University of California, Davis, School of Medicine, Sacramento, California.

Dr. Pratt is professor of education, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.

Dr. Collins is adjunct professor of education, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.

Dr. Braddock is associate dean and professor of medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California.

Dr. Skeff is professor of medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California.

Dr. West is program director and vice chair of pediatrics, University of California, San Francisco, School of Medicine, San Francisco, California.

Dr. Henderson is vice chair, program director, and professor of medicine, University of California, Davis, School of Medicine, Sacramento, California.

Dr. Hales is chair and professor of psychiatry and behavioral sciences, University of California, Davis, School of Medicine, Sacramento, California.

Dr. Hilty is vice chair and professor of psychiatry and behavioral sciences, University of California, Davis, School of Medicine, Sacramento, California.

Please see the end of this article for information about the authors.

Correspondence should be addressed to Dr. Srinivasan, Department of Medicine, University of California, Davis, School of Medicine, 2400 V. Street, Suite 2400, Sacramento, CA 95833; telephone: (916) 734-7005; fax: (916) 734-2732; e-mail: malathi@ucdavis.edu.

First published online August 24, 2011

© 2011 Association of American Medical Colleges